The IRR is a disorder of vegetative functionality, a symptom complex of various manifestations that are formed as a result of a failure in the balance of the tone of the parasympathetic segment and the sympathetic share of the nervous system. The first is responsible for rest or relaxation of a certain organ, and the second is for activating the processes existing in the body.
When, due to a variety of negative factors, a malfunction occurs in the functioning of the ganglion system, there is a mismatch between the sympathetic region and the parasympathetic segment. As a result, the subject begins to feel diverse manifestations. At the same time, the organ itself, in which the painful symptoms are noted, can be completely healthy, but have lost the regulation of the nervous system, which leads to disruption of the adequate functioning of the organ.
The manifestations of the disorder in question may suffer children and adults. For the first time an attack of the IRR often occurs in childhood. Today, a variety of symptoms of the IRR are observed in approximately 18% of the child population.
The factors that provoke the occurrence of painful symptoms often include the inheritance predisposition. The described violation can be detected early, because in a small organism the regulation mechanism has not yet managed to form, therefore, it is not capable of maintaining all systems in adequate condition and responding to changes occurring in the environment. In order to establish the hereditary nature of the ailment, it is necessary to identify the disorder in question at the nearest relative of the child.
In addition, a possible cause of the IRR is often oxygen starvation, which occurs during fetal formation or during childbirth. Also, oxygen starvation provoke injuries and afflictions suffered by crumbs in the first months of existence. These listed factors prevent the formation of a complete mechanism of nervous regulation. In addition, the CNS also has a negative effect, which affects the quality of the dreams of the crumbs, so the sleep in children is often shallow and intermittent.
Children suffering from dysregulation of vegetative reactions are characterized by a weak ability to adapt to various changes in the environment, environment, and changes in the weather. They are susceptible to stuffiness and heat. In the pubertal period, there is a risk of exacerbation of painful symptoms due to hormonal restructuring, accelerating the growth of organs, which develop inconsistently and disproportionately.
An attack of the IRR can also generate strong emotions. The formation of the described violation can lead to: prolonged exposure to stressors, psycho-emotional overstrain, mental trauma.
Any intense emotional shake-up, especially in a situation that seems hopeless, can cause damage to the body. The body reacts to the circumstances that caused the injury. The individual perceives such a reaction as intense negative emotions. This reaction cannot be avoided. It originates and is fixed due to the stress effect that is capable of generating disturbances in the centers of the nervous tissues responsible for the activity (tone) of the body. Consistency in the functioning of the organism is disturbed, first of all, in the systems responsible for the narrowing of the capillary gaps and their expansion. As a result, spasms appear that interfere with the free flow of blood, which causes oxygen starvation of the organs. Such processes can cause disruptions in the neuro-endocrine regulation, as well as lower the pain threshold.
Doctors argue that the likelihood of the emergence of the IRR affects the type of temperament. Choleric and persons with a melancholic type of temperament are most prone to the occurrence of the IRR. Sanguine persons are considered the most immune to the described disorder, since they are less susceptible to stressors and are not fixed on negative emotions.
Treatment of VSD at home in sanguine people is faster than in owners of other types of temperament. The differences are due not only to the innate features of the nervous system, but also to the qualities of character acquired over the course of existence. Stressors affect the most destructively those groups of people who are characterized by suspiciousness, vulnerability, shyness, susceptibility, do not have confidence in their own abilities, for a long time they experience barbs uttered in their direction. Sad consequences are also awaited for those who see the whole world in gray colors, live in constant anticipation of misfortunes and troubles, lock themselves up or completely plunge into their own illness, in order to avoid the need to make decisions and take any actions.
Physical stress or physical inactivity can also trigger the development of the disorder. Today, there is plenty of evidence that intensive sports training can cause considerable damage to human health. This is especially important for those who are engaged in professional sports and who have set themselves only one goal by any means and quickly achieve the desired result. But for unprepared individuals, intense physical stress is dangerous, it often becomes the cause of the occurrence of this disease. Therefore, if a person has decided to go in for sports, then one should begin with moderate loads, gradually increasing them.
