Psychology and Psychiatry

Drug addiction

Drug addiction is an affliction accompanied by a pathological load of psychoactive substances. This "virus" strikes indiscriminately, its victims are successful businessmen and unsold youths, hardy athletes and frail young ladies, children of policemen and street children, penthouse residents and slum dwellers. The mechanism of drug addiction distribution is the same - after a single dose of dose, euphoria comes, a person is overtaken by a wave of pleasure, crazy joy. Upon completion of the action of the drug and in the absence of the next dose, comes "breaking", manifested by various symptoms. Drug addiction is a social malady, therefore, it must be eliminated by joint efforts.

Signs of drug addiction

The described type of dependence is cunning and many-sided, since there are many types of narcotic substances and each individually influences the human body.

External manifestations, changes in the psyche and behavioral patterns can be significantly rife among lovers of cocaine and substance abusers. However, you can select a number of common signs of drug dependence, confirming the use of drugs that give euphoria. And, above all, it is necessary to highlight the manifestations that occur in appearance:

- the epidermis either reddens or pales, shines, peels off;

- eyes also redden, they have an unhealthy shine;

- the pupils are stably dilated or narrowed down to invisibility;

- Often there is a strong irritation around the mouth or in the corners;

- itching;

- Mimics change: the face becomes too vivid or becomes stable;

- hand tremor;

- lacrimation, which is accompanied by a runny nose;

- tongue is coated with bloom, longitudinal cracks may appear.

In addition, the appearance of a subject suffering from the type of addiction in question becomes sloppy. Such individuals wear crumpled, dirty clothes. Preference is given to darker shades. Hair is usually unwashed, uncleaned nails. Drug-addicted people even wear glasses with tinted glasses on an overcast day.

You can also identify and secondary signs of drug addiction, appearing much later, when the subject has already consumed narcotic drugs for a long period, namely:

- the crumbling of teeth, as well as their loss;

- premature wrinkles;

- brittle nails;

- skin ulcers.

When ulcers appear on the dermis, this indicates the transition of the drug addiction to the final stage. The body at this stage is very weak, gradually failing its systems and organs, which often leads to death.

For addicts, behavioral reactions change significantly with frequent drug use. The severity of manifestations is due to the type of drug, frequency of consumption, daily dose and by way of administration. In addicts, as a rule, talkativeness and good nature, are suddenly replaced by aggressiveness without cause. In addition, the signs of enslavement with pernicious passion are often expressed by euphoria and motor retardation.

Types of drug addiction

Conditionally considered type of dependence can be divided into psychological dependence and physical dependence.

Psychological subordination to drugs is the painful desire of the individual to periodically either permanently eliminate mental discomfort by means of euphoria or experience sweet sensations. This drug addiction occurs as a result of repeated intake of psychoactive drugs, but it can also give rise to a single intake of psychoactive substances.

Pathological dependence on the need to constantly take drugs is formed due to the destructive desire of the individual to transform his own state through drugs. Such traction is compulsive or mental.

Compulsive is an overwhelming desire to get a portion of the desired drug, which completely covers the addict and controls his behavior, directs desires in order to get the drug.

Psychic inclination is found in persistent thoughts about the desired substance, depressed mood, vivacity and high spirits in anticipation of receiving the dose and dissatisfaction in the absence of it.

Physical subordination to drugs is a state of restructuring of the body due to prolonged consumption of psychoactive substances. It is manifested by severe mental dysfunctions and somatic disorders in the absence of a dose or neutralization of the drug through specific antagonists (withdrawal syndrome, withdrawal syndrome). Relief of symptoms or its relief occurs after the resumption of intake of the drug into the body. The clinical picture of withdrawal syndrome is due to the specifics of the drug used. Certain types of narcotic drugs can cause physical dependence, namely cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, design drugs (fentanyl) or several substances together (polydrug abuse).

In addition, there is tolerance to narcotic or other psychoactive drugs. It is expressed in the weakening of the body's response to a portion of the drug, so an increasing amount of the drug is required to achieve the desired effect.

Amphetamine use is dangerously persistent addiction. At the same time, after each dose, the state of health becomes worse, delirium appears;

Cannabinoid slavery takes a long time to form. This is where the danger of this addiction is hidden. At first, a person thinks that he achieves pacification, relaxation, but later the drug turns into the only meaning of existence.

All types of harmful addiction to drugs are similar - the individual in order to escape from unsatisfying reality or solve problems begins to use narcotic substances, but the result is a destructive addiction.

Cocaine is a common drug. It shows a stimulating effect on the nervous system, giving rise to euphoria, and also has an analgesic effect.

After receiving the dose, the bonded person feels a short flow of energy. But after a few hours there is a sharp decline in strength, mood deteriorates. In order to get an initial feeling of euphoria, an individual constantly needs to increasingly take a dose of cocaine. Therefore, this drug is also called the "quick killer."

Immediately after the introduction of the narcotic substance, the capillaries sharply narrow, the pulse quickens, a rise in pressure is noted. Therefore, drug addicts often have hypertensive crises, as well as myocardial seizures, leading to death.

