Psychology and Psychiatry

Eating behavior

Nutritional behavior is a topic that has become popular today for a large circle of people. Now not only obese patients are interested in weight loss, even the maintenance of a good form becomes the norm. Will it help to lose weight to eat less and move more? It is impossible to change externally without changing internally. Yes, diet, workout give effect, but not supported by internal changes, it is short-lived. Almost always, a diet at the end leads to losing weight to regain weight gain.

What are the basic weight control techniques used by the average person? Diets, sports, special supplements, cosmetics, medicines, sometimes even surgery. There are examples when a person who has acquired an eating disorder, even decides on a stomach reduction operation, removes the part of it that ghrelin produces that controls hunger. However, over time, he begins to gain weight again, because his lifestyle has not changed. Surgical method is statistically the fastest, but short-term way to change weight. The long-term way is psychotherapy, which eliminates the very reasons that lead a person to an indispensable weight gain.

Types of eating behavior

The psychology of eating behavior has individual characteristics for each person, diets, various nutritional systems and even a healthy lifestyle should be chosen according to their type. Only a small part of people are suitable for restrictive feeding systems, and these people can tolerate such restrictions with sufficient comfort, without being stressed and stressed.

Most people, in the case of nutritional restrictions or rigid frameworks in terms of training and physical exertion, begin to experience stress, which accumulates and leads to the only way that this stress can be easily relieved - food. Most often it is a sweet or fatty food, from which the hormones of pleasure and relaxation are quickly produced, but this is a temporary phenomenon, for which should be shame, the blame for overeating and the use of harmful products. These shame and guilt cause stress, which again leads to overeating.

Consider the most common types of disorders, which studies the psychology of eating behavior. The first type is dietary. A person tries to regulate his food from rigid positions, divides food into right and wrong, healthy and unhealthy, tries to eat good, right, healthy food, not eat bad, unhealthy, forbidden. If the desire for control is too great - tension is created, the person constantly experiences it, evaluating the food, trying to restrain himself from eating the food that he considers harmful. This tension accumulates and eventually breaks through the fact that he breaks down from his diet, then experiences a feeling of guilt with the desire to punish himself with the help of another more rigid diet.

The next type is emotional. Here, food acts not as a means of controlling life, but as a friend, comforter, psychotherapist. When a person experiences anxiety, anxiety, anxiety, depression, apathy or boredom - food acts as a way to calm down, relieve stress, have fun or support yourself. Any diet and restrictions in people of this type cause tremendous stress, which again can be removed only with the help of food - the simplest and most affordable option. It is much easier to eat a cake than to master the methods of regulating emotions. Very often, such people strive to be good, it is important for them to earn the praise and recognition of those around them, in this striving they destroy the connection with their inner center, body, emotions. This happens when, from childhood, we are told that it is necessary to eat, for example, soup, it is useful, to eat another spoonful for dad, to eat everything lying on a plate, because mom tried and cooked. So we give responsibility for our food to other people - first to parents, then, for example, to employees of the canteen, then to a nutritionist. The only way to help here is to master the methods of conscious nutrition, to build connections with emotions and the body.

Externalities type of violations is expressed in the fact that a person does not seize emotions, does not try to control his eating behavior, but eats for the company. For example, a husband comes home from work, while his wife, despite the fact that she is not physically hungry, still sits down with him for a company to drink tea and eat cookies. Such a person often eats simply because the food is on the table, appetizing looks and smells. There is no physical feeling of hunger, the body did not ask to eat - however, we eat, tempted by the taste and smell of food. The person overeats, cannot stop, because the food is tasty and brings pleasant sensations in the mouth, although the stomach is already full. For our nature, this is natural, because our brain, especially its reptilian part, is not accustomed to food abundance, a person begins to fill up in order to postpone fat reserves and hold on for the next hungry period.

Causes of eating disorders

According to the WHO, at the UN, there are three groups of causes causing eating disorders. The first group of causes is biological or physiological. These are the reasons that are somehow connected with the body, for example, hypodynamia as a low motor activity that occurred suddenly. It happens so, if a person, for example, has replaced mobile work with a sedentary one. This also applies to the situation when a person eats foods that contain an exceptionally high amount of carbohydrates, which cause both rapid saturation and quickly followed by hunger. This group includes age changes, weight gain after giving birth.

The next group of reasons is social. Eating disorders here come under the influence of family, friends, and the environment. Advertising and promotions, easy availability of food, taste-enhancing and appetite supplements, traditions of abundant feasts - all this affects the change in attitudes towards food. Food can be for the company, to act as a means of communication.

