Psychology and Psychiatry

Alcohol addiction

Alcohol dependence is a disease of the chronic course, the essence of which lies in the pathological aggression to alcohol-containing fluids. In other words, transformations taking place in metabolism due to excessive consumption of hot liquids are irreversible. This condition is progressing. In other words, in order to achieve a comfortable feeling of intoxication, a large portion of alcohol is necessary for drinking. Considered pernicious aggravation accompanied by hangover syndrome and an increase in the number of doses of alcohol to get a sense of satisfaction. When alcohol addiction occurs, poisoning of the body occurs, which provokes memory loss and other disorders.

Signs of alcohol addiction

The disease under consideration affects a person slowly and inconspicuously for the environment and the drinker himself. Gradually, the drunkard loses control over his own being and falls into alcoholic bondage, which causes personal degradation. All the desires of the patient are aimed at quenching the thirst of alcohol. That is why effective relief from alcohol dependence due to the time of the start of therapeutic measures. Early debut treatment increases the chances of achieving a sustained positive effect.

Signs of alcohol dependence are not straightforward, since they can be found in pronounced symptoms and have hidden manifestations. This is due to the stage of the disease, as well as the individual characteristics of the drinker.

To the initial signs of the ailment in question can be attributed nightly consumption of a glass of beer for an interesting program. Regular intake of alcohol-containing liquids, even in small portions, causes addiction. Early alcoholism manifests itself as an addiction to strong drinks, which is characterized by such features:

- there is always a reason for drinking;

- lively and cheerful attitude in anticipation of drinking alcohol (such individuals often try to solve all the accumulated cases, in order to free up time for taking alcohol);

- in the absence of alcohol, the individual is constrained, cannot relax, whereas after taking the intoxicating potion, he becomes instantly joyful and sociable;

- a visible curvature of life principles and moral guidelines gradually occurs, thinking, family problems change, children, parents become secondary;

- often individuals who are at the initial stage of alcohol dependence, always look for some justification for their own servitude, they invariably find a thousand arguments about the positive effect of alcohol;

- individuals who are at an early stage of the described dependence are characterized by a lack of self-criticism, they completely deny the uncontrollable craving for drinking;

- most often alcohol-addicted ones do not recognize the above symptoms.

In addition, the initial manifestations of alcoholism include the lack of control over the amount of alcohol poured into itself. This symptom usually appears at the initial level of the disease and is saved during the entire period of the formation of dependence. Alcoholics on their own to stop consuming alcohol-containing liquids are not able to. They drink up to loss of consciousness or deep sleep. Also, the beginning of the development of this dependence is evidenced by the regular consumption of alcohol.

Over time, the body of the drinker becomes tolerant of alcohol-containing beverages, so the dose consumed steadily increases. The formation of persistent habituation is evidenced by the absence of a gag reflex from ethanol, since it is vomiting that is the body's protective response in response to the ingestion of poisonous substances.

The external signs of the described dependence, which occur over time, include changes in the voice, there is hoarseness, muffled sound. The skin is puffy and loose. There is a trembling of hands. Fingers have drunk with experience shortened and crooked. Often the slaves of alcohol are unable to fully unclench a fist. Since hepatic impairment occurs due to repeated abuse of alcohol-containing liquids, the epidermis, sclera and nail plates become jaundiced. In addition, the characteristic signs of this type of dependence are considered spider veins, located on the cheeks, nose and neck.

For persons suffering from alcohol addiction, all good and good is limited exclusively to strong drinks. Anything else that prevents them from enjoying their drinks is perceived as a boozer, including their closest relatives, colleagues, and comrades. If some of the above symptoms are found in a close person, then we can suspect the presence of the debut stage of alcoholism.

The initial manifestations of this type of dependence are often not cause for concern, they may not even be detected, since the formation of thrust is developed for quite a long time (sometimes up to 10 years). Therefore, sometimes even the closest ones do not see the evils that have developed.

How to get rid of alcohol addiction

Today developed a lot of pharmacopoeial drugs that effectively contribute to the fight against malignant alcoholic burden.

All medicines aimed at exemption from pathological bondage are conventionally divided into the following groups:

- means producing hostility to alcohol-containing liquids (Torpedo, Disulfiram, Colme);

- substances that stop craving to consume the next batch of hot drink (Metadoxil, Balansin);

- medications that eliminate withdrawal symptoms (Medihronal, Alka-Seltzer, Alka-Prim);

- drugs aimed at the correction of psychological problems generated by the use of alcohol (Promazin, Haloperidol, Diazepam);

- funds that significantly reduce the destructive effect of ethanol on the body (Biotredin, Glycine, Rekitsen RD).