However, despite what was written above, the main factor reducing health is hypodynamia and low activity, not exhausting work. Minimal physical activity in conjunction with permanent stressors and mental exertion often introduces a failure in the functioning of the body and leads to a disorder of the nervous system. Intellectual overloads are also a provoking factor. Often, students, passing the session, scientists, people whose work requires a lot of intellectual costs, become "victims" of this disease.
All the causes of the IRR can be divided into physiological, that is, having an internal origin, and psychological, having external roots.
The first, in addition to the above, should include:
- cardiovascular pathology;
- hormonal disruptions caused by pregnancy or arising in the pubertal period;
- the presence of professional ailments significantly increases the risk of vegetative-vascular dystonia, while the cure for professional ailment does not guarantee the disappearance of dystonia;
- tobacco smoking and excessive alcoholic libation (among persons of this category, the IRR is observed in 91% of cases).
The second category of factors includes: chronic stress, low or medium social status, frequent change of climatic zones.
To stressors can also be attributed to a lack of sleep and overwork, without which the present existence is quite difficult to imagine. Stressful environment surrounds the individual everywhere - at home, in the store, at home, at work. Every day an individual is exposed to many stressors. If the duration of stress is minimal, then it is considered a useful organism, since it activates the work of the systems, the production of hormones, neurotransmitters, which have a beneficial effect on the organism. Long-term sustained stress leads to the depletion of compensatory mechanisms, because after positive arousal comes the oppression of the functioning of the systems.
Persons with low or medium social status and dissatisfied with their own position often suffer from workaholism, as they strive to earn more, soar up the social or career ladder, and therefore take on impossible tasks on their shoulders, naturally they cannot cope with them. The consequence of this is usually frustration, encouraging a stress response.
Permanent flights, frequent change of residence, residence in different time or climate zones lead to an increase in the load on the ganglion system, since it has to constantly adapt to the changed conditions.
In children, the underlying factor that provokes the emergence of this disease is considered to be excessively high demands on the child, high school loads, constant dissatisfaction with them, the lack of adequate rest. The psyche of children is very susceptible to the effects of stressors. After 2-3 months of this effect of stress, there are signs of VSD.
The excitation of the autonomous system in response to the influence of stressors is an adequate physiological response of the organism. Thus, the sympathetic system responds to a “threat” by releasing stress hormones that stimulate the myocardium. In this case, an inadequate and prolonged response of the vegetative system in conjunction with tension forms the basis of the symptoms of the disease described.
Separately, it is necessary to allocate the IRR and osteochondrosis, since in almost 80% of the main factor that gave rise to this disorder is osteochondrosis. Osteochondrosis is a disease that affects the fibrous tissue structure of the intervertebral discs due to the violation of its trophism. Often this pathology is formed due to the low load on the spinal muscles and insufficient motor activity. This disease can occur in any segment of the spinal column, but the symptoms of the IRR often provoke cervical osteochondrosis. The interdependence of such ills as the IRR and osteochondrosis is the compression of the vertebral capillaries that feed the brain, caused by the narrowing of intervertebral spaces and the appearance of osteophytes.
Since the IRR is a polysymptomatic ailment, it affects various organs. At the same time, the maximum impact of the vegetative system is felt by the peripheral nerves. In addition, the myocardium suffers.
Today, people increasingly encounter terms such as IRR and panic attacks, but only a few are aware of what these violations are and what consequences they may have on the body. Panic attacks are concomitant symptoms of many ailments, but more often they are marked with the disease in question.
Many people suffer from IRR, often without even realizing the presence of the disease: among the symptoms there are relatively harmless variations on the type of response to weather changes, pressure leaps or increased fatigue. People usually begin to get anxious and seek medical help only when more frightening symptoms appear, such as panic attacks.
VSD and panic attacks are two inextricably linked concepts, it must be understood. A panic attack is the result of dysfunction of the ganglion system.
Dystonia of brain capillaries can also be considered as a rather typical symptom of the disorder in question. This violation can be classified according to syndromes by cardiac, tachycardic, bradycardic and arrhythmic syndrome.
Cardiac syndrome is manifested by acute Algia in the area of the piercing heart. Such algias can arise alone or be provoked by physical exertion. Pain is often characterized by duration and frequency.
