Projection in psychology is the erroneous perception of individuals of intrapersonal processes as arising from outside. From lat. projectio - I throw forward - endowing the surrounding objects with the characteristics that the person conditionally chose for them within themselves, but perceives them as being received from outside by data. Projection in psychology is a type of primary, primitive, psychological defenses according to the classification of Nancy McWilliams.
The projection allows an individual to justify his or her own actions, behavior and motivation, by explaining “everyone does that”, and he is a positive hero, forcedly put in a situation. The functions and purpose of the defense is to reduce the intrapersonal conflict (anxiety, tension) caused by the confrontation of impulses of the unconscious with the learned requirements of society, arising as a result of education and social communication. Relaxing the conflict, the defense mechanism regulates the personality's behavioral scenario, becoming a way of adaptation, through an unconscious distortion of reality.
Projection is the opposite of introjection. If the latter is the desire to psychologically assign an external object, placing it in the field of its personality, then the projection, on the contrary, strives to give the internal responsibility to the external. Psychoanalytically, this happens when ID impulses are condemned by the superego (superego) and personality (“I”). An example of extreme projection is paranoiac tendencies.