These drugs from alcohol dependence is strictly forbidden to use on their own, since most pharmacopoeial drugs have pronounced adverse symptoms and have a number of contraindications.

Alcohol addiction medication should be prescribed only by an experienced narcologist. Modern medical realities today can not please the individuals who are in alcoholic bondage and their relatives, because there is no single means capable of freeing ethanol from the power once. Therefore, most often practiced an integrated approach in the treatment of the disease in question, consisting of the steps below.

The initial stage involves the elimination of withdrawal symptoms through the use of drugs aimed at detoxifying the body. Then, measures are taken to relieve drinking. These activities should be carried out exclusively in the hospital. Here, all the impact is aimed at eliminating the interest of the individual with intoxicating drinks and the relentless desire to drink. Also at this stage, psychotherapeutic measures proved to be effective, since they are aimed at deepening the motivation of the alcoholic to get rid of ethanol bondage.

Fixative course of therapy is carried out at the third stage. Here, the correction methods are chosen individually, and the means of prolonged action are assigned. The main objective of this phase is to prevent potential failures. The described stage also implies vigilant medical monitoring of healers.

At the last stage, the re-socialization of the former alcoholic is carried out. The most important moment in the return of the individual to normal life, to existence outside of constant libations is the restoration of social connections and functions.

Freed from alcoholic slavery, the individual needs to re-adapt to reality. It is very important to establish an adequate relationship with the society at the last stage of the correctional impact. Here, the closest relatives of the patient should take an active part.

Basically, all the methods used for relieving alcoholic enslavement are based on physical methods of exposure (for example, prescribing a drug for alcohol dependence) or psychological - developing in the mind of an individual an understanding of the situation and persistent aversion from alcohol-containing liquids (for example, hypnotechnics).

Despite the progressive development of medicine, not every alcoholic will be able to deal with such a delicate problem as the abuse of hot liquids in a specialized institution. Therefore, patients often try to find an alternative solution that would rule out medical intervention. The easiest way, according to drinkers, to get rid of alcohol dependence through folk remedies, for example, using decoction of moss leaves. This tool has an effect similar to pharmacopoeial aversive drugs that cause increased sensitivity to ethanol. Half a cup of cooked broth before drinking alcohol will cause prolonged vomiting. Also successfully in home medicine to get rid of the described dependence infusions apply lovage.

Alcohol addiction treatment

An individual who abuses drinking liquids can be cured in two ways: by provoking aversion to ethanol or by completely eliminating cravings for alcohol-containing beverages. All existing methods of exemption from alcoholism, without exception, are based on one of the above objectives.

Getting rid of alcohol dependence is achieved through the following activities: medication, psychotherapeutic techniques, hypnosis, acupuncture, use of folk remedies, ultrasound therapy.

The most effective methods for eliminating alcohol craving are medication coding, as well as the use of the “double block” method, combining psychotherapeutic suggestion and exposure to drugs. Such therapy contributes to the liberation from ethanol slavery for a period of more than 6 years.

Also often used an integrated approach, involving the simultaneous impact of several techniques. For example, they often combine coding with pharmacopoeial preparations or a laser with psychotherapeutic sessions.

Drug therapy is the appointment of pharmacopoeial agents that provoke in an alcoholic the appearance of aversion to ethanol-containing products or indifference to them. In this case, the drink should be treated only after a serious examination and obtaining its consent.

Also, an effective method is the sensitization procedure for alcohol-containing substances. Its essence lies in the development of a persistent aversion of ethanol in the drinker. For this purpose, disulfiram-containing drugs are used, generating alcohol intolerance. After such therapy, the person may become ill even the aroma of alcohol.

Disulfiram-containing agents act on liver enzymes, disrupting the breakdown of ethyl alcohol. As a result, a large concentration of acetaldehyde accumulates in the blood, causing a worsening of well-being: headache, nausea, and blood pressure increase. The described manifestations occur only after consumption of alcohol.

Because any subject uses strong drinks for pleasure, blocking opiate receptors is an effective method of relieving alcoholic bondage. Entering the bloodstream, ethanol is distributed throughout the body, overcoming the blood-brain barrier, it is in the brain. There he combines with opiate receptors, stimulating them. The result is that the drinker experiences euphoria.