Tachycardic syndrome mainly occurs in people of the age category. It is characterized by a gradual increase in the number of myocardial contractions, the average number of which reaches 90 beats per minute. Sometimes with the described syndrome, the frequency of myocardial contractions can reach 160 beats. A separate manifestation of the considered VSD syndrome is neurocirculatory dystonia, occurring in the hypertonic type. This symptom is characterized by an increase in active myocardial ejection while saving within the limits of the norm of the peripheral resistance of capillaries.
Bradycardic syndrome occurs much less frequently and is found in the reduction of heart beats to 60 units and below. As a result, in individuals suffering from IRD, there is an increased likelihood of fainting and dizziness, in particular, with increasing physical exertion. The immediate consequence of this syndrome are cold limbs.
Neurotic symptoms are common to almost all varieties of vegetative dystonia. Negative emotions are considered their main cause. These include: depressive mood, resentment, prolonged state of anxiety, fear, constantly restrained anger or irritation. At the same time, violent positive emotions can also cause dysfunction of vegetative reactions. Thus, prolonged negative emotions and violent emotions of a positive direction provoke the occurrence of the following disorders: cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory disorders and changes in thermoregulation.
In addition, all variations of dystonia are inherent in crises.
The main signs of the IRR are: heart algias, arrhythmias, autonomic manifestations, fluctuations in capillary tone, respiratory disorders, neurosis-like states.
All symptoms inherent in the IRR, can be combined into 7 groups:
- apathy, weakness, fatigue;
- cardialgia or discomfort in the area of the myocardium;
- feeling of air deficit and the resulting deep breaths;
- irritability, upset dreams, anxiety, anxiety, fixing attention to the disease;
- dizziness and headaches;
- excessive sweating;
- pressure fluctuations and changes in capillary tone.
All variations of the IRR are formed in conditions of a serious emotional surge, tension or shock, due to which the nervous system is weakened.
For many years, there have been debates about the necessity of attributing the IRR to illnesses or to the peculiarities of the nervous system. Initially, physicians considered this ailment to be a disease, but today more and more specialists, due to patient observations, are inclined to believe that dystonia is a functional disorder, mainly affecting the vegetatics and the psyche.
Functional impairments and subjective discomfort compel to change the way of existence, and also need timely and competent assistance, because over time they can transform into ischemic myocardial disease, hypertension, peptic ulcer or diabetes.
The symptoms of the IRR are quite diverse and affect the activities of most organs. Therefore, diagnosis can take a long period. Patients, seeking to find out their ailment, undergo a variety of studies.
VSD can be classified depending on the prevalence of symptoms on: sympathicotonic type, parasympathicotonic and mixed. The severity of symptoms determines the course of the disorder. The prevalence of dystonia can be divided into generalized (several systems are affected) and local forms (one system suffers).
Also, the disease is systematized with the flow. It can flow latent, to be paroxysmal or permanent. Since the syndrome of the IRR is expressed by a variety of manifestations, different in origin and intensity, the diagnosis can be classified according to cardiac, hypotonic, vagotonic, hypertonic and mixed types. However, each of these types correspond to certain symptoms.
The diagnosis of VSD is characterized by a mild course, moderate to severe. People suffering from mild illness, almost do not feel the effects of symptoms. This form is often characterized by an asymptomatic course, so some patients are not aware of the presence of the ailment in their lives. A mild degree is often accompanied by unstable headaches of a short nature, irritability and non-intense wavelike pains in the myocardium region, often provoked by physical exertion or emotional overstrain. The intervals between such manifestations are rather long.
With moderate form or severe course, patients experience constant discomfort. They have problems with their professional activities.
The average degree is characterized by more vivid symptoms. The periods of exacerbations can be observed throughout the months along with more short periods of remission. In addition, this degree is inherent in vegetative crises, seriously affecting the performance. Individuals suffering from this form of the disease, often lose half the working capacity or lose it completely.
Severe dystonia is considered the most unpleasant degree. Its symptomatology is characterized by persistence. It is manifested by intense algies caused by the type of the IRR. The duration of exacerbations is significant, sometimes leading to transient disability. Often may require inpatient treatment. Vegetative crises often occur at the considered severity.
