Dogmatism - this is the concept of human thinking, which sets him to accept concepts, facts, formulations from the standpoint of dogma, with the obviousness of what they are talking about with outdated data, not taking into account the new and changing. The dogmatic concept does not have the desire to perceive and learn new things that are scientifically predetermined, it avoids creative development, is opposite to critical perception, and is largely alienated from reality.

The concept dogmatism originated in ancient Greece, thanks to the philosophers Zeno and Pyrrho, who considered all philosophy to be dogmatic.

What is dogmatism?

The concept of dogma speaks of the necessity of perceiving something initially true, without criticism, scientifically not studying or substantiating, mainly relying on faith in religion or authority. Initially, this concept appeared in the context of a religious understanding: in Christianity, it was true that the uniqueness of God, his infallibility and omnipotence were accepted; in Judaism, the idea of ​​reincarnation and karma is undeniable.

Dogmatism arose simultaneously with the development of religious concepts, which called on believers to unconditionally accept all creeds for truth, categorically forbidden the free interpretation of the proposed religious dogmas and was considered to be heresy in the eyes of the church.

Dogmatism in science is considered not so much as a certain concept of views, its characteristics and features, but as the need to preserve these views and conclusions in a stable, unchanged form, without giving in to their criticism. From an epistemological point of view, the notion of dogmatism arose from an unconscious disregard for changes and dynamic development, an exaggerated perception of the truth of the asserted, the avoidance of verification and logical explanation.

The psychological roots of the dogmatic concept lie in the fact that the brain is inert, it is easier for him to accept the truth than to explain it. There is a tendency towards stereotypical perception, a predisposition towards a conservative past rather than a creative and unknown present and future.

On the social side, dogmatism is manifested in the desire to preserve the current state of affairs, to leave intact individual or group status. Dogmatism is opposed to thinking based on the fact of the concreteness of truth, its certainty in the framework of functioning, conditions of formation, goals, time and place of applicability.

From a principled position, dogmatic thinking perverts the essence of the initial moral positions, since it automatically shifts the functions of the moral principle inherent in a given situation to other situations, as a result of which its value is lost, possibly turning into its opposite. For example, good is perceived by evil, if it is the cause of impunity for crimes.

In fact, dogmatic thinking is inherent in the conservative moral consciousness of the category of humanity, which is committed to the idea of ​​absolutism: the existence of permanently valid moral and universal principles that are against social progress. An example of this is religious dogmatism, the essence of which is in the firm affirmation of the grace of the moral principles of faith, revelation while simultaneously ignoring the argument of reason, critical thinking, and the development of science. Often dogmatism is manifested through fanaticism or formalism. When dogmatic, abstract thinking in the study of theoretical, historical, political problems are not taken into account the factors of time and place.

The cause of crisis moments in the economy, the spiritual sphere and social can be dogmatism. That which does not comply with the norms, well-coordinated canons and dogmas of our understanding and perception is considered suspicious and is subject to doubt. The origins of this thinking are unprofessionalism and adaptability.

Dogmatism in philosophy

Dogmatism in science, philosophy is evaluated by the characteristics of philosophical theories or their variety. A doctrine is considered to be dogmatic, which one chooses any explanation as truth without preliminary analysis, without allowing changes.

The concept of dogmatism after Zeno and Perron was studied by many thinkers. The philosopher I.Kant defined it not as the whole philosophy as a whole, but as some kind of knowledge, not oriented towards the study of its conditions and possibilities. Hegel, one of the creators of dialectical philosophy, understood dogmatism as abstract thinking.

Philosophical dogmatism stems from a limited perception and credulity to the fact that without much training with basic knowledge, he can comprehend the truth and solve the most complex tasks that come to him. Such an approach, defined by a naive faith, was predicted on a multitude of mistakes and illusions, and led a person to a deep disappointment to his ability to learn. As a result of such disappointment, a diametrically opposite style of thinking arose - skepticism (the denial of any probability of knowing the truth). It is also called in the current culture relativism. Skeptics Perron and Zeno called the dogmatists of all philosophers who tried to assert their conclusions as reliable, they contrasted with this doubt and unreality in principle to find out the truth.

The solution of these two diametrical positions was the study of the limits of human knowledge capabilities. Such a view was called Kant as criticism. He assured that from the period of Aristotle the dogmatic thinking of metaphysical science had not been based on a single idea of ​​logic and psychology, and also assured that skepticism is also one-sided as dogmatism. Kant criticized the philosophical doctrine from Descartes to Wolf, calling it dogmatic. Criticizing dogmatic thinking, Kant declared that an individual cannot comprehend things and phenomena just like that, because they exist. Neither dogmatism nor skepticism teach anything; moreover, the concept dogmatism becomes essentially skepticism by virtue of its one-sidedness.

Dogmatism cannot know the real causes of real problems, without studying them from the perspective of the present and the past, together with various problems, but simply imposing ready-made ideas, postulates, dogmas, logical conclusions on an existing fact. This often provokes the emergence of false problems, which postpones or makes it difficult to solve real problem situations.

Between dogmatism and skepticism became G. Hegel with his dialectical method. Dialectism differs from dogmatism in that it does not keep in itself one-sided conclusions. Dogmatics always derive others from some conclusions, ignoring facts from real life. Consistently "anti-dogmatic" was the Marxist philosophy, which, explaining reality, serves to change it. Such an understanding of philosophical reality excludes dogmatism.

Dogmatism in science hinders its further progress, since it is guided by outdated or one-sided theories, frankly wrong concepts. So, the dogmatic thinking of society turned tragically for J. Bruno, Galileo, for a long time there was a struggle against Darwin's evolutionary theory. Dogmatism in science, politics, society is the fact that inhibits development.