If you block these receptors, they will lose sensitivity to ethanol. The action of opiate receptor blockers is aimed at turning off the pleasure of alcohol consumption. Without feeling pleasant sensations from libations, a drinker will not see the point in drinking alcohol. That is why the blockade of opiate receptors contributes to a painless release from this harmful traction.

Psychotherapy of alcohol dependence provides for a targeted effect on the psyche of the individual in order to provoke aversion to ethanol-containing beverages. Today, the use of hypotechnology and psychotherapeutic methods is in the same position with the use of pharmacopoeial agents. However, there is a huge drawback - you can be accidentally in the hands of a charlatan or a poor specialist.

Getting rid of alcohol addiction with the help of hypotechnics is quite effective, but not suitable for all subjects abusing drinking. If an alcoholic lacks the desire to get rid of addiction, if he does not hope for recovery, then most often this method is ineffective. Hypnosis should be used only when the drinker himself sincerely wishes to break free from the power of alcohol.

Hypnosis treatment is the introduction of the individual into a trance state in which the subconscious mind is affected. The doctor inspires disgust to the alcohol, substances, smell and taste. Upon completion of the session, the individual becomes unpleasant at the mere thought of alcoholic beverages.

Alcohol addiction prevention

Preventive measures of this terrible disease must be carried out regardless of social status or belonging to a certain age category. After all, both the rich and the beggar, both the youth and the elder can get into alcohol slavery. The reasons that have pushed on the ethanol path are quite diverse. Some fall into alcoholic bondage due to banal interest and rebelliousness inherent in adolescence, older people - due to commonplace everyday turmoil or more serious problems. Many are looking for a way out of the circumstances at the bottom of the glass.

Prevention of alcohol addiction is quite an important and necessary matter, since it is easier and more correct to prevent dependence than, rather than after some time, deal with painful manifestations and negative consequences. In addition, the treatment of alcohol dependence is not always effective. Some drinkers undergo a course of therapy and even feel relieved, but then again put the alcohol yoke on their own neck.

Preventive measures are primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary events are held in verbal form in the form of a conversation aimed at preventing the occurrence of uncontrolled craving for the use of strong drinks. This could include the demonstration of thematic videos, listening to interviews with people drinking intoxicating beverages. People promoting a healthy existence and leading an unequal battle with this ailment, carry out preventive measures, talks, hand out information leaflets at bus stops, crossings, in the subway and just on the street. Conversations should be carried out in educational institutions, on labor exchanges.

Often, preventive conversations are reduced to the description of the disease, its dangers, consequences, negative symptoms. Abuse of alcohol-containing beverages leads to dysfunction of the digestive tract, disruption of the liver, reduced pancreatic function. As a result, alcoholic hepatitis can develop, as well as pancreatitis, which often leads to diabetes.

Modern realities demonstrate a catastrophic tendency - more and more family relationships are collapsing due to the pernicious passion for alcohol-containing products of one of the couple. Many people mistakenly believe that the daily consumption of cans of beer is the norm. However, regular consumption of this intoxicating drink also generates irreparable consequences, especially in the male body, since it contributes to an increase in the production of female hormones.

Secondary prevention involves activities conducted with subjects undergoing a course of combating ethanol addiction. At this stage, relatives are attracted drunk so that they can support a relative. But besides this, the relatives themselves also need psychological help. After all, the transformation of a loved one occurs before their eyes, when he turns from an once-exemplary family man, a successful subject and a self-realized person into an ordinary drunkard, the meaning of his life being alcohol. At the stage of secondary prevention, the relatives will have the most difficult task - to help the loved one to return to an adequate existence, to become a full member of society again.

Tertiary preventive measures are an individual visiting groups of anonymous alcoholics.

Помимо перечисленных профилактических мероприятий меры по предотвращению алкоголизации населения должны проводиться на государственном уровне. They include the adoption of restrictive measures relating to the sale of alcohol-containing drinks, their use and propaganda at the level of the law, namely: a ban on the purchase of any alcoholic beverages to subjects under the age of 18, a ban on drinking alcohol-containing liquids in public places, fixing the time period for the sale of alcohol-containing products in hypermarkets, shops and other outlets.

Government measures will be more effective if there is public oversight. It should be understood that the abuse of intoxicating drinks gives rise to alcoholic bondage. At the same time, not every portion of the alcoholic drink accepted by a friendly company provokes this ailment. Therefore, in order not to turn into an alcoholic, it is not at all necessary to lead an ascetic existence, it is simply necessary to observe the measure.