Psychology and Psychiatry


Anthropogenesis - this is the formation of the human individual in the historical-evolutionary aspect, its physical formation, the initial development of speech, activity and the communal way of living. During anthropogenesis, Homo sapiens appeared, separated and separated from monkeys and mammals. Human anthropogenesis is studied by a number of sciences, mainly anthropology, paleoanthropology, as well as linguistics, genetics, physiology, and ethnography. The most important factors in the process of anthropogenesis were: the man’s erect position, the use of various things to get food, the manufacture of tools for labor, the herd existence, the emergence of language. There are many thoughts and considerations about human anthropogenesis, but today Charles Darwin's theory is considered the most scientifically conditioned.

What is anthropogenesis?

The history of the emergence of people, the development of their kind began to study in the XVIII century. Until now, the constant and central was the conviction that the world, all living things, as well as non-living things, was created by God as they are at the moment. But with the progress of science, conducting sets of research began to change the view of the creation of the world. The belief about the immutability of everything that exists is replaced by an understanding of evolution, the formation of all living things. A significant place in all this is occupied by human anthropogenesis, its formation, origin, separation, development.

The study of the anthropogenesis of the human race was carried out by many scientists, starting with Karl von Linnaeus (a Swedish scientist, biologist, zoologist, physician), who classified man in the same row with anthropoid apes, referring him to the animal world. A great contribution to the substantiation of the theory of anthropogenesis was the research of Bush de Pert, a French archaeologist who discovered the presence of stone tools used by primitive man in the era of mammoths. For a long time, such discoveries of anthropogenesis in science were not recognized and met a storm of resistance, since they contradicted the Bible.

The problem of anthropogenesis exists in several issues: the dating and the place of origin of the first people; discussions about the main stages of anthropogenesis, the influence of factors of anthropogenesis in different periods of development; the ratio of physical influence in anthropogenesis with social; the formation of the first communities.

The problems of anthropogenesis are studied through the research of several sciences. Largely anthropology and paleoanthropology, as well as psychology, physiology, linguistics, morphology, archeology, ethnography, etc.

A coup in the knowledge of human anthropogenesis made the ideas of Charles Darwin. According to Darwin’s theory, the human race evolved from ape-like ancestor. The researchers came to the decision that the humanoid monkeys are the distant ancestors of our race, as they are anatomically similar to humans. Central to the anthropogenesis of man, his adaptation to the changing conditions of existence, Darwin denoted natural selection. The theory of labor activity of Engels argues that the central factor in the historical evolution of man, his anthropogenesis is the ability to work, the ability to work in a community setting.

Human anthropogenesis is different from the evolution of the organic world in that the latter is governed only by natural laws, and the awareness of its capabilities in activity allowed a person to influence nature and reduce the impact of biological factors. The Darwinian simimnaya theory of anthropogenesis took into account various scientific views and argued the origin of Homo sapiens from primates. Confirmation of this is the similarity of now living humanoid monkeys from the current man in the anatomical structure, the form of embryos, physiological indicators. Darwin proved that the entire human race went from one species of monkey, and was confident in the formation of ancient people in Africa.

The problem of anthropogenesis is that there is no residual decision on the ancient homeland of man. Some scientists believe that a person went from the localities of Africa, others - from southern Eurasia, only Australia, America and northern Eurasia are excluded.

Anthropogenesis factors

Biological and social factors are considered to be fundamental factors of human anthropogenesis.

Anthropogenesis is the physiological origin of the species of the human race. The social factor is the formation of human society. Darwin noted the importance of biological circumstances in the formation of a human being. Factors such as natural (natural) selection, heredity, propensity to change played a significant role in the initial stages of anthropogenesis. Variability determines the emergence of new features and functions in the anatomical structure of man. Heredity strengthens and passes on to generations these transformations. As a result of natural selection, the strongest and most fit survived. The significance of social factors (thinking, the ability to talk, the desire for community, work) in anthropogenesis described F. Engels in his own studies about the value of labor in the development of man from a monkey.

As science says, our ancestors were the great apes that lived in the forest. In the course of climate change, reducing forest area, they were forced to adapt: ​​to stand on their feet, to be able to quickly navigate the new terrain. Gradually, upright walking became a convenient and advantageous quality of a new type of humanoid, now the forelimbs could perform a number of new functions of labor activity.

A lot has changed in the course of human anthropogenesis: recruitment, grouping into communities, collective types of work, hunting, protection of the community from enemies. All this prompted to look for ways to communicate alone with one. At first it was a primitive communication through hand gestures, sounds, further communication led to the inevitability of the appearance of the second signal system - speech. Thus, at the body level, changes in the oral apparatus and the structure of the larynx underwent changes in the formation of speech. The ability to speak, work ability, stay in the community began to shape thinking. As a result, the brain has increased in size, formed the cerebral cortex.