IRR on hypertonic type
Многим людям знакомо состояние, когда сердце вдруг начинает колотиться и регулярно повышается давление. Some may live with this for several years without paying attention to the symptoms, others may immediately sound the alarm and run for an examination. However, when, after countless research and consultations, three incomprehensible letters “VSD” appear in the medical file with the posts “in hypertonic type”, the majority seeks to study this diagnosis more thoroughly.
During the examination, experts can identify tachycardia or arrhythmia, other indicators usually correspond to the norm. It should be noted that the disease under consideration, together with other pathogenic factors, can provoke the development of many other ailments.
The increase in blood pressure is the main manifestation of the IRR hypertensive type. And the main role is played by the increase in systolic pressure. However, the pressure is not always elevated and in such periods the individual feels good. It is believed that the type in question is more often observed in individuals leading a hypodynamic mode of existence.
It is necessary to understand that the abnormal reaction of the body to stressors increases the capillary tone. If it is constantly increased, then in the cerebral cortex, an epicenter of excitation arises, keeping instruments in a state of sustained activity responsible for capillary tone and myocardial functioning, thereby contributing to an increase in pressure. The consequence of this is the development of the described violation.
If a patient has a hypertensive type of IRR, then treatment, medications are not needed, it is enough for a person to relax and rest. The symptomatology of the violation in question is practically the same as the initial manifestations of hypertension. In the first turn, the hypertensive type of the IRR can become the primary in the formation of hypertension, since the dysfunction of the autonomic system increases capillary tone, which is the main cause of hypertension.
Correct diagnosis is based on the presence of the features below. First of all, for the normalization of pressure there is no need to take antihypertensive drugs, during the examination other pathologies other than blood pressure surges should not be identified. In this case, the diastolic pressure is maintained within the normal range.
Sometimes the disturbance in question may be accompanied by vegetative crises resulting from an excessive activation of the nervous system, in which the excitation reaches its peak, as a result of which a sympathoadrenal crisis occurs. Sometimes blood pressure can reach 200 mm Hg. Art.
Such crises significantly aggravate the course of a vegetative disorder. However, they are noted in many patients. The emergence of sympathoadrenal crisis, due to the influence of the maximum release of adrenaline. Completion of a seizure occurs suddenly, as does his debut.
Vegetative crisis is more often a manifestation of a neurosis-like state. It can have a duration from 10 minutes to a couple of hours. The symptoms of the IRR at the same time become more vivid: there are signs of anxiety, intolerable fear and panic generated by fear for their existence. Malfunctions in the functioning of nerve formations that cause emotional response are considered to be prerequisites for the formation of a violation of the relationship of the vegetative system with the vascular system.
In hypertensive type, therapy is not prescribed. Prevention involves minimizing stressors until the complete elimination, normalization of pace and way of life. In the majority of individuals suffering from VSD, an increase in blood pressure is more often observed due to intense mental exertion and physical exertion.
It is important to know that with each subsequent crisis, the severity of dystonia symptoms decreases, but other disorders begin to progress. And above all, anxiety increases due to the repetition of crises. In addition, at the same time, a depressive state can arise and social maladjustment develops.
Symptoms of the IRR are quite diverse and are characterized by subjectivity. However, it is possible to single out the characteristic accompanying signs of the hypertensive type of IRR, namely:
- attacks of increased heart rate;
- severe headaches: subjects suffering from this type of disturbance, note compressive pain in the back of the head and migraine-like eyes;
- memory loss;
- Nervousness, fear and anxiety, fear of loneliness;
- hum in the ears;
- tremor of the limbs;
- decrease or complete loss of appetite;
- melteshenie "fly" in the eyes;
- excessive sweating;
- the appearance of a feeling of air deficiency, constriction and heaviness in the chest region;
- decrease in working capacity;
- dependence on weather conditions;
- excessive excitability;
- depressed state;
- restless sleep, startling, insomnia;
And if the concomitant symptoms of the IRR, listed above, with an attack may not be observed, then elevated BP values are always noted.