Psychological reasons relate to the use of food for non-food purposes, when a person eats in a bad mood to raise it, solves the problems of boredom, loneliness, stress or anxiety. Psychological reasons include tying up food with a sense of security or anxiety. In early childhood, the process of breastfeeding gives the child a sense of protection, gives rise to confidence in the world. If a child leaves the breast early, or, on the contrary, he is being fed excessively - a bunch of security and food is formed. No food - anxiety arises, which can only be satisfied with food.

Eating Correction

Eating disorders require referral to specialists. The psychotherapist will correct the relationship with food, and the nutritionist will make the right nutrition plan. In mild cases, the problem of overeating can even be solved on its own, if it adheres to simple rules for creating correct eating habits.

Before eating, drink a glass of water, which will start digestion, prepare the body for meals and improve metabolism. In addition, water helps digestion, because it is a solvent.

Often people eat quickly, eating more than they should. Try to cook food in portions, for each reception separately. So you can calculate the desired amount of food without going beyond the limit. If you are cooking a lot, for example, once a week or for the whole family - put a little on your own so that this is not enough for the eyes. After eating this portion, sit for a while, saturation begins. When you take a supplement, you will no longer be guided by primary hunger, but rather you can calculate how much you need for fullness.

Observe the mode - you need to eat at the same time. So digestion will work more efficiently, and hunger and satiety drops will be less intense. It is worth paying attention also to the sleep mode. If a person wakes up at the same time, it is easier for him to have breakfast at the same time.

You should not starve, because the lack of food substances leads to the rapid emergence of hunger, a person begins to eat a lot and often. It is best to eat fractional, but if the conditions do not allow - try to have dinner not too late.

How to avoid night breakdowns and overeating? After dinner, wash the dishes, clean everything and tidy up the kitchen. It disciplines and even simply includes thrift on the work done. Brush your teeth after the last meal.

As for serious psychological aspects, the task is to feel when you are really hungry and when you are full. After eating, take time for yourself, listen to the signals of the body, if you are full - tell yourself about it. Hunger must be distinguished from boredom. Often people are alone in their apartments and lack of communication is replaced by snacks. The feeling of imaginary hunger should then be perceived as a signal that you should fight boredom, think up hobbies for yourself, or just take a walk.

Nutritionists advise that food intake should occur in a pleasant company under unhurried conversation, food should be slow, it is necessary to receive pleasure from food. Different rituals are very important, try to set the table with beautiful napkins, flowers, transfer food from factory packages to beautiful dishes. It is important to take food consciously, to receive pleasure not only from food, but from the process in a favorable environment and company. Do not eat in front of a TV or computer, you will not feel what is happening with the body, you will not get pleasure from food, you will overeat to a state of fullness of food, and not just saturation.

Eating Disorder Treatment

Anorexia is a disorder that most often develops in adolescence and is characterized by voluntary conscious refusal to eat or severe restriction in her admission, the patient aims to lose weight. Nervous bulimia is a disorder in which a person eats food in a large amount in a short time, then worries that this will result in an indispensable weight gain, and tries to free himself from what he has eaten. There is also an overeating disorder, which is already different from bulimia by the lack of cleansing.

Anorexia nervosa as a disease known since the late 19th century. It was first described by psychiatrists Gall and Lasegue. Already then, they noted the possibility of an excessively increased appetite of slimming patients, who sharply restrict themselves in eating, the possibility of emotive overeating and the following attempts at vomiting in order not to gain weight. Dr. Kissel in 1911 described the vomiting behavior of his patient, a teenage girl. And since the 1950s, the number of patients in whom the habit of overeating with vomiting as a purifying behavior has strengthened has increased dramatically. In the 70s, this condition was defined as the name bulimia nervosa, since then it already exists as an independent disease.

Hints of bulimic behavior are found since the times of ancient Rome, in which even vomitories existed - special rooms where patricians, having enjoyed plenty of food, could quickly get rid of vomit eaten by, and then continue to eat again without fear of getting better. This habit was considered aristocratic, because it contributed to the growth of well-being, food diversity, the ability to spend a lot of time on the process of eating.

Modern society is another common cause of bulimia depression. Patients with bulimia nervosa have such unstable features as increased painful emotionality, a tendency to become depressed, and mood swings. They are people of mood, depending on their mood on their way of life.

The proportion of disturbances in the emotional sphere in patients with bulimia is statistically much higher than in patients with anorexia. Those suffering from anorexia experience prolonged depression, however, its severity and severity in patients with bulimia is much higher.