Cocaine slavery causes unreasonable fear, which is complicated by hallucinations, delirium develops. An individual may feel like insects are crawling under the dermis. Prolonged use of the drug leads to exhaustion and loss of sleep.

I often use cocaine slaves and other substances, such as heroin, sleeping pills, tranquilizers. This causes the development of the so-called polydrug addiction.

Amphetamines are synthesized narcotic substances and are similar to ephedrine. They are attributed to the means of stimulating the psyche, the effects are similar to cocaine.

Amphetamine addict initially feels elated, feels cheerful, but after an increase in dosage there are hallucinations, delusions. Cessation of amphetamine use causes insomnia, apathy and depressive mood.

Even a brief intake of these drugs often causes severe complications: psychosis, a disorder of brain functions, nervous exhaustion, damage to the myocardium and capillaries, an increase or decrease in pressure.

The consequences of drug dependence on the long-term use of amphetamines are the development of the following irreversible effects: dementia, paralysis of the limbs. Most cases end in death.

Polydrug abuse occurs when there are simultaneous subordination of several types of drugs. Often, to enhance the action of drugs patients consume alcohol-containing liquids. Often there are cases when an addict, after stopping the use of intoxicating agents, begins to consume alcohol-containing liquids. This is also a manifestation of polydrug abuse. The described type of dependence affects the dysfunction of the supporting mechanism of the brain, resulting in the inability to tolerate the state of sobriety. Such patients lose their sleep, appetite, they are constantly in a bad mood. This leads to a rupture of social ties, loss of interaction with relatives, loss of work.

The most popular type of addiction is the abuse of cannabis, which contains cannabinoids, which have a psychoactive effect. It is characterized by unpleasant feelings during the first "acquaintance" - dryness in the mouth, nausea, difficulty breathing, trembling, dizziness. However, most still re-try the substance. When the dose is increased, the following manifestations are detected: diffuse attention, talkativeness, inadequate laughter, increased appetite, hypersexuality, increased pulse, drowsiness, aggressiveness.

A large portion of cannabis causes poisoning, manifested by delusions, confusion, hallucinations. Similar symptoms are observed in schizophrenia.

Stages of drug addiction

Due to the lack of awareness of drug addiction, most people are firmly convinced that the gap between the first breakdown of this "forbidden fruit" and the formation of stable dependence is quite large. They believe that they will have time, recognize that they are enslaved by drugs, and will also be able to stop. This is the main trick of any drug substance. Already the first method generates a dependency. Since narcotic drugs can give euphoria, the illusion of unusual sensations. Therefore, the individual seeks to extend the pleasure or feel it again at least once. Since the enjoyment takes a rather short period of time, the individual wants to feel the “thrill” more and more. Sustained psychological cravings occur in a month.

There is no exact scheme for the formation of the described addiction. However, based on systematic facts, there are three stages.

The first stage is the stage of psychological dependence on the drug. It is characterized by an irresistible burden to take a drug. This is the so-called "pink" period of dependence. Lasts up to six months. The feeling of euphoria is declining with each batch of substance. Therefore, in order to achieve the desired effect a person has to increase the dose. At this stage, due to the consumption of psychoactive drugs, the addict's consciousness dulled, as a result of which he denies the presence of harmful cravings.

The withdrawal syndrome here is mild. However, in the absence of a dose, the individual feels dissatisfaction, uncomfortableness, his performance decreases, he becomes irritable, nervous, replaced by apathy and depressive mood. As a result, all thoughts of the dependent subject are directed only at obtaining the desired substance. Further drug use causes the formation of the next stage of drug addiction.

The development of sustained physical drug abuse marks the beginning of the second stage of the disease.

With regular consumption of psychoactive substances, the human body adapts to the state of drug hopping. At the termination of receipt of the stupefying substance the abstinence syndrome comes. It manifests itself by an increase in the secretory function of the mucous membranes, sneezing, tearing, runny nose, chills can be replaced by a sensation of heat. There are muscle algii, periodic convulsions of the muscles of the legs. Often there is vomiting, intestinal function disorder, gastrointestinal pain. Appetite is sharply declining. The addict is made restless, angry and irritable. There are mood swings, from overly agitated to apathetic. If the patient for some period abstains from the use of intoxicating substances, then his condition will return to normal. At the same time, abstinence manifestations often occur for several months. In the absence of timely therapeutic intervention, the ailment will progress, leading to an increase in the dosage of the drug.

At the same time, taking psychoactive substances even in large portions is no longer able to generate acute euphoria that the addict feels at the initial stage of the illness. At this stage, the drug can only eliminate the effects of abstinence. The specificity of this stage is the lack of understanding of the seriousness of the disease. The addict does not associate his own problems with taking drugs. Most often, during this period, patients do not consider drug addiction to be a disease.

