Psychology and Psychiatry

Time management

Time management - These are ways to organize temporary space, with the aim of its most economical and at the same time effective use. Time management has as its goal the training of conscious attention and control over the time spent for the implementation of certain tasks. Initially, time management was used exclusively in the business sphere, but gradually its methods became relevant for the organization and personal space. Time management methods consist of a variety of techniques, including initial goal setting, planning necessary actions, assigning and delegating tasks, and drawing up priority lists.

Time management - what is it?

With information development and the acceleration of the pace of life of the society, as well as with the increasing requirements in the features of work, people are required to perform increasing volumes of tasks. Companions of this process are often deadlines and time trouble. Those who withstand such a load by exerting all the forces and exploring the last reserves of the psyche are in chronic stress, nervous exhaustion, overactive mental systems, which entails neurological and psychosomatic disorders. To cope with the distribution of the load to optimize the work helps such technology as time management.

The main reason for the emergence of time management is the increasing level of time pressure. This is a shortage of the time period allotted by the schedule to perform the allocated work in connection with the incorrect organization of the activity by the employee or the management. The reasons for the lack of time are the lack of a work plan, the inadequacy in assessing a person’s abilities, a weak level of control over personal needs, the absence or insufficient level of motivation.

Effective time management is based on good planning, which begins with a daily analysis of what actions have been spent for how long, which makes it possible to draw up the most appropriate plan. In planning, it is worthwhile to divide the goals set by their urgency and include only the amount of tasks that a person can really cope with (you shouldn’t paint the whole day, it’s better to plan 60% of the time, and leave 40% for unexpected tasks).

For long-term goals, downward planning is an important point - the multi-year task is divided into annual, annual, quarterly, then monthly and daily plans. When an unexpected change of conditions arises the need for redistribution of tasks and raise the question of their priority.

Time Management - Time Management

Time planning includes both corporate time management and personal time management. From the first rules of the personal area - not to work in your free time, try to finish all work affairs in the time allotted for this, minimize the time spent on living, plan your free time so that it is present as cultural and emotional events (concerts, exhibitions, theaters) and physical (sports, active recreation). It is worth paying special attention to leisure in the middle of the working week and fill at least one of the evenings with active activities, as well as free time on business trips, where it is worthwhile to set aside a few hours devoted to sightseeing.

The basics of time management are based on managing the most valuable and non-renewable resource - time. This life strategy includes theoretical aspects, certain philosophical views, as well as a number of defining principles and practical methods for structuring your temporary space. Of course, without internal awareness and support of ideas of reasonable use of time, following practical recommendations will bring less efficiency, due to the lack of stability in their implementation.

The modern name of this direction of self-development does not reflect its recent appearance. Even in ancient times, people were interested in the question of the most optimal organization of their own being. Philosophers of the time, striving for greater efficiency of their own, spoke about the impact of planning activities on its productivity and focused on the implementation of actions depending on their importance.

Now there are two main areas: corporate time management and personal time management. Corporate is relevant in large companies, for managers who plan the work schedule of the entire enterprise, each department and the tasks of a particular person. For these purposes, the manager ranks the degree of significance of the current tasks and determines the deadlines, as well as the number of tasks worth giving out to the employee, carries out the control of the execution.

For corporate time management - time management characteristic is the monitoring of time costs for the further planning of the schedule. Also relevant is the formulation of several tasks per day, this prevents stagnation of activity, if one of the tasks cannot be performed at a given time period for technical reasons.

Personal time management concerns an individual and may affect both his professional field and personal time, development, relationships. Personal time management is relevant when the panic thought “I don’t have time” is spinning in your head. If you still do not need the help of serious specialists, but you feel that the forces are running out, you have rolled up, you are constantly working, and the lumen is not visible, then it’s time to pay attention to your interaction with time. Time management will help to establish its use, but before you carry out practical recommendations, take a pause and determine what your inner aim is, what your true goals are. With a lack of motivation and following someone else's goals, competent planning will, of course, improve the situation, but your eyes will not light up and you will not get inspired motivation. The main guarantee of success and quick overcoming of the goals set is the pleasure received from the process of their fulfillment and completion.