VSD on hypotonic type
Dystonia of this type is a functional disorder of the ganglion system. It also includes failures in the functioning of the myocardium, a decrease in blood pressure, capillary hypotonia, and a decrease in blood supply to the organs. The pathological condition in question is associated with the body’s inability to adapt to the current situation, changing conditions, circumstances or relationships. Simply put, an IRR of the hypotonic type is an unsuccessful way to overcome a particular stressful situation by the body.
The clinical picture of the described pathology is represented by frequent ailments, increased fatigue and decreased performance. In addition, this violation leads to a number of psychological problems, for example, fear of incurability of the disease. The deterioration causes panic attacks, neurotic states and depressive moods.
The described disorder is more susceptible to young people, especially women, leading a hypodynamic lifestyle. At the same time, debut signs of this violation often occur in childhood and further progress. However, often the symptoms of dystonia can disappear with the growth of the child. Sometimes the manifestations of this disorder completely disappear, but there are cases when the symptoms return after years.
At the same time, it is rather difficult to isolate specific symptoms that are unique to the IRR in hypotonic type, since each symptom alone may indicate the presence of a different pathology, which is only indirectly related to the functioning of the autonomous system. However, if the symptoms manifest themselves in a complex manner, cardiologic or vascular manifestations are detected, and there are traumatic circumstances in the life of the subject, then these factors are the basis for differentiating the disorder. In addition, an important diagnostic criterion is a persistent decrease in blood pressure indicators that occurs under various conditions and is independent of external factors.
Cardiac malfunctions in the IRR of the hypotonic type are represented by subjective sensations caused by myocardial malfunctions and capillary dysfunctions. Often there are periodic heart althii whining character. They do not have a clear localization, so their limits are difficult to separate. In addition, algii can radiate to different zones of the upper torso.
Often, pain is accompanied by a feeling of lack of air, a coma in the throat, difficulty in breathing. Mental disorders and the appearance of phobias are also possible. The appearance of algy is not due to physical stress. They can not be stopped with nitroglycerin. Their duration is not characterized by equal frequency. To eliminate pain in the area of the myocardium with this type of possible means of providing hypnotic, sedative or anti-depressive effect, which indicates the psychological roots of pain syndrome.
In the absence of firmly expressed algia, subjects may complain of the presence of discomfort in the sternum region. The increase in myocardial contractions and the disorder of its rhythm is the second most common cardiovascular symptom. Tachycardia is found in the sensation of strong heartbeats in the retrosternal space. It is also likely that blood pressure jumps and all the symptoms due to vascular reactions, such as: blueness of the mucous membranes and lips, feeling of coldness or, on the contrary, hot flushes, pallor of the dermis or redness, cold extremities Reducing the frequency of contractions of the myocardium or bradycardia in the described form is less common.
Pressure fluctuations are the most significant symptom for the differentiation of dystonia of the hypotonic type. Jumps in blood pressure are observed after nervous tension or as a result of other symptoms. Because of hypotension, migraines can occur, which is accompanied by dizziness, unsteadiness, and lack of air. With a sharp drop in pressure, fainting is likely.
Hyperventilation syndrome is represented by psycho-physiological reactions of the respiratory system. A typical feature of this syndrome is its occurrence solely on inspiration. This makes it possible to distinguish it from asthma, which is characterized by the onset of an exhalation of suffocation.
With an IRR of a hypotonic type, the following combination of manifestations is usually: muscle tension, increased breathing, discomfort that occurs when there is no external stimulus. As a rule, all the symptoms have no connection with respiratory ailments, endocrine pathologies or abnormalities in the functioning of the cardiovascular system. It is characterized by a close relationship with anxiety and panic crises.
Shallow breathing causes a decrease in carbon dioxide content. A reduced concentration of carbon dioxide leads to an alkaline environment in the blood and the depression of the respiratory center. The brain, feeling the lack of oxygen, sends a danger signal, resulting in musculo-tonic disorders, motor abnormalities, decreased sensitivity, headache, a feeling of unreality of reality and other vegetative reactions: feeling of heaviness in chest space, dizziness, dyspnea, weakness, loss of consciousness , chills, numbness of the limbs or tingling in them, increased myocardial contractions, hypotension.