The next stage is the stage of extinction of the body and the occurrence of heavy associated ailments. The consequences of the third stage of drug addiction are irreversible changes. At this stage, the symptoms of intoxication are increasing, there are serious transformations of the patient's psyche. At this stage, patients are apathetic, weakened. Blood pressure is usually low, pulse is slowed down, coordination of movements is impaired. Taking a narcotic drug euphoria no longer generates, but serves only to get rid of abstinence phenomena. Due to the desire to feel the old "high" addict increases the dosage, which often ends in death due to an overdose.

Addiction treatment

Today’s society is deeply concerned about the problem of drug addiction. As a result, many experts in various fields of activity are trying to find the cherished tool that can permanently save from this terrible misfortune.

How to get rid of drug addiction is most interested in relatives who are faced with this disaster. Since the addict is able to "destroy" his own family psychologically and often even physically. Therefore, often relatives of an addict are ready to sacrifice everything in order to save a loved one.

Ways to cure the disease under consideration are quite diverse. In this case, they all mean: the elimination of "breaking", pharmacopoeial medicine and rehabilitation methods.

Elimination of abstinence phenomena should be carried out in the hospital, where the patient is prescribed pharmacopoeial agents, the action of which is aimed at eliminating the discomfort and painful symptoms caused by a complete refusal to take psychoactive substances. Also used the method of detoxification of the body, aimed at cleansing with drugs from drugs and the elimination of toxins. Extracorporeal detoxification can be performed (plasmapheresis, hemosorption). It is aimed at modifying the composition of the patient’s blood and its purification.

In addition, the patient is prescribed strong sedatives, antidepressants, as well as painkillers, in order to normalize his condition and calm him down during the period of drug withdrawal.

Below are a few additional methods of how to get rid of drug addiction. First of all, they use reflexotherapy, which helps to alleviate the condition, however, it is impossible to eliminate the psychological inclination. Encoding, which can be hypnotic and medical, is also considered popular.

Since it is impossible to get rid of drug addiction with the help of some pharmacopoeial drugs alone, it is necessary to carry it out together with psychological therapy, namely the personality-oriented psychocorrectional effect. This technique involves the transformation of the identity of a forced man. He is given anti-drug installation. Here, a variety of methods of verbal influence on the psyche of the addict are used, while hypnotechnics are not used.

This psychotherapeutic technique must be applied for a long time. During the period of remedial work relapses are not uncommon. After the stage of psychological impact, a phase of socialization begins, so that the patient can adapt to his usual existence in society.

Drug addiction rehabilitation

Prolonged use of psychoactive drugs causes changes in the brain. Addict degrades. The dependent individual loses interest in what is happening. For him, the only value is the drug. By consuming a variety of intoxicating substances, the human subject loses the ability to exist in the real world, to be responsible, to make decisions.Therefore, he needs rehabilitation, which contributes to liberation from addiction, re-adapts to being, helps to restore broken social contacts.

The goal of rehabilitation is to form a renewed, socially adapted and mentally healthy person. It is recommended to conduct it in specialized dispensaries, drug treatment, orthodox centers, and monasteries. Social workers, narcologists, psychotherapists, as well as volunteers from among the people who got rid of the addiction in question, who themselves had gone this way, work there with individuals seeking to get rid of slavery.

The basic principles for the rehabilitation of addicts include: the motivation of the addict to get rid of the subordination to drugs, isolation from the destructive social environment, the creation of a favorable environment, complex therapy, an individual approach.

The rehabilitation of drug addicts during the restorative correctional impact can use individual therapy, as well as group therapy. Group work is focused on the knowledge of one’s own personality, the formation of trust in other subjects, and the refinement of communication skills. Patients simulate all sorts of situations that cause them a negative reaction, and try to overcome them. This action takes place under the supervision of an experienced psychotherapist. Individual work is aimed at comprehending deep personal problems and finding effective solutions. In addition, patients learn to confront stressors without resorting to psychoactive drugs.

Drug Prevention

Measures focused on preventing the spread of drug addiction are simultaneously engaged in several social structures. Their activity is subordinated to a single goal - to form a legal and information base that allows spreading the information about the seriousness of the harm caused by using drugs as much as possible and avoiding drug addiction of society or alleviating the phenomena caused by the use of psychoactive drugs.

Since drug addiction cannot be considered just a bad habit, then prevention should, first of all, begin with school institutions, health authorities, and the family. And the legislature should regulate ways of dealing with the promotion of drugs on the streets.

Power structures ensure the implementation of specific measures to prevent the development of the drug mafia.

There are several groups that are the first to be exposed to the slavery of drugs. First of all, they are adolescents, as they are fairly easily influenced by the environment. Their fragile psyche easily obeys exposure from the outside, and the lack of a clearly defined own position makes adolescents quite sensitive to such influences. Persons who have previously tried intoxicating drugs are also easily tempted to try again the substance that gives euphoria.

In addition, preventive work must be carried out with the social environment of the dependent subject. The most effective preventive method is the use of anti-agitation measures and measures aimed at preventing the spread of drugs.

Prevention of drug addiction should, first of all, include informing individuals in the risk zone and in contact with such people about the harmful effects of absolutely all types of drugs on physical condition, morale and psychological health, as well as promoting a healthy way of living.