One of the dominant biological factors of anthropogenesis is natural selection, due to which, at different periods of development, changes favorable for adaptation remain and unfavorable, harmful qualities are destroyed. Consequently, human anthropogenesis led him to the most optimal improvement in his living conditions, and these formed features were inherited.

The man began to use fire for the purpose of cooking. This factor contributed to the change in the shape of a person's face, his chewing apparatus, the digestive system for the full absorption of the processed thermally food. The use of flame to heat their places of residence gave a person the ability to settle in areas with a cold climate.

In the early periods of anthropogenesis, biological factors played a central role in human development. Due to the natural selection, morphological characteristics of a person were formed: an S-shaped spine for walking in a vertical state, a wide bone of the foot, a thorax, and a brain structure. During anthropogenesis, a person was able to adapt to the surrounding nature in such a way that his changes became less independent of the effects of natural selection. Later, the human individual already mastered the ability to use and produce tools for work, could prepare food, equip housing, live in communities, not depend on the influence of natural processes. The impact of biological factors decreased, and the effect of social increased.

Human anthropogenesis outside the community became impossible. Although biological factors have lost a major role in influencing the formation of a human species, yet natural selection plays a stabilizing function, and the mutation retains its effect in the modern world. Sometimes the frequency and strength of mutations even increases in some regions of our planet due to various kinds of pollution. Along with the weakening effect of natural selection, mutations can lead to a deterioration in the quality characteristics of human survival.

Summing up, we note that the main factors of human anthropogenesis were biological and social. Under their influence the evolution of the human race took place. Physiological qualities passed by inheritance, and speech, ability to think, a tendency to work are formed in society during education and upbringing.

Stages of anthropogenesis

Anthropogenesis, as the central process of the formation of society and the historical formation of man, is dependent on the change of work, the formation of community consciousness, changes in the physiological structure of the body, was divided into several stages. According to one source, researchers designate three stages of anthropogenesis:

- anthropoid ancestors are primates, moving on the two lower limbs, who knew how to use ordinary objects (stones, animal bones, sticks) as an instrument of activity;

- arkhantropy and paleanthropus, the so-called ancient and ancient people, - began to make weapons, hunted, created communities, were cave dwellers, used fire. Appearance is remotely similar to the current person. They differ in that they had a thick arc above the eyebrows, a low forehead, protruding the back of the head. The structure of the brain is very primitive;

- Neoanthropes - had the physical structure of the current person, the shape of the cranial bone changed, the brain increased in volume, tall. They knew how to talk at a primitive level, collected vegetables, fruits, hunted, built houses, created rock paintings, sewed clothes. Beginning - the era of the late Paleolithic.

For other data, the stages of anthropogenesis were differentiated into five stages.

Pogridno-hominidnaya - a stage of the forming person, 16-18 million years ago. This is the earliest period of anthropogenesis, which was represented by: amphipites, discovered around Burma, oligopitecs - in Egypt, Egyptian puppies, a group of driopithecus, about 20 million years ago. All representatives of the first hominids lived in the herd way, had a slight resemblance to the highest humanoid.

The pregominid stage (Australopithecus, ape-like monkeys) is about 5-2 million years ago. Australopithecus - bipedal hominids that lived in the latitudes of Africa. Australopithecus existed Afar, African, Robusta. Their height was no more than 1 m 30 cm, weight up to 40 kg, brain volume - 700 cc. The most recent Australopithecus (presidzhantropy) were already able to make primitive weapons, created an early pebble culture. These are the first samples of a skilled man, which a man erectly replaced later. The development of Australopithecus is a dead-end branch of human anthropogenesis.

The arhantropic stage - they were called the most ancient people, here is the discovery of the French H. Dubois on the island of Java, the ancient hominids called the Pithecanthropus. Pithecanthropus growth was 1 m 70 cm, the brain was up to 1000 cubic cm in size, bulging forehead, massive arches over eyebrows, weighty jaw, they moved on bent lower limbs. The representative of the most ancient was called straightened man. Arkhantropy were identified in South Africa, Asia. In China, fragments of synanthropus, very similar in their physiological structure to arhantropes, have been identified. In Europe, the oldest discovery of Pithecanthropus is a Heidelberg man. Arkhantropy already owned the initial form of speech, used fire, lived 2 - 0.5 million years ago.