The basics of time management can reduce the exhaustion of mental reserves and increase productivity not due to the application of more forces, but with the help of their proper distribution.

Time management is not aimed at working more, stronger or all the time. This method is about how to work effectively, so that the strength and inspiration remain, in order to live and develop personal spheres that are fundamental to the personal sense of the individual. Initial planning allows, spending up to ten minutes on it, to save the whole hours, which can be spent with pleasure in the future.

Effective time management is not something transcendental, requiring specific skills and training, it begins with the inclusion of scheduled tasks in the list - write in a notebook, enter in the phone, use special applications, but the necessary goals should be fixed. This list should be reviewed and checked for relevance, edited throughout the day in accordance with new emerging goals and priority changes. Each task must have fixed deadlines, start time. The psychological method of stimulating further activities will be marking or deleting completed items.

Time management helps to manage time, making life more saturated, productive and comfortable.

Time Management Rules

Time can not be returned, stretched or stopped, however, it can be controlled by changing the saturation of the usefulness of events occurring in a single time period.

In addition to the use of time management techniques, which will be discussed in more detail below, you should follow the organization of your own life. For example, keeping order and structure in the workspace will save time searching for the necessary document, folder, or something else. The organization of the working space is where you should start optimizing your own activities. Do everything in your power so that the environment around you contributes to your productivity, inspires and makes you want to be active. Get help devices (it’s stupid to use a typewriter when there is a laptop), maintain order every day (this is easier than digging debris every six months).

We act more efficiently when we are in good condition. Therefore, it is necessary to take care of maintaining the health and efficiency of the body by providing it with the resources of energy replenishment and rest. It is important to be able to stop in time, recognize that you can not alter all the cases, even if you stop eating and sleeping. Work on exhaustion will not bring proper results, and then the body will then still take the spent resources, through illness or depression. In the first place you should always stand, dear people and relationships, and then work moments. So set yourself a schedule and relax, drink vitamins and sleep on a comfortable pillow.

When planning your future activities, consider your individual characteristics and biorhythms, and do not follow the examples of someone's day. Well, here it is not necessary to appoint "owls" for the morning business that requires maximum concentration or speed, just as it is better for larks to unload their evening from responsible meetings. Take into account the peculiarities of your life, and especially those of its moments, in which you are busy waiting (turn, road, being late to another person). At that time, which many people are wasting, you can do some things, like reading a book or an article, plan for tomorrow, make a couple of calls, answer messages, add a scarf, and so on.

Approach everything creatively - set yourself a goal to find maximum opportunities for performing new tasks. It will be hard at first, but when it becomes a lifestyle, you will notice that performing automatic actions can also include other activities (listening to an audio book while you are cleaning or making a couple of calls while typing a document).

Make plans - for the day, for the year, for life and strive to fulfill the points. Choose the most important task for today and immediately start its implementation. The planned case should be carried out without delay, because the more you pull off the start, the harder it will be to start later and the more the situation worsens.

Most often, when planning, we have a good idea of ​​what the beginning of the activity will look like, but planning the completion is no less important. This includes such parameters as the amount of time required to perform the activity, what the final result should look like, in which cases you stop working regardless of the result, and in which you change the direction of activity or adjust the details.

Determination of significance, time-consuming and ability to add necessary and sudden tasks, like Tetris figures, are indispensable qualities of time management, implementation of which requires plasticity and readiness for changes while maintaining the general direction of movement.

Time management - how to do everything?

The desire to be in time is fraught with neuroses, depressions and nervous breakdowns, since no man is able to do just that. This is like the desire of everyone - quite understandable, but not really feasible. It is required to look at the situation objectively, assessing your capabilities, needs, abilities, and assigned tasks. And choose what is most important in order to have at least that, and not to be scattered on all kinds of activities, thus losing the achievement of very specific things. We can what we can. Now you need to know what it is.

How to do everything? Time management can help with this. For a start, it is worth taking away most of the inappropriate responsibility and discarding some issues. The important point is not to postpone indefinitely, namely, to give up (in the first option, the unfulfilled task will be morally pushing you all the time, in the second you will get freedom and time). You can delete tasks from your notebook that will somehow be resolved without your intervention (turning off electricity in the area, helping all the old women on the streets, searching for a job for your friends - everything that is beyond your responsibility).

