Tolerance is a concept that is applicable in many areas of human existence and therefore has certain specific characteristics. The origin of the term tolerance has its roots in the medical industry and has been used to characterize the absence or loss of the body's sensitivity to any factors (antigens, medicines, physical effects).

Medical tolerance is the absence of a reaction or a practically non-pronounced reaction; roughly speaking, complete tolerance is death, when the body does not fully respond to the effects, does not resist, but only takes them into itself. But from the medical field, the concept moved into the field of human relations, with which it became more related not to lack of response, but to the degree of patience and is often used as a synonym for tolerance. The most common use among the broad masses is tolerance in the social aspect, and reflects tolerance for other people's manifestations, ways of arranging one’s life, maintaining selected ideological and religious concepts.

Tolerance is not indifference to the behavior of others, but the ability to allow others to lead a different way of life and accept them as such.

Meaning of the word tolerance

This concept is used in the field of finance and technology and is designated as a tolerance (in the weight of a coin or the size of a part) that does not significantly affect the value and functionality.

In psychology, tolerance is considered as a sign of personal maturity and confidence. Acceptance of other nations, their traditions and habits, the ability to understand and respect other cultures is possible with a developed ability to analyze, openness to new experience and the manifestation of the soul, without resorting to competition or implant their own foundations. Only one who is confident in himself is able to listen to the other and try to understand, but for a person with a flat organization, differences cause fear or hatred, which in any case creates confrontation. Social tolerance is not synonymous with betrayal of one’s own interests, forgiving attitude or non-interference policy, it does not tolerate imposing itself, but it does not tolerate other social injustice.

What is tolerance? The meaning of the word by many sources is presented as a synonym for tolerance. From the fact that the person was more interested and in what area the concept was studied, the emphasis was placed on religious, social, national or other basis of tolerance. Like tolerance, tolerance is not a quality that characterizes the active, effective side of a person; it is passive and is aimed at accepting the surrounding space and manifestations of others. Although, in contrast to religious tolerance, which is mostly aimed at the compassionate attitude and mercy of a believer, it is precisely to accept and humility with the vices of others, tolerance is more rigid in its behavioral form.

Tolerance is conscious and is an active choice of a person, manifesting itself, affects both participants of the process, i.e. it is impossible to tolerate others and not require the same attitude from them. A person professing the principles of accepting behavior and choices of everyone will be extremely surprised at the censure of his judgments and concepts of life, and if he tries to impose others or forbid, he will resist. It is precisely in this active position that the concept is rather passive at first sight, and also in upholding social equality, which is a manifestation of tolerance, when confronted with a violation of human value.

To understand this term, you can use four main planes: as indifference to the manifestation of another, as respect, with no understanding of the views of the other, as an indulgent attitude, excluding respect, as the possibility of discovering a new one in yourself through the assumption of the existence of another.

In psychology, tolerance is considered as a weakening or disappearance of the psyche response at a behavioral and emotional level to an adverse factor. The concept is different from adaptation, because it implies a change in the surrounding world, ways of interacting with it or oneself to reduce the negative impact, while tolerance does not actively interfere in destructive processes, but manifests itself in a change in the degree of response. So, a person who is constantly shouted will be scared at first, but if nothing changes, then over time the increase in voice will stop causing him emotions or significantly reduce their amplitude. In many ways, the concept of tolerance in psychology is associated with a habit or a developed stability in the previous experience of a person; the educational system and the surrounding society also impose a certain imprint. The formation of tolerance occurs both consciously by the person and unknowingly, reading the ratio of significant adults.

In general, the meaning of the word tolerance conveys the desire for tolerance, forgiveness, acceptance with all the features and disadvantages, the desire for cooperation and interaction, sincere respect for a person and recognition of his rights and freedoms on a par with his own. Further, depending on the type of tolerance, there are certain details that correct the picture, but do not depart from the general principles outlined above, approved by the legislative framework of many countries and represent the main concept of the UN and UNESCO activities.

Types of tolerance

Despite the different areas of use of the term, many types of tolerance are defined exclusively in the socio-psychological sphere, because in the technical and medical field, everything is more and more strictly regulated.

In the sphere of mutual relations, depending on the structure, orientation and, accordingly, manifestation, tolerance can be:

- political (respectful attitude of the authorities towards members of society who have opposing views and readiness to accept and allow the emergence of other ideas and thoughts among their own supporters);

- pedagogical (tolerant and equal attitude regardless of the intellectual level and degree of education received);

- age (lack of judgments about the personality, its qualities and abilities on the basis of its age, which is often violated when explaining the inadmissibility of the act to a child's age);

- religious (benevolent attitude and respect of other faiths, religions, beliefs, cults, sects, atheists, etc., while following their own chosen path);

- to persons with disabilities (recognition of the usefulness of the personality and its manifestations, not out of a sense of pity, but out of respect and understanding of the equivalence of the spiritual and personal manifestations of each);

- gender (equal treatment of people of different sexes, the same rights, duties and opportunities, both in terms of education and career, as well as expression and representation.