Hyperventilation syndrome is often accompanied by gastrointestinal disorders: belching, nausea, and increased intestinal motility. Eliminate choking by giving a person the opportunity to breathe in a paper bag. The air is rich in carbon dioxide, will help to normalize breathing.
The IRR of the hypotonic type almost always accompanied by a variety of disorders of the digestive tract. Symptomatology is represented by pain in the abdomen of the nagging and spastic nature, bloating, upset stool. Pain often occurs after a meal or due to the postponement of events associated with stress. In addition, there may be a violation of appetite, motility disorders of the alimentary canal, difficulty swallowing, nausea, hiccups, belching. It is characteristic that in the presence of all listed manifestations a real ailment is impossible to identify.
In addition to the above symptoms and signs of VSD on the hypotonic type, the following manifestations may occur: increased sweating, thermoregulation disorder, weakness, fatigue, apathy, decreased performance. Also, most patients complain of excessive irritability, tearfulness, headaches, sleep disorders, loss of interest in being.
VSD cardiac type
This type of dystonia of cardiac type is a dysfunction of the ganglion system in combination with severe symptoms of cardioneurosis. A distinctive feature of the cardiac dystonia from other types of illness is pain syndrome, accompanied by discomfort in the myocardium. There is no clear location for algia. Pains can be squeezing, burning, or bursting. They arise after an emotional shake-up or a stressful situation. The described pains are similar to angina attacks, but it is impossible to stop them with nitroglycerin. In addition to the main symptoms of the disease, you can select additional manifestations of the violation. They cannot be attributed to the specific symptomatology, but they often contribute to the correct diagnosis.
Concomitant manifestations of VSD on the cardiac type are the following: meteorological dependence, persistent migraine headaches, emotional lability, trembling of the extremities, excessive sweating, sleep disturbance, fatigue, apathy.
How to treat the IRR cardiac type? Therapy of this disease in adults is aimed at eliminating risk factors and adapting the patient to stressors. The therapeutic course is selected after obtaining anamnesis, carrying out the necessary instrumental and diagnostic examinations and passing laboratory tests.
The treatment strategy includes pharmacopoeial drugs such as tranquilizers, which are aimed at normalizing the functioning of the nervous system, sedatives, improving mental stability and lowering blood pressure indicators, antidepressants that minimize signs of anxiety, relieve irritability, increase mood, nootropics that increase the stability of brain tissue structures to oxygen starvation, cerebroprotectors, aimed at optimizing blood supply to the brain, etc.
The treatment of IRR at home involves breathing exercises, autotraining, massage. Also recommended are systematic aerobic exercise (swimming, cycling, walking), good nutrition, a rational daily routine.
VSD on vagotonic type
Most studies confirm that dystonia is most often intimately in contact with mental pathology. The causes of the formation of a violation are often depressive states and neuroses, forced out into the subconscious, and therefore manifest themselves by various somatic symptoms. In the event of malfunctioning of the autonomic system of the vagotonic form, the functions subordinate to the parasympathetic system responsible for homeostasis are disturbed.
VSD on the vagotonic type is a parasympathetic effect of the vagus nerve on the body, which is otherwise referred to as vagus. This type of disease is often observed in children and adolescents. The oppression of the parasympathetic system causes fatigue, apathy, memory disorder, depressive moods, drowsiness. In addition to these symptoms, there are also manifestations of autonomic abnormalities, such as:
- low blood pressure,
- heart algii;
- puffiness under the lower eyelids;
- lack of breathing;
- decrease in heartbeat;
- pain in the lower extremities, appearing during the night period;
- increased salivation;
- "marble" leather;
- intolerance stuffiness;
- pain in the abdomen;
- nausea, loss of appetite;
- obesity, anxiety.
VSD on the vagotonic type leads to the development of fears, the inability to fully carry out the work. Man becomes weak. Attacks are often accompanied by headaches.
Vagotonic type often provokes individuals to fear for their own lives. This disease occurs as a result of the following factors: failure in the functioning of the hypothalamus, stem disorders, the individual's stay in stressful circumstances, brain damage of an organic type.
VSD on the mixed type
Underlying symptom of dystonia by mixed type i