Influence and features of modern education. If a child did not receive caress, love, bodily communication in childhood, he learns to satisfy his unconscious feeling of insecurity with food, which gives some kind of relaxation, bliss. Patients themselves often realize that food calms them down, they need to be fed for anxiety, hypersensitivity and insecurity to pass. A sense of stability and calmness comes, but the fear of gaining weight causes you to get rid of what you eat.

There is an active discussion about whether bulimia nervosa and anorexia can be considered different diseases, or whether they are stages of the same disease. Often nervous bulimia anticipates a period of restriction or refusal to eat. Unlike, however, patients with anorexia, patients with bulimia do not usually reach the state of severe exhaustion, their menstrual function is not interrupted.

In some cases, there is no thought at all about an ugly full body figure or the need to follow a diet in patients. Overeating appears against the background of a depression, a stressful situation, weight gain follows, after which fears of further growth appear, girls start looking for ways to lose weight. In these rare cases, it can be considered that anorexia is not preceded by bulimia.

The age of anorexia is traditionally considered adolescent or youthful. Nervous bulimia occurs a little later, usually at the age of 20 years. Some women, also middle-aged, after childbirth, when a regular physiological weight gain occurs, begin to worry, think that they have become unattractive to their partners, and begin to restrict themselves strictly in food. However, when they get to the doctors with the disease, it turns out that such experiences were present before, just did not get to the point of the disease. Pregnancy and childbirth, changes in life and status roles, stress, often associated with a changed sex life, such women can cause low mood and increased anxiety, painful increase in appetite, which can lead to eating disorders with the transition to the disease. Stress factors play a frequent role as a trigger for the development of depression and eating disorders, which are usually closely related.

About 50-60 years, there are also eating disorders, which cannot be called unequivocally anorexia or bulimia, because patients limit themselves to food because of fear of taking it or feeling nauseous, there is vomiting that does not intersect with fear of recovering, on the contrary, women often always wanted to achieve growth in weight, but their perennial problems did not allow. Outwardly, such women, moreover, as patients are really similar to girls who have a diagnosis of anorexia. The same excessive thinness, exhaustion, a pronounced violation of the digestive functions of organs, malfunctions of the endocrine system. Before menopause, these women usually do not have menstrual dysfunction, which is typical of other patients with eating disorders.

Experts with a psychoanalytic orientation say that these eating disorders are a subconscious avoidance of growing up, overlap with fears of taking the female role, communication with men, the Electra complex. It is noteworthy that some of the patients with anorexia to the specialist inquiries about their motives directly answer that they understand their immaturity, however, they consider their thinness and illness to be comfortable, because they feel protected because they have to look after them, feed them, as if in childhood. Or that, after the parents divorce, the disease makes the parents unite in the fight against the disease, a secondary motive appears not to recover, which will further unite relatives. Another interesting motive of anorexia nervosa is that patients who initially consider themselves not interesting enough as partners or girlfriends see their strength in the illness as an opportunity to lose weight, endure hunger, for which they respect themselves, unlike other women. Of course, there are no motivations for treatment, a visit for help to a specialist in a similar situation.

The treatment of these common and other rarer nutritional disorders can be carried out both by individual and complex methods. Effective is the complex therapy, which includes the diagnosis of the type of nature of the patient and his psychological characteristics, type, severity of the eating disorder, and further study of the factors that led him to the disorder. Based on the results of this diagnosis, a specialist draws up an individual treatment plan.

This is followed by the stage of psychological correction, when the patient is first informed about the characteristics of existing eating behavior, his violations, and then use special techniques of exposure, among which are usually cognitive-behavioral therapy, NLP, psychosynthesis, and transactional analysis. Под влиянием индивидуальных задач выбирается одна или же несколько техник, а также может применяться эклектический подход.

В результате пациент лучше осознает свою повышенную пищевую мотивацию, ее причины, становится менее зависимым от внешних социальных и иных воздействий, способствующих развитию его пищевого расстройства, лучше осознает и отслеживает их. A person recognizes the presence of secondary benefits of his destructive behavior and forms a new system of rewards. The level of stress, which usually does not allow breaking out of addiction, decreases, closes the process of overeating and restrictions.

A patient with a specialist thinks over and forms new eating habits in their relationship with emotions and behavior; a diet is created in a balanced framework of caloric content. A person learns to more accurately distinguish between signals of hunger, normal appetite and satiety, is aware of psychosomatic symptoms and receives a program of physical activity in addition to the diet program.