The remaining cases, see the possibility of delegation. After all, not all actions are required to perform. An author's project, a trip to the doctor, a presentation is yours, but you can ask a friend going in the wrong direction to pay the bill for an apartment. Also leave to yourself those questions that you can delegate, but if you do them yourself, you will develop some important skills of your own. This form will spend your time now, but will save it in the future, and perhaps not only time, but also material resources (after all, if you learn to change the wheel yourself, then you will save on the services of a tow truck and car service, and also spend time spent on waiting for them).

Rejecting the unnecessary, there remains a very specific list of cases that can directly affect your life and are in your area of ​​responsibility. Perform all the instructions of the head, have time to do their own ideas while still relax. All this can be done if you follow the rules of time management, which begin with drawing up your own schedule. This applies to both standard eight-hour office workers and freelancers who fully manage their time. The first should plan their work in order to have time to do it during working hours and not pull home, the second, so that the work in general takes place and is carried out regularly.

Following the basic rules of time management, it is necessary to prioritize and begin with the most important thing. Transfer secondary tasks for the remaining time, or you can perform them between important ones (for example, while traveling from one meeting to another, you can easily pay bills, call a friend, or view the news feed). Selected cases, try to perform consistently, and not being distracted by secondary tasks and associated distractions. The most effective way is to take up only one case and finish it, and then only proceed to the second. Otherwise, you run the risk of not meeting the deadlines with several projects at once, increasing your emotional stress level, as well as reducing your efficiency due to constant switching between different tasks.

Time management includes the ability to minimize distractions - you can communicate with employees at lunchtime, with family after work. Close social networks and distract from viewing funny videos - these invisible minor distractions take most of the time. Organize the space in a way that contributes to the work: take care of good lighting, comfortable furniture, the availability of only the necessary accessories; if you work at home, then remove the cup-pillow-toys and other seducing things from sight, create a working environment. Filter the information coming to you. The brain does not distinguish how important and useful is the information coming from outside, it analyzes, processes, remembers, wasting its reserves. Do not load your head with useless information, configure filters in social networks, subscriptions and other news resources. Spending on this an hour or two, you will save time on viewing the entire array of information, and also save the freshness of perception.

The basic rule of time management is to organize your vacation correctly. Remember that during the working day there should be short breaks of 15-30 minutes for changing activities and maintaining working capacity, as well as one big lunch break. Take care of the evening and weekend leisure, plan your vacation - all types of recreation should bring you new emotions and be based on the principle of changing activities and conditions. A person loaded with the same type of activity quickly gets tired, mental processes are oppressed and interest is lost, so if there is no place for diversity in your work activity, then your task is to diversify leisure and pauses as much as possible.

How to do everything? Time management says to have more time and the "last day" technique helps to discard unimportant matters. Imagine what you have left to live one day, what would you spend it on? Approximately with such a sensation it is worth waking up and striving to live, doing what is necessary as quickly as possible in order to catch more. Ведь время не восстановишь, не купишь в аптеке.

Планируйте список предстоящих задач заранее, тогда на следующий день вы будете видеть, куда вам двигаться дальше. Constantly be engaged in the adjustment of the list: deleting the made points motivates significantly, and the rearrangement or addition of new ones reflects the current situation.

Look for motivation and do things interesting for you. An activity that does not bear personal interest will seem hard, and implementation will take a lot of effort. Therefore, it is so important to find for yourself an external or internal motivation, your personal meaning of the actions performed. A person who has his own mission and a person who just does what they said at the same position under the same conditions will feel differently and have different effectiveness.

Time Management Principles

Time management has a number of techniques and principles, the knowledge and use of which help to structure your time. The key moment in time management is the prioritization of tasks, which further helps them to plan or delegate them effectively. The highest priority task with the most significant negative consequences is always put in the first place, and the rest are carried out only after its implementation.

