Anthropogenesis - this is the formation of the human individual in the historical-evolutionary aspect, its physical formation, the initial development of speech, activity and the communal way of living. During anthropogenesis, Homo sapiens appeared, separated and separated from monkeys and mammals. Human anthropogenesis is studied by a number of sciences, mainly anthropology, paleoanthropology, as well as linguistics, genetics, physiology, and ethnography. The most important factors in the process of anthropogenesis were: the man’s erect position, the use of various things to get food, the manufacture of tools for labor, the herd existence, the emergence of language. There are many thoughts and considerations about human anthropogenesis, but today Charles Darwin's theory is considered the most scientifically conditioned.
The history of the emergence of people, the development of their kind began to study in the XVIII century. Until now, the constant and central was the conviction that the world, all living things, as well as non-living things, was created by God as they are at the moment. But with the progress of science, conducting sets of research began to change the view of the creation of the world. The belief about the immutability of everything that exists is replaced by an understanding of evolution, the formation of all living things. A significant place in all this is occupied by human anthropogenesis, its formation, origin, separation, development.
The study of the anthropogenesis of the human race was carried out by many scientists, starting with Karl von Linnaeus (a Swedish scientist, biologist, zoologist, physician), who classified man in the same row with anthropoid apes, referring him to the animal world. A great contribution to the substantiation of the theory of anthropogenesis was the research of Bush de Pert, a French archaeologist who discovered the presence of stone tools used by primitive man in the era of mammoths. For a long time, such discoveries of anthropogenesis in science were not recognized and met a storm of resistance, since they contradicted the Bible.
The problem of anthropogenesis exists in several issues: the dating and the place of origin of the first people; discussions about the main stages of anthropogenesis, the influence of factors of anthropogenesis in different periods of development; the ratio of physical influence in anthropogenesis with social; the formation of the first communities.
The problems of anthropogenesis are studied through the research of several sciences. Largely anthropology and paleoanthropology, as well as psychology, physiology, linguistics, morphology, archeology, ethnography, etc.
A coup in the knowledge of human anthropogenesis made the ideas of Charles Darwin. According to Darwin’s theory, the human race evolved from ape-like ancestor. The researchers came to the decision that the humanoid monkeys are the distant ancestors of our race, as they are anatomically similar to humans. Central to the anthropogenesis of man, his adaptation to the changing conditions of existence, Darwin denoted natural selection. The theory of labor activity of Engels argues that the central factor in the historical evolution of man, his anthropogenesis is the ability to work, the ability to work in a community setting.
Human anthropogenesis is different from the evolution of the organic world in that the latter is governed only by natural laws, and the awareness of its capabilities in activity allowed a person to influence nature and reduce the impact of biological factors. The Darwinian simimnaya theory of anthropogenesis took into account various scientific views and argued the origin of Homo sapiens from primates. Confirmation of this is the similarity of now living humanoid monkeys from the current man in the anatomical structure, the form of embryos, physiological indicators. Darwin proved that the entire human race went from one species of monkey, and was confident in the formation of ancient people in Africa.
The problem of anthropogenesis is that there is no residual decision on the ancient homeland of man. Some scientists believe that a person went from the localities of Africa, others - from southern Eurasia, only Australia, America and northern Eurasia are excluded.
Biological and social factors are considered to be fundamental factors of human anthropogenesis.
Anthropogenesis is the physiological origin of the species of the human race. The social factor is the formation of human society. Darwin noted the importance of biological circumstances in the formation of a human being. Factors such as natural (natural) selection, heredity, propensity to change played a significant role in the initial stages of anthropogenesis. Variability determines the emergence of new features and functions in the anatomical structure of man. Heredity strengthens and passes on to generations these transformations. As a result of natural selection, the strongest and most fit survived. The significance of social factors (thinking, the ability to talk, the desire for community, work) in anthropogenesis described F. Engels in his own studies about the value of labor in the development of man from a monkey.
As science says, our ancestors were the great apes that lived in the forest. In the course of climate change, reducing forest area, they were forced to adapt: to stand on their feet, to be able to quickly navigate the new terrain. Gradually, upright walking became a convenient and advantageous quality of a new type of humanoid, now the forelimbs could perform a number of new functions of labor activity.
A lot has changed in the course of human anthropogenesis: recruitment, grouping into communities, collective types of work, hunting, protection of the community from enemies. All this prompted to look for ways to communicate alone with one. At first it was a primitive communication through hand gestures, sounds, further communication led to the inevitability of the appearance of the second signal system - speech. Thus, at the body level, changes in the oral apparatus and the structure of the larynx underwent changes in the formation of speech. The ability to speak, work ability, stay in the community began to shape thinking. As a result, the brain has increased in size, formed the cerebral cortex.
One of the dominant biological factors of anthropogenesis is natural selection, due to which, at different periods of development, changes favorable for adaptation remain and unfavorable, harmful qualities are destroyed. Consequently, human anthropogenesis led him to the most optimal improvement in his living conditions, and these formed features were inherited.
The man began to use fire for the purpose of cooking. This factor contributed to the change in the shape of a person's face, his chewing apparatus, the digestive system for the full absorption of the processed thermally food. The use of flame to heat their places of residence gave a person the ability to settle in areas with a cold climate.
In the early periods of anthropogenesis, biological factors played a central role in human development. Due to the natural selection, morphological characteristics of a person were formed: an S-shaped spine for walking in a vertical state, a wide bone of the foot, a thorax, and a brain structure. During anthropogenesis, a person was able to adapt to the surrounding nature in such a way that his changes became less independent of the effects of natural selection. Later, the human individual already mastered the ability to use and produce tools for work, could prepare food, equip housing, live in communities, not depend on the influence of natural processes. The impact of biological factors decreased, and the effect of social increased.
Human anthropogenesis outside the community became impossible. Although biological factors have lost a major role in influencing the formation of a human species, yet natural selection plays a stabilizing function, and the mutation retains its effect in the modern world. Sometimes the frequency and strength of mutations even increases in some regions of our planet due to various kinds of pollution. Along with the weakening effect of natural selection, mutations can lead to a deterioration in the quality characteristics of human survival.
Summing up, we note that the main factors of human anthropogenesis were biological and social. Under their influence the evolution of the human race took place. Physiological qualities passed by inheritance, and speech, ability to think, a tendency to work are formed in society during education and upbringing.