The psychology of money is a very popular topic to study. Asking whether a person earns well or enough, usually only a few answer positively, there is often not enough money. Some blame the circumstances, others for the stingy employers, others for the crisis or time, fourth for the power or the government. You can continue indefinitely, moreover, experts are sure that material well-being always depends on the individual characteristics of the person and how the person has shaped the attitude towards money. Distortions here can lead not only to material, but also to a number of other problems. How is the psychological attitude to money formed, how to form it for prosperity?
Secrets and taboos - the psychology of money
Money is what we are accustomed to, a common phenomenon of our life. Economists view them as a measure of the value of goods and services. It would seem that this is a simple phenomenon, but why then everyone wants to always have more of them, constantly there is not enough money? This question has puzzled psychologists. At present, a lot of research is being conducted showing the interrelation of psychological, personal characteristics, features of our thinking and how monetary relations are formed, why some people are able to accumulate money, others are constantly wasting everything, someone goes into debt, another does not have them at all.
At the unconscious symbolic level, money means health, strength, power, and security for us. If there is money, it is considered to be around that this person is doing well - money has become not only a measure, an equivalent of value, but also a measure of a person’s personal well-being. Therefore, we can consider different types of attitudes towards finance and certain mechanisms for their formation, and even about the presence of monetary pathologies.
The year 2002 brought the Nobel Prize for work to the expert in the field of economic psychology Kaneman, in which he showed human irrationality in financial behavior. We do not always control the waste of money, often do not realize why they spend.
There is such a small test to test your attitude towards money. When you suspect one of the points, you need to think about whether you have the right financial behavior. Do you spend money, when your heart is heavy, if you go to the store, when a bad mood has arrived, it doesn’t work out in life, something doesn’t work? Especially if this is the last money. The mood for a while rises, but then, unfortunately, comes back. Psychologists view this as uncontrollable behavior regarding irrational purchases.
Do you worry or even have a strong fear of being out of money? Perhaps there are even savings, a normal stable permanent income, but the thought of finding yourself in a difficult financial situation even sometimes makes you extremely uneasy.
Do you feel anxiety and guilt when buying for yourself, but, moreover, are inspired and joyful when you get it for others? Or does making expensive gifts bring you a good sense of self, since you feel loved for it?
There is also a tangled life situation where people maintain difficult love, marital or other relationships only for fear of being alone, when they have financial problems, fear that they will not be able to earn a living, fully ensuring that they are tying the knot even more and aggravating problems. relationship.
Money is the litmus test through which you can see your life problems, understand the characteristics of your character, as many psychologists say. What does psychology say how to make money? Changing personal views, you can not only remove financial problems, but also personal ones.
When a person comes to the store to cheer up - most likely he is depressed. A person who gives expensive gifts to be loved for this, in fact, buys love, rather, has relationship problems, the deep roots of which come from the parental family, when he was loved for good actions, correct behavior. Permanent external evaluation of actions, the love of parents is not just what the child is, whatever actions he committed - in maturity develops into the need to confirm love through such actions.
Does the fact that some people have money, and others do not, depends on what is happening in the country, society, family? Or solely on the characteristics of the person? What does psychology say how to make money? There are plenty of examples that even in a crisis, some have both work and money. What is the relationship of monetary and personal conflicts? What psychological problems can highlight financial difficulties?
Regardless of cultural and national identity, people have common problems associated with money. In any country, nationality, culture, you will observe various monetary pathologies, people who take loans cannot pay them back, people who live very modestly. Only some religious and national moments can postpone prints, and then in the slightest degree. Everything related to financial behavior, yet everyone comes from personal characteristics.
For example, such a personal factor, as the propensity to take risks, is also manifested in monetary behavior. A person with a similar propensity can be quite wealthy, make good money, but constantly balances by investing in questionable enterprises, eventually falling into a debt impasse.
Psychology of money and financial behavior
The formation of financial behavior as monetary and economic socialization begins with the family. It is generally accepted in society that it is not good to strive for earning and accumulating strongly, so if a person seems to have no need for money, it seems that everything is good inside him. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, since people who do not expect gratitude in the form of monetary remuneration for work may have psychological problems in the form of self-acceptance, a sense of unworthiness. Having studied this problem more deeply, we will come to the child-parental relationships that are not yet properly structured, ambiguous parental attitudes, when one message speaks about the need for money, while the other screams that there have never been wealthy people in the family, so you cannot be secured. To understand all the vicissitudes of these psychological attitudes, requires the special assistance of a psychologist, psychoanalyst, or even a psychotherapist.