The fourth stage is the paleoanthropic stage, called the ancient people, which representatives are Neanderthals. They lived from about 0.5 million - 30 thousand years ago. The most ancient excavations of Neanderthals were discovered in Germany, their branch of development was dead-end. Another part of the paleoanthropic development branch is a close relative of a Neanderthal man who died out after living for about 70 thousand years. They have a lot of similarities with the current person: the structure of the brain is almost the same, the volume is even slightly larger - 1450 against 1350 cubic centimeters. A tool for labor, hunting is already different in appearance and purpose, a feature - it is a tool composed of plates separated from the stone core. It is indicative of this stage of anthropogenesis: group hunting for a very large wild animal, construction of primitive dwellings, development of speech for the purpose of communication within the tribe.

The representatives of the paleoanthropes are the early and late European Neanderthals, the Persian Neanderthals. This type of humanoid is characterized by a massive build, a protruding facial half of the skull, a developed supraorbital region, wide nasal openings, an enlarged temporal anterior and middle lobes of the brain, and an improved articulation apparatus. The anatomical structure of this type of people had features to adapt to the harsh climate of Europe. Although the human anthropogenesis of this stage was moving towards development, the paleoanthropes were too exposed to natural circumstances. The types of ancient people under the influence of unfavorable living conditions, by virtue of their low organization and conscious culture, acquired morphological qualities that delayed their evolution.

In the late period of the anthropogenesis stage of paleoanthropes, researchers discovered the first burials. This is evidenced by the excavations of a buried Neanderthal boy in Uzbekistan about 45 thousand years ago. This fact had the appearance of a conscious burial with rituals. There are about sixty Neanderthal burials.

In the areas of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, and the rest of the CIS countries, Neanderthale’s dwellings and sites were also found.

The neoanthropic stage (Homo sapiens) is the last stage of anthropogenesis, the prototypes of which were people of a similar physical pattern with the current man - Cro-Magnons, who lived about 200 - 50 thousand years ago. The initial excavations of the Cro-Magnon were discovered in France, their distribution throughout the world is wide: the Arctic regions, America, Australia, Europe, the regions of the former USSR.

The problem of anthropogenesis of this stage is the lack of determination of a clear time for the appearance of neoanthropes. Until recently, the most ancient excavation of the fully-formed neoanthropist from Kalimantan in the Nia cave, 39,600 years ago, was determined. Archaeologists consider the beginning of the Paleolithic period (40-35 thousand years ago) to be a count of the time of birth of a rational person. There are also views of anthropologists about the early organization of Homo sapiens. The search for an answer about the date of occurrence of the neoanthropus continues. So in Ethiopia in 1969, found the remains of skulls of a similar physiological structure on neoanthropes, which are dated 130 thousand years ago. At the end of 20 century. traces of neoanthropic life on the lands of Africa were discovered much earlier in the excavations of African caves than in the landscapes of Europe - by 50 thousand years. Therefore, the birth of Homo sapiens of much earlier recognized dates is possible.

There are two hypotheses of anthropogenesis neoanthropes. The first is the descent from Subahara more than 100,000 years ago, then the neoanthropes spread throughout the Asian regions and 30 thousand years ago they squeezed out late types of Neanderthals. The second is that the early African hominids evolved into a rational person in their own natural way.

For the anatomical structure of the Cro-Magnons were much like what the current man behind the shape of the skull, the shape of the lower jaw with the presence of a large chin, a narrow nose, straight forehead, growth had 180-190 centimeters. Cro-Magnon could create weapons from the bones of animals, stone, found on the walls of caves pictures of the process of hunting, animals. The central importance in the anthropogenesis of neoanthropes and their widespread distribution throughout the world was the ability to communicate. Through communication, transfer valuable information about the accumulated experience, skills, production from tribes to tribes, from generation to next generation. Survived those tribes, in which social organization, group activity was at a significant level.

A significant moment for the survival of the genus was the domestication of animals, their domestication, as well as the occupation of agriculture, the cultivation of plants, which gave a real chance for a person to survive hunger. Communication gave people the opportunity to preserve and organize knowledge, specific technical skills, observation of the laws of nature, set the rules within the community for greater productivity of the team, its survival and reproduction. Gradually, the influence of the surrounding nature on human anthropogenesis decreased and lost control. Subsequently, natural selection ceased to be significant in the anthropogenesis of Homo sapiens and, as a result, the evolution of the human species ceased.

Summarizing the above, it should be noted that anthropogenesis was not a linear and smooth process. At each phase of anthropogenesis, species of several currents were formed, and each followed its own path of development. Под действием природных, а также социальных факторов развивалось несколько разновидностей гоминид.