The typology of the personality is a super-popular, demanded sphere for today as in classical science and its applied areas, even in everyday life, in everyday psychology. To relate yourself to the type is an interesting exercise. However, in order that typing does not become entertainment, such an assignment must always correspond to the goal. Most often, this goal is that the person being typed, understanding his own individuality, develops as an individual, solves psychological problems, does not just refer himself to one type and garden.
Different authors describing personality differences, the concept of a personality typology and, in the key of differential psychology, the concepts of individuality, even temperament, character were described as synonymous in meaning, sometimes putting an equal sign between them. Individuality was viewed by some in a broad sense as a personality, character merged with personality. Here differential psychology reveals discrepancies with the general, which separates, clearly distinguishing between these concepts.
Individuality is traditionally determined by the sum of the properties that separate one person from another. Properties can intersect and correlate with each other, forming stable characteristics. However, such a sum of properties is not yet a type. Considering the concept of a typology of personality, we now assume a set of not only interrelated features, but those that together have a holistic structure, a gestalt organization. Differing with classes of properties, simple associations, the type implies a strict separation of the skeleton of characteristics, support for these characteristics, the main feature that centers all the others.
Psychological personality typology
Two ways of building typological classifications should be distinguished - the path from below and the path from above. The bottom path is also called empirical or inductive, when we go from a particular property to a set of properties, their generalization. Thus, such concrete basic typologies of personality are built, such as, for example, the classification of psychopathies in psychiatry. The second path, the path from above, can be called theoretical and deductive. The researcher here goes from a theoretical assumption, from some important, but perhaps not always always provable axiom, from the general and to the particular highlights first the main signs of the type, which then tries to empirically substantiate, verify. In this way, the psychoanalyst Karl Jung built a typology.
The main typologies of personality for their construction have three tasks. The research task is to find a substantiation, usually a physical, morphological, anatomical or anatomical and physiological one for character types - as the ancients said, to connect the soul with the body. An empirical-descriptive task is to single out the maximum number of individual classes or specific types, for example, character anomalies, with the goal of developing specific, specifically addressed tips for controlling behavior for each such group. The more diverse the classification, the more accurate such individually directed tips and instructions can become. The third, actually therapeutic task, which is not always immediately noticeable, is connected with building a typology from above, more precisely, deductively. Any discussion of individuality is associated with psychotherapy, and the researcher is at risk here, not knowing exactly the characteristics of each type representative, but this is justified by the fact that the selection of such common characteristics is a certain language and means that are suggested for understanding their own individuality.
The presence of psycho-bodied correspondences in the structure of the body and character allows us to substantiate the bodily essence of psychological properties. Hippocrates described the humoral, fluid theory of this relationship. Sechenov, Pavlov, Teplov, Nebylitsyn relied on the properties of the central nervous system. Temperament settled on the subject's bodily constitution, which is even worldly combined for us with his particular lifestyle and behavior. This is well shown in the story Thick and Thin. Fat is good-natured, talkative, thin is alert, sometimes vindictive, vindictive, observant. However, everyday observation is always superficial, intuitive, in it the particular is taken for the common.
Ernst Kretschmer, a German psychiatrist at the beginning of the last century, built his constitutional typology, as described in his book Body Structure and Character, in three steps. At the first stage, he singled out the main types of constitution and correlated them with the presence of a mental illness. Kretschmer set himself the task of distinguishing clear parameters in the appearance of each type of person he discovered, so that he had a specific face. In the end, after he separated the three types, the most different among themselves, although initially there were many more types, also mixed, not having qualitative specificity.
The first type, asthenic, is distinguished by a weak development of the musculoskeletal system, it seems to be higher than its actual growth due to thinness, it has an angular profile - a somewhat reduced chin and an elongated nose. The second type, called athletics, has a shape that meets the stereotype of masculinity. The third type, called the word picnic, has developed body cavities, its figure resembles a snow woman model. Even if the picnic is watching itself, it is given by the face - it has a pentagonal profile, as well as a short neck.
Asthenic physique is characterized by psychological characteristics, described as schizotymia, literally - a tendency to splitting. Schizotimik has abstract thinking, it can be found among mathematicians and philosophers, where there is a need for building a model of the world, for distancing from the world in order to systematize it. Schizotimic is a man of idea, a consistent and fiery supporter of her. Cyclical chemistry, associated with emotional fluctuations, is peculiar to pycnic. Cyclothimics prefer those areas of knowledge in which there is a need to describe the object as it is, for example, geography, botany. He not only perceives the world, but feels it, gives it an emotional assessment. He is inclined to take into account the real situation, change his position, if the reality has changed, is inclined to compromise.
Krechmer outlined a certain polarity, a confrontation between types, which will be developed in further typologies. He also approached the allocation of properties on the principle of correlation, therefore, even today, the Krechmerian approach to differentiation manifests itself in an attempt to find a third party, for example, environmental influences explaining the formation of certain physical and psychological parameters.
Following Krechmer, he continued the study of personality types in relation to the body of his follower Sheldon. Sheldon's analysis strategy has changed. If Kretschmer considered specific types of carriers, then Sheldon does not single out integral types and does not set as a goal a qualitative analysis, but describes each character with a list of parameters, quantitatively. Sheldon for each carrier highlights the characteristics of a certain physique, its indices.