In the psychological aspect, natural (it is also called natural) tolerance stands out, which is inherent in all people initially, but passing with age. It is due to the fact that in the children's (very early) perception there is initially no separation of oneself from the world (if something hurts, then it feels like the whole world hurts), and even more so the opposition of one’s own person to the other. A child resigns himself to the demands and manifestations of others because of his weakness in a separate independent survival, which is why there is a need to adapt and suppress some of his own manifestations.

Personal tolerance is based on internal meanings, and an understanding of the value of giving others the right to realize their own potential in any chosen way and respect for this choice. It is this internal characteristic that is a regulator in building social relations, but at the same time it is a diagnostic indicator of the environment in which a person was brought up. It is the formation of tolerance in society that is the condition for the development of this quality and ability of a wide world perception.

From personal tolerance, a social matures, characterizing not so much the attitude of a person to a certain phenomenon, but the system of behavior and the establishment of social connections, maintaining social equilibrium. The main guarantee of a peaceful existence and comfortable development for each individual being is to be in a tolerant society, and maintaining a decent level of acceptance of different people is the concern of every mature person, thus manifesting their own social tolerance. From the strategy of building social contacts, they share the moral and moral aspects of tolerance.

Moral tolerance is manifested in adhering to the norms predetermined by society, or inherent in the person himself according to his inner convictions, and is expressed in restraining one's own emotions and manifestation of patience. At the same time, this behavior is regulated by conscious activity and the wisdom of logic, not always having emotional and spiritual correspondences under oneself (one can be infinitely annoyed and angry inside, but external behavioral manifestations do not violate the norms of morality and complacency).

Moral tolerance, a seeming similarity with moral, is in essence its antipode, because a person tries to understand and internally accept the behavior and motivation of another person’s actions, he tries to perceive the principles of the other as his own, which gives guidance to respectful and decent behavior side of external control, but from internal motivation. So more sincerity and easier is the process itself, without violently restraining one’s emotional reactions, it is moral tolerance that helps to understand another person and to find common points of contact and exit from conflict situations, whereas the previous mechanisms are more about avoiding conflict than overcoming it.

Ethnic tolerance is based on the adoption of differences of intercultural, without belittling, infringing and imposing their way of thinking. Despite the cardinal differences in customs, a person who has ethnic tolerance will not consider someone’s morals wild, but rather show interest in them or find something similar to his habits. To tame, educate or subordinate to laws the manifestation of this type of tolerance is the most difficult, and, perhaps, can only have an external side strictly controlled by conscious mechanisms. Such difficulties are due to the presence of ethnic acceptance of the perception of this type of differences at the subconscious level, where the attitude to those different as strangers is genetically inherent. In ancient times, people were distinguished by each other phenotypically, divided into clans, into friends and foes. And now, despite the idea of ​​equality and fraternity, the widely popularized, millennial mechanism responds with a signal "outsider", which should be treated with at least caution.

In this case, a rather rapid mixing of genes, ethnic groups and races occurs, especially in megalopolises, and people face the problem of their own ethnic identity. The pace of life, the ability to quickly change the place of residence, and accordingly the prevailing part of a culture, contributes to an increase in ethnic tolerance.

By the degree of manifestation, tolerance is low (the inability to show patience and a positive attitude not only to certain qualities, but to the world and humanity, a person annoys and annoys everyone, about which he does not tire of informing others), average (when a person is able to express patience with his opponents , recognize that he likes communication, and make it clear that he understands those he has encountered) is high (when there is a complete acceptance of the other and a lot of pleasure and psychological comfort comes from communication).

Fostering tolerance

Tolerance and its foundations were not artificially invented; this arose along with the formation of society, its values ​​and priorities. Based on the most important points that do not require the definition and explanation of their importance, the criteria included in tolerance are highlighted. And all these criteria for its formation are indisputable self-values ​​in every corner of the world and for any person, this includes life, health, freedom, family. Becoming the inner values ​​of each person and the values ​​of society, they are the unifying foundation where all differences disappear. And if I want my freedom to be respected, then I will not violate someone else's. The same requirements for everyone and themselves are at the stage of forming tolerance, and sincere experience of the needs and values ​​of another person, the ability to empathy makes this process less mechanistic and formal, and give it a personal touch.

We pay more attention, feeling and tolerance to places and people who have something to do with our lives. You may absolutely not care what happens to the Libyans, but if your good friend works there from the UN mission, then you will listen to another report from there with less indifference. Proceeding from such a mechanism of our psyche, it is possible to develop tolerance, having become acquainted with a representative of another culture, ideally, if it becomes your friend or spouse, the level of tolerance to this people will soar excessively. Helps to travel and leave to work for some time in other regions. The first tenders, of course, will be shocked, but the more such raids will be, the more the possible variety of human lives will be understood. Nomadic people or perpetual travelers, flight attendants or tour guides are practically devoid of any prejudice against a particular nationality, age, and much more. All this is due to the fact that a person sees many different people and stops evaluating them, starting from the graft system, and each time focuses directly on the situation and behavior of a particular person, even if he is incredibly similar and fits into some category.