According to the theory of Freud, who saw the problem of irrational attitude to money in very early childhood, improper teaching of the child to hygiene can provoke monetary pathology. For example, a child who has not coped with the need in time receives a reprimand from his parents and learns to hold, which leads to accumulation in maturity.
What features should be taken into account when shaping financial behavior, what else affects our view of resources? This is the attitude of society to finance. Money today is often the measure of people's relationships. Certainly, some may overcome this influence, relate more rationally to money, not tie their attitudes to them, status, self-esteem, however, for most, this is different, because everyone is heading for everything to become more money.
When do you need to start shaping the right financial behavior? There is a strong opinion that from an early age to devote a child to the topic of finance is not worth it. However, we can see that children today enter into economic reality rather early, especially when they live in large urbanized cities. The child is watching advertising and already from 2-3 years old he begins to realize that there are goods that can be purchased. The child absorbs advertising like a sponge and demands to buy toys for him as in an advertisement, still completely unaware of what money is, how much they need to buy the desired thing. However, these are his first steps towards economic socialization.
Is it worth it at this age to start talking about money with a child? Functions and values of money, he still does not understand, it will be sufficient to properly regulate the behavior of the child and purchases in response to children's requests. If a child goes into hysterics, falling to the floor and screaming in the store, this behavior cannot be reinforced, since this will shape his consumer attitude.
From 4 to 6 years, the child begins to understand the function of money. In this period, many parents begin to give the child pocket small money, which is good as he learns to manage it. The question, however, is only in the amount of money. If earlier a child at this age could even go to the store, today, alas, it is not safe, because you can give your child periodically money so that he can save on the thing he wants. So he will realize that things have a value, money may not be enough, which will trigger the further economic socialization of the child.
Further, the younger school age implies the conscious management of money, and here it is simply necessary for the child to determine pocket money. The amount should grow a little every year, moreover, it is better to be fixed.
In adolescence, money becomes not just a means of acquiring goods, but also a source and indicator of status. You have money - it means you can enter a certain group, if not - you cannot. And, of course, adolescents are very sensitive, always paying attention to consistency, manifested in clothing, equipment, existing things, appearance. Money becomes a factor of stratification.
According to studies, working families are often given more money to working children than often to well-off and middle-income families. Adults in them count money and know their price, showing their value to children. But in low-income families, a compensatory mechanism often works, if an adult cannot acquire something significant for himself - he tries to give the child at least more for his expenses. Moreover, this does not mean that the child will spend them rationally. Often children copy the financial attitude of their parents. Monetary socialization is not only in the availability of pocket money, but also in the repetition of the model of parents.
So, young Rockefeller, receiving money from his parents for his pocket expenses, did not spend all of them, some saved them. When his father had financial difficulties - he gave them a loan at interest. He also received sweets, which he ate not all, but sold some to his sisters. So he saved his initial capital. Even today, some children are beginning to take economic mechanisms into account very early and even try to deposit money at a bank with interest.
What attitudes of parents prevent the formation of correct financial behavior? Parents often broadcast attitudes inherited from their parents. For example, this is the conviction that we have never been secured, therefore we cannot change this. A fairly common installation, comfortable, already got used to it, it is clear how to live. Otherwise, the topic of money may be silenced, not be brought up for discussion with children, as a result of which children do not receive reference points.
And sometimes it happens that the installation is extremely controversial. For example, our family has never been rich, but you must make a difference. Here, of course, the child is confused, he doesn’t have tools, how he can do it, so far the most honest methods of mastering money can be used. Or, for example, parents claim that money is bad, but they themselves, all the time, invest in their earnings, literally killing themselves at work, reducing everything as a result to money.
It is necessary to accurately transmit financial information to children. We can no longer control what we received from our parents, but may cancel the transfer of these messages. It is worth paying attention to understanding how we cultivate financial behavior in children, starting with the small. When giving your child a meager amount for his pocket expenses, talk to him about how to spend them correctly, what opportunities he has of accumulation if the child wants to purchase the desired thing.
