Psychosynthesis is one of the branches of transpersonal psychology, representing the integration of several approaches and has found application not only in psychotherapy, but also in learning systems that use an integral approach, which is also used as an effective method of self-study and development of one’s own personality. The basis of this concept is the theory of psychosynthesis Assagioli, not being a new result of research or invention, however, it is an association of several different schools of psychology. Taking the most consistent with their own ideas and effective methods of psychoanalysis, Jungianism and other areas, and connecting them, a new system was obtained, allowing a person to independently analyze his personality, his needs and make adjustments and restructuring.
The principles of psychosynthesis include the initial knowledge of oneself at a deep level, the assignment of control over the components of one’s own personality, the further creation of a new higher unifying center for all personal structures and the restructuring of the overall picture or individual parts in accordance with the new center. The high efficiency of the approach is observed in the treatment of psychosomatics and similar disorders, the basis of which is the internal conflict of subpersonalities, since the main goal of psychosynthesis is aimed at understanding the internal processes that take place and establishing more harmonious relations between the internal parts of a person. Such work with parts called subpersonalities begins with an acquaintance with each of them, accepting it as it is at this stage, followed by transformation, finding a new appropriate place, integration into a single structure and synthesis of a new one.
The theory of psychosynthesis Assaggioli includes intertwining tasks, starting from comprehending its true essence (higher, central), searching for harmony through this knowledge and subsequent building of harmonious relationships and adequate interaction with the outside world and surrounding people. This happens by exploring and discovering your own unconscious experience and qualities hidden there, releasing repressed vocations and desires. Subsequently, painstaking work begins on assigning the released suppressed energy, the ability to control it, by identifying oneself with some quality or phenomenon or dis-identification. With the discovery of all the qualities of one’s own personality, an inevitable displacement of the center takes place, the landmarks are rebuilt and there is a need for a harmonious connection of all the constituent parts (known and re-opened, both assessed positively and terrifying).
Such transformations affect both the inner world and its external manifestations. It is impossible to discover your true talent and realize the highest purpose in its realization not to begin to move along this path in the outer life. Such aspirations and searches are not an end in themselves, but serve as an indicator of the presence of qualitative contact between various personal parts and reality, showing the integrity and continuity of the manifestation of a person. In the event of inconsistency in establishing contact with other people, an internal sensation or inadequacy of the activity produced can be said about loss of contact with one or several subpersonalities, ineffective life strategy.
The main thrust of psychosynthesis is the formation of a new one or the reconstruction of a former person on the basis of new opportunities that have opened up and around a new center that has been formed. In order to better understand how the principles of psychosynthesis work, you should pay attention to the personality model in this concept.
Roberto Assagioli singled out the lower unconscious in the personality (vital instincts, strongest and animal energies, vivid emotions - is a source of creative inspiration and pathopsychological states, euphoric states and nightmares), the average unconscious (zone of transformation of unconscious processes into conscious, where there is a peculiar formulation of maturing for the manifestation on the conscious level of processes and feelings), the highest unconscious (instinctive desire for self-improvement, parapsychic processes, unconscious and uncontrolled manifestations of humanity and heroism, the desire for high feelings). The conscious part is the field of consciousness (the part that a person is able to be aware of), the conscious I (seeing oneself from the outside, self-perception), the higher I (the true essence of man, the return to which comes from all other states). A separate place is assigned to the collective unconscious, which represents a peculiar invisible connection of all unconscious parts of different people among themselves, regardless of location or epoch (that is, the connection with the experience of everyone living and all dead ancestors).
The interaction of all these parts is usually uncontrollable in people, and under the influence of the attitudes of the society, injuries, prohibitions imposed, barriers to the free flow of energy and harmonious interaction of all levels and subpersonalities appear.
Psychosynthesis with its techniques allows you to adjust the natural flow of energy and unleash the full potential of psychic energy embedded in a person.
In order to know a personality and determine its constituent components, it is necessary to analyze everything that the consciousness and the unconscious will provide, in order to differentiate between the elements inherent in the personality and those imposed from the outside, to determine the degree of development of existing and missing ones. To do this, use the technique of identification and work with subpersonalities.
Discrimination is aimed at separating the true essence of a person from elements that have no relation to it. This includes assessments of society, which a person begins to perceive as an internal reality (when the teacher calls the student stupid, the self-image forms itself foolish and the ability to aspire and the manifestation of intellectual potential is lost) or a long stay in a certain role causes perceptions to merge with it merging with the disease, they call themselves diabetics, or, plunging into motherhood, appear as Misha’s mother). In such situations, work is under way on the understanding that the assigned elements can only be an integral part of the personality, but cannot be its main characteristic. Separated from such a perception of oneself through a role, psychologically a person has the choice to leave such a construct if he benefits or removes it from his reality not only on a mental level. Identifying one's personality with limited manifestations leads to a rapid loss of stability, therefore, it is necessary to search for long-playing characteristics or develop the ability to switch between several.
Working with subpersonalities involves a similar interaction, but not with a single element or characteristic, but with a whole set of qualities that form in a rather independent image. Examples of such images can serve as social roles, involving many nuances and differences, but combined in one person (the loving father of the family will show a combination of qualities that are definitely different from the head of the department). And it is precisely the interaction of these subpersonalities with each other that has a direct impact on the human condition (the one who, the subpersonality of his wife and mistress, get along well with each other, does not feel any problems, with whom they conflict, runs the risk of being in the clinic with neurosis). It is work with conflicting subpersonalities that is of primary value, but in some cases (when subpersonality is undesirable or destructive) it is removed, like a disassociation with quality. Moreover, the assessment of the importance of one or another subpersonality must be made by the true Self of a person, and not by the opinion of a psychotherapist or the rules and norms provided by society. The task of the therapist, disengagement and dialogue between subpersonalities is to hear the aspirations of the true self and to harmonize the work of the surrounding parts (making contact, moving, distancing or deleting).
An important technique in psychosynthesis is the maintenance of a notebook for the analysis of one's own states and actions, since the records help to track the features of each subpersonality, as well as the time and reasons for its release and activation. Often, emotional reactions, like behavioral details, are forgotten, considered random, and keeping records allows you to put it all into a single image.
Psychosynthesis requires constantly analyzing one’s personality, changing tendencies and trends of its development, since it is impossible to edit the state and work once and for all. Developing and changing needs. Correlating their current state with the level of development of skills, each time it is necessary to develop or adjust the path of further development.