For the distribution of goals according to their significance, a fairly simple method of ABCGD is suitable, where the letter A is assigned the most important matters, and further to reduce the degree of importance. Usually, cases that fall into category D can be deleted from your to-do list or performed with free time, internal strength and desire. In the case of the same degree of damage when several tasks are not fulfilled, they are assigned categories A1, A2 and further. And they are executed in accordance with their numbers, maintaining a strict sequence and principle of the next task after the completion of the previous one. Here the law of compulsory efficiency is triggered, since there is not enough life to make absolutely everything, but you can do the most important thing, provided you concentrate on the chosen case. Choose the most profitable, profitable, substantial and focus your efforts on this activity.

Methods of time management are varied and to focus on highlighting the main thing - this is one of them. It is possible to systematize the ranked cases using the Eizekhauer principle, in which all tasks are divided into four groups and have appropriate decision strategies that are optimal for each group. The priority tasks on which it is worthwhile to concentrate all your attention are urgent and important, most often the failure to perform such actions brings with it the most deplorable results. Important and urgent matters can, of course, be postponed for some time, but it is prudent to allocate for them a certain time period, since the constant postponement of important matters makes them urgent and the volume of the first category increases, which creates an undue burden. Urgent and not important things - those tasks that constantly steal your time, distract from important things. Try as much as possible to minimize their number or reassign others. Non-urgent and unimportant matters can either be entrusted to someone else or not performed.

The principle of "eat a frog in the morning" was born from a parable about the fact that if you need to eat a frog on this day, it is better to eat it in the morning and not suffer the rest of the day, it is unlikely that something worse will happen to you. The frog in this embodiment is compared with the presence of an unpleasant affair, the postponement of which will increase your emotional stress, approximate negative consequences. In such cases, it is necessary to act decisively and without delay - to make the necessary things as soon as possible and quickly. These are situations when you have to call a customer who you do not like, or an explanation of common truths to a subordinate, or the dismissal of a person. Starting your work with getting rid of these "frogs" you provide yourself with a positive attitude and a sense of victory for the rest of the day.

The principle of time management polite "no" helps to save a lot of time. Practice denying requests that are not part of your priorities or job responsibilities. Be tactful, refuse not to the person, but to the offered task. Determine for yourself by refusing how unproductive actions, you can save a lot of time. This can be regular smoke breaks and coffee with colleagues, a discussion of the latest gossip and news, telephone conversations that are not related to work, the performance of someone else's work. At home, they may be pointless viewing of promotional offers, switching channels, scrolling through social tapes or fulfilling endless requests from neighbors. Learn to refuse, respecting a person and your time.

The rule of "horses and carts" is about finding harmony between the need to perform and the possibility of rest, which can be adjusted by constantly monitoring the list of necessary tasks. Perhaps some of your usual and even automatic actions are no longer relevant or formal, and some activities over time have received a more convenient form of implementation (a personal meeting at the other end of the city can be replaced with Skype, sending individual letters with a newsletter). Constantly watching such changes, you can not only load the "cart" with new responsibilities, but also get rid of old and unnecessary ones, so as not to overload yourself to a state in which it is impossible to move.

The principle of time management "eating an elephant" is a code name for situations when it is necessary to solve some global problem. Most often, such goals are stretched over time and are not decided in one month, they require a constant investment of energy, and results that will please their presence will not appear soon. For such large "elephants" it is appropriate to divide them into subtasks ("pieces that can be eaten at one time"). Plan your big business in several stages that have their logical ending, so the visible completion of one will stimulate the implementation of the next. The principle is convenient not only for large, but also for long-term projects. Tasks should be broken down from the bigger to the smaller, until the principle becomes clear and transparent, and the tasks themselves do not cease to cause a stupor in their vastness.

The principle of "Swiss cheese" is somewhat similar to "eating an elephant," the difference is that "an elephant is eaten" after all in a certain sequence, which has its own logic and necessity, whereas in "eating cheese" you can move chaotic and start or continue from the place that you are now the most convenient or easily accessible.

The use of these methods is quite effective in itself, but it may require you to creatively adapt, since for one situation you may need to use several techniques, and you should also distinguish which techniques are most effective for solving which issues.