But not everyone will independently develop their own tolerance, and her education begins with society. The society obeys certain laws, therefore the state should take part in the development of tolerance. It is necessary to create a fair legal framework that respects the equal rights of all representatives of mankind, and the main focus should be on international conventions for the protection of human rights. Control over the media, while respecting their freedoms and coverage of events, but subject to the absence of propaganda or derogatory treatment, presentation or feedback on any categories of the population.

But the role that the state can fulfill is negligible and turns out to be unsuccessful in the absence of the necessary upbringing, because the sphere of relationships between people and the breadth of horizons and the possibility of acceptance is an educational problem and is formed in the person’s near environment (parents, educators, neighbors, relatives, friends). Not in all schools the educational process takes place from a humanistic position, supporting the uniqueness of each person. More and more demands are being made to conform to certain standards and public punishment or humiliation of a person different from those written by his uncles in the Ministry of Digits.

The restructuring of the learning process with the integration of various fields of art, while applying the experience of different peoples, expands the boundaries of acceptance and shows that everyone has something valuable and can learn from everything. The introduction of the study of various languages ​​as much as possible contributes to the contact with another culture, helps its comprehensive understanding. According to many studies, without knowing the language, it is impossible to fully explore another culture, even after reading all the information about it. In history lessons, you can stop hiding aspects of the multinational state and begin to speak openly about the homosexual orientation of many significant historical figures. The distortion of facts distorts perception, and at the exit we get a generation that has grown up on the prejudices that are embedded in their heads, because of which it is difficult for them to build their own lives in the future.

By example, it is worthwhile to demonstrate respect for the opinion, choice and actions of the child, having learned this from childhood and considering it the norm, a person will respect others. Replace criticism with interest, transform conflict into interaction, and replace reproaches with help - it is training of such new behavioral strategies in everyday life that can increase the overall tolerance of society. Толерантное отношение рождается из внутреннего мира каждого и того опыта, который человек получил на протяжении жизни. Если вы мало сталкивались с принятием вас таким, каковы вы являетесь, то, скорее всего, вы сможете отлично усвоить стратегии манипулирования, маскировки, подчинения и доминирования, но опыта и силы принятия будет взять неоткуда, ведь в картинке мира такого не происходило.Also, requiring someone to accept is not a manifestation of tolerance, because at this moment you do not accept the person, forcing him to accept you.

A reciprocal process, rejecting age and any other differences, when the opinion of the child and the parent are equally important, acceptance and respect is formed, and in both, and indirectly affects everyone who comes into contact with them in life.

Tolerance pros and cons

It seems that the advantages of tolerance are indisputable, because so many people cannot work otherwise on its development, upbringing and maintenance. Worldwide congresses and teachers of schools - everyone talks about this, but it is worth understanding in more detail the consequences of this phenomenon.

Advantages of tolerance in maintaining humanity and avoiding violent collisions. This ability allows you to learn to overcome difficult situations and your own fears through effective interactions and the search for common interests - this usually leads to the exchange of experience and the emergence of something completely new, impossible without combining different ideas from different people. This is an endless transfer of experience and knowledge, the ability to draw information and a new look at the world. In addition to the informative pleasures, tolerance contributes to their own peace of mind and development, because you can be nervous because of the differences for an infinitely long time, get a breakdown and go to a psychiatric hospital, which also does not save from internal beliefs that interfere with living in society. Without experiencing irritation or hatred of any people, we get more places to turn for help, imbued with different views on the same situation, and this is what helps to find new and right solutions.

Tolerance cons also exist, because, like any idea, it has its own blind spots and weak points. Often, taking advantage of the ideas of developing tolerance, hiding behind good ideas and intentions, people manipulate others. It is fair at the country level and the introduction into the consciousness of some idea, and at the level of personal interaction and pumping out obliging behavior from others. After all, in order not to seem intolerable and low, we strive to take care, and some use it. It involves a subtle sense of the edge, when you really treat a person with respect, and when you give in to manipulation, it is not easy. In addition, some manifestations of tolerance look like indifference. Of course, it is worthwhile to let the person decide his own fate and make elections, but if the mother just sits and watches her child drug in Vienna, this is not tolerance, but stupidity.

Probably, the main disadvantages of tolerance are that a good idea was distorted by bad senses, that which should come from the heart began to be demanded and gnawed, besides the widespread slogans from which one would like to ask only "Why can't one do good things quieter?". A lot of manipulations and cover-up by this concept of far from ethical things have developed an attitude towards it as a manipulation in order to abandon one's own interests. But it is worth remembering that this is a mutual, bilateral, sincere and ongoing process.