Further, at the junction of psychology and psychiatry, mental diseases were singled out, followed by accentuation, which are an exacerbation of the traits, but are not a violation, are within the normal range. Gannushkin and Licko were studying accentuations, and their methods are now widely used in psychiatry and the differential field of psychology.
Jung's personality typology
Jung, following the philosopher Kant, builds his typology in order to reveal the means to the development of personality. He deals with his patients, whom a typology can help withstand psychological difficulties, but Jung refers to both himself and healthy people. His analysis, unlike the diagnostic map of accentuations according to Gannushkin and Licko, Jung does not hide from his patients.
Jung, looking through the history of art, music, poetry, philosophy, notices that people are usually distinguished in pairs, for example, rational and emotional. In this pairing he sees an important meaning, and makes his main discovery - like natural opposing forces, for example, stretching, compressing, exhaling, inhaling, one can distinguish in the psyche two opposite directions, attitudes to extraversion and introversion.
Both orientations are present in the psyche of each subject, but one always prevails. This is explained by Jung through the psychoanalytic construction in which there is one setting in the consciousness, and the opposite in the unconscious. The idea of Jung here, however, is to balance oneself.
Further, Jung singles out another dichotomy, opposing thinking and emotions to each other, then talks about the dominant mental function. He finds another pair of characteristics, sensory-intuition. He considers all these functions non-equilibrium in the structure of the psyche, one always dominates.
Sensory is a sensation, our perception of how the action of our act occurs. Emotion is associated with accepting a perceived event on an emotional level. Thinking allows you to make sense of the situation. Intuition, which designates, according to Jung, the ability to anticipate the consequences of an act, its future results, is connected with the capacity for imagination.
Jung could be followed by another author, Lazursky, who, along with the identification of types, considers the levels of development. This attempt is present, although far from indisputable.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is based on Jung's typology. Both of her creators did not have a psychological education, but after reading "Psychological Types", Jung began to actively type in practice, observing the behavior of people and his research. Living in wartime, they had the opportunity to observe large masses of people in non-standard situations, and based on this material they described the type differences in more detail.
Then MBTI was effectively developed as a system that allows you to form work teams, select personnel, predict employee behavior in the company. Professionals using MBTIs have as their goal the construction of proper management in connection with the types of personalities of both the manager and subordinates. MBTI allows you to separate not only the strengths, but also the weaknesses of the subject and, concentrating on the strong characteristics, place the employee in the position that is most appropriate for him in the organization.
According to MBTI, the type of person is presented in four formats. The first is a source of energy, from where a person draws energy. An extrovert takes energy from the outside, he needs to constantly act and communicate, this is his way of survival and the comfort zone. It is in the process of interaction with the outside world that he receives an impetus for development and material for him. Introvert, on the contrary, draws energy from within itself and therefore loves solitude.
The next one is the center of attention, a way to get information about the world around us. Here we deal with sensation as a support for the senses, intuition as a superconscious process of analyzing, predicting and anticipating events. The sensory type is based on the present and past experience, while intuit is able to see figuratively, the whole picture, as if from above.
This is followed by the decision making center for the mental or sensory way. The thinking type argues on the basis of right and wrong, and the sentient based on personal values.
And the last pair of characteristics, judgment and perception, are related to the lifestyle of the individual. People of judgment live in an orderly, predictable world, while people of perception live in a deep, elemental world with open options for all sorts of choices, and therefore decisions that they do not take until the extreme moment.
Along with Briggs Myers, Aushra Augustinavichiute worked on her typology, called socionics, which is also a continuation of Jung's typology. It was based on the Kempinsky theory of the so-called information metabolism. Socionics has become a field of knowledge that studies how a person accepts, then processes, and then gives out information. Later, they began to talk not only about information, but already about energy-information exchange.
In addition to dividing dichotomies into verity, as well as dividing into sensorics, intuits, thinkers, who got the name of logicians in socionics, and who feel what they call ethics, rational people have judgments and so-called irrationals, perception people, socionics also has a mental model, 8 ordered functions arranged in priority. Mental, vital blocks, subtypes, type accentuations are considered here.
Separate attention in socionics deserves the theory of duality - ideal compatibility of types that complement each other and form a closed ring through their energy and information exchange. Such an exchange is associated with the return of each in a pair of content for its strong functions and a request for acceptance for the weak. It is believed that the so-called duals on socionics provide each other with information on the most comfortable channels, while mutually protecting their partner in pain issues for him.
In socionics, in addition to dual relationships, relations between all types are considered, which makes this typology unique. It allows not only to describe the type of carrier, but also to consciously effectively influence it, as far as it turns out within its type, feeding information and energy through the channels necessary for it. Areas of creativity are described, in which the typey will be as efficient as possible, will be able to act not only without exhaustion, but, on the contrary, getting satisfaction from self-realization. As well as areas of the least resistance of the psyche, the activity in which will prove to be not only unjustifiably costly for the carrier of the type, but even often traumatic.
Today, socionics has been widely developed as a typology and even an area of philosophy, and some experts seek to bring it into the status of a separate science. This typology has practical significance in business, personal relationships, self-identification, value self-determination, vocational guidance, and the creation of optimally functioning teams.