Psychology and Psychiatry


Disorientation is the impossibility to identify one’s own personality, the place of its physical residence, the period in which it is or its social affiliation. Personal disorientation often occurs due to damage to the structural elements of the brain. In addition, the deviation in question often originates due to excessive consumption of alcohol-containing liquids, the use of narcotic substances, or potent pharmacopoeial psychotropic drugs. In other words, disorientation is a disorder of consciousness. In the described state, it is difficult for the subject to quickly think, to perform actions, there are difficulties with defining oneself and orientation.

Causes of disorientation in space

The violation described is a change in consciousness that does not allow an individual to think clearly and quickly, in addition, it causes a loss of the ability to recognize people or to distinguish places, to remember time and memorable dates. Disorientation often causes clouding of consciousness and the inability to make independent decisions.

The reasons provoking the deviation in question, there are many. For example, it can generate organic damage to brain structures or metabolic disruptions. In older people, senile dementia often causes loss of orientation and blurred consciousness.

In addition, there are diseases accompanied by disorientation.

The incoherence of consciousness can occur due to hypoxemia, observed with pulmonary ailments, with serious infectious processes, malnutrition, due to dehydration.

The incoherence of consciousness is also manifested as a result of the influence of a number of external circumstances, such as hypothermia or heat stroke.

One can select such diseases accompanied by disorientation as Alzheimer's disease, hydrocephalus, spastic psevdoskleroz, tumor formation in the brain and disorder of its blood supply, dementia, autism, hypoglycaemia, depression, steatosis, psychotic disorder organism, Angelman syndrome, portal hypertension, renal failure , anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, meningitis.

In addition to these ailments, excessive consumption of alcohol, drugs, and dehydration can also cause a sense of disorientation.

Social disorientation may occur as a result of a dramatic change in life. In children, the loss of social orientation is the norm, because the crumbs are not yet able to recognize the nature of their occupation, their own gender. They find it difficult to navigate among the new faces.

Only at the pubertal stage there comes a time of absolute social orientation.

Symptoms of disorientation in space

The following types of personality disorientation state are distinguished: radiation, spatial, professional and social disorientation.

Psychology offers the following classification of orientation disorder:

- autopsychic (which is a false recognition of oneself as a person, or an absolute loss of self-identification);

- allopsychic (loss of orientation in the environment);

- double (the patient simultaneously or alternately stays reality and imaginary reality);

- mixed or total disorientation.

The doctor can determine the state of disorientation only after the examination.

The common clinical signs include such manifestations as sudden changes in mood, dizziness, sleep disorder, impaired memory.

Disorientation in space is often observed along with the inability to be determined in time. In addition, the ailment in question may be accompanied by such manifestations as the inability of the subject to recognize himself as a person, name the month, current year, country of residence or place in which he lives, passport details.

Also, there is a sense of fear, anxiety, without obvious reason. Apathy can dramatically change the attack of aggression. Therefore, it should be borne in mind that the described state of the subject is often unsafe for both the one suffering from disorientation and those around him. That is why if any of the listed symptoms occurs, a person should be immediately transferred to a medical institution.

Social disorientation, as a rule, is not characterized by the presence of pronounced manifestations of mental disorder. However, the following specific symptoms may occur. For example, a subject cannot give his exact age. Also, he does not know his own social affiliation. In an unfamiliar environment, there is a feeling of anxiety.

If there is an IRR, spatial and temporal disorder of orientation may be accompanied by: dizziness, tinnitus, nausea, partial hearing loss, headaches, fluctuations in blood pressure. Such a state is a threat to the life of the individual. Self-treatment or ignoring the described symptoms can lead to serious consequences, and is also fraught with a lethal outcome, since pressure spikes can trigger a stroke or provoke a heart attack.

Disorientation in space is a frequent satellite of the twilight obscuring of consciousness. Characterized by a sharp appearance and the same sudden disappearance. The subject with the ability to reproduce mechanical action saves.


Before the appointment of therapy must be a full examination. Therefore, first of all, you should visit a neurologist, who will conduct an examination of the individual, get acquainted with complaints, find out the history and history of the disease.

In order to diagnose the presence of the described disorder, a biochemical blood test, analysis of alcohol-containing or detection of narcotic substances in the body, computed tomography, various psychotherapeutic tests, an electrocardiographic study, and the determination of metabolic failures can be performed.

The basic therapeutic tactics are determined by the diagnosis, since the methods of treating disorientation are directly determined by the etiological factor. With the sudden appearance of a sense of loss of orientation, it is recommended to try to relax, streamline the flow of your own thoughts, sometimes it is required, even to write them down. It is necessary to realize the manifestations felt and understand what caused this condition.

For example, provoke a violation of orientation, may be a reduced concentration of sugar, if the last meal was observed a few hours ago. In order to rectify the situation should eat or drink a drink containing caffeine. If the violation described is caused by dehydration of the body, it is necessary to drink water accordingly or to drink a liquid containing electrolytes.

In general, the therapeutic strategy contains the following measures: ensuring rest, proper care, elimination of the effects of stressors, unreasonable emotional stress.

Drug therapy is based on the appointment of such categories of drugs as antipsychotics, tranquilizers, antidepressants, vitamins, agents with a sedative, hypnotic effect, mineral complexes. Selection of the required dose, the duration and mode of administration is determined by the doctor. Unauthorized prescription and administration of pharmacopoeial drugs are not allowed.

Among the preventive measures are the following:

- restriction in the consumption of alcohol-containing beverages;

- balancing the balance of healthy sleep and wakefulness periods;

- balancing the diet, foods consumed must contain the necessary concentration of minerals, vitamins, fiber, while products containing “harmful” cholesterol should be avoided;

- compliance with sugar control in the presence of diabetes;

- getting rid of tobacco.

In addition to the above methods, it is also important to devote time to mental stress on a daily basis. The brain, as well as another body, also needs training to maintain its efficiency. A useful exercise is memorizing poems. Also contribute to the normalization of the state and minimize the occurrence of mental clouding phenomena with manifestations of disorientation daily walks.