The relationship between the sex of the child and money also has its own characteristics. For some reason in culture it is believed that boys can be trusted to manage larger sums than girls. Since the boy will have to become a man and carry out the function of a breadwinner, the breadwinner of the family, then he must be taught to make money and properly dispose of them. Girls are less likely to talk about money, letting it go so that the girl will grow up and get married, and this function will fall on her husband.
Should children work? It happens that even at a younger age, a student has an interest in independent earnings, there is nothing terrible about it. The question here is whether the work does not interfere with his other occupations: studies, sports, and rest. Does a child spend a lot of time to earn money? When you see such a problem, it is worth thinking about what is missing, why the child does it, why it gives priority to making money. Another question is how he earns. If, for example, a child goes to help his father with work to stick envelopes to send letters, this is normal. However, if the money is given out for good school grades, the fact that the child, for example, has swept the floor, should take place like this - this is already the wrong position of the parents, since this forms a consumer attitude.
Unfortunately, in some families there is a statement that the child should be encouraged with money for his studies, then, it is believed, he will learn better. But it stops working with time. Psychologists, however, adhere to the position that it is not worth rewarding a child with money for ordinary daily duties. Promotion can be in the form of points, which can then be replaced with a gift with joint pastime, but it is still too early to resort to such a material form as wages.
The psychology of money - how to become rich
Money has the function of freedom, because everyone wants to have it. However, it happens that in adulthood, people begin to behave so irrationally with money that it seriously prevents them from living. Irrational financial education of parents leads to personal distortions. What exactly can interfere with becoming rich, what personality traits become obstacles to financial happiness?
The first is stinginess, when a person is overly thrifty, adds up every penny to the detriment of himself and the needs of his family. This scenario is fixed, primarily annoying others, the very same person - the last. What is the psychological problem of the miser? This tendency to hoarding, jamming, which is manifested not only in money, but also in emotions. Such a person stores his emotions, remembers offenses for a long time, gets stuck in problem situations. Such financial behavior does not allow to invest money correctly and is a consequence of a complex of personality traits.
Another type of personality - the shopkeeper. This is a man who everywhere tries to find a certain benefit. A small discount, a sale - and the person begins to acquire even unnecessary. A person seems to be saving money, and for some reason, they are no longer becoming. This is a kind of game with yourself. But in relationships and with others, this can manifest itself, a person tries to get a profitable exchange all the time, as a result he loses, being incapable of honest open relationships.
A type of person called a money bag is a person who always seeks to earn as much as possible and earns by all possible means. As a result, the family suffers first of all, children suffer, relationships, because if a person is focused only on earnings, he will miss a lot. A variety of this type, a collector, likes to collect money, like other things, like Gobsek.
The reverse problem of the wastage, which puts everything in the wind, spends irrationally and unreasonably, absolutely does not know how to manage money, it is never enough to pay, and as a result has problems with loans and debts. The reasons for this behavior may be several. One is the lack of love, when a person can in such a way try to buy the love of others, for example, by paying for everyone in a restaurant.
Directly related to the lack of financial success is the problem of irresponsibility, when a person does not know how to take obligations, does not know how to not only manage money, but also, in principle, build relationships in which to take responsibility.
By type of financial behavior, you can see the nature of a person, and vice versa. For example, some people are able to take loans, while others are literally immediately sucked in by a debt quagmire, others don’t like to borrow at all and even lend. Debt and credit behavior, as many researchers say, depends on the age factor. Как правило, молодые люди очень нерационально распоряжаются кредитами, имея ощущение, что впереди перед ними еще много времени и больших возможностей заработать. Они начинают часто с одного кредита, затем перезанимают, чтобы погасить первый, кредитная спираль начинает закручиваться, возникают проблемы с банками, судебные издержки, в результате разворачивается достаточно плачевная ситуация.
Определите ваш денежный тип и его возможную патологию. If, for example, you realize that you do not know how to manage money, cash literally disappears from your hands - transfer financial resources to their electronic version, which will allow you to more easily control the flow of money and their spending, and also reassure you, because cash will not you literally burn your hands, demanding to spend them.
Try not to borrow when there are monetary problems, since there will only be more problems. Our irrational monetary thinking often does not allow us to plan earnings and the corresponding debt payments, because debt grows like a snowball. Learn to properly assess opportunities and rationally approach money, increasing your financial literacy to counter irrational impulses - this will help you in the end to find financial well-being.