Psychology and Psychiatry

Nicotine addiction

Nicotine addiction is a variation of addiction resulting from smoking. Nicotine gives primacy to heroin in terms of its dependence rate, but it leads among other varieties of narcotic substances. Under the uncontrolled nicotine in medicine means a complex of mental disorders, physiological disorders and behavioral disorders generated by tobacco use.

Nicotine addiction is quite common. Most of this is due to the legality of the distribution of cigarettes and their easy accessibility. In addition, it is the most severe variation of drug addiction. The main consequences of prolonged tobacco consumption are diseases affecting the myocardium, blood vessels, respiratory system, and oncology. That is why the topic "how to get rid of nicotine addiction" is so popular, because the nicotine effect on the human body is rather destructive and never disappears without a trace.

Signs of nicotine addiction

The analyzed form of addiction is found in the addiction to nicotine, which is a key component of tobacco products, and in the psychological burden of smoking. Smoking cannot be considered just a bad habit. Tobacco smoking is a disease that can affect anyone, be it a poor teenager or a major, a doctor or an unemployed person, a girl or a man. The difference is only in the cost and variety of tobacco products used by smokers to satisfy their own addiction.

Nicotine generates smoking due to the ability to deliver pleasant physical sensations and mental effects to the smoker. Lack of cigarettes causes a whole range of undesirable and painful sensations, as well as worsening of well-being.

Often, people first get acquainted with the described habit as a young person due to curiosity or to strengthen credibility. In this case, not everyone sits down on this relationship. In order to develop uncontrolled craving, several factors are necessary. In the first turn, the social environment has a huge impact. After all, experienced people say that a bad example is quite infectious. In addition, the formation of nicotine addiction is often caused by a genetic predisposition or the presence of psychological problems, nerve pathologies, depressive moods, schizophrenia.

Since dragging on cigarette smoke on holidays does not always indicate the presence of a destructive weakness for tobacco, it is necessary to know the manifestations indicating the occurrence of nicotine slavery. Below are the key features of this variation of dependence.

The presence of an uncontrolled nicotine addiction indicates, above all:

• the inability to get rid of the described habit and the presence in the "history" of several unsuccessful attempts to get rid of tobacco traction;

• experiencing unpleasant manifestations due to cessation of smoking (weakness, decrease in working ability, attention is reduced, nervousness, digestive upset, depressive moods, indomitable appetite);

• continuation of smoking even in the event of deterioration of health (a person deliberately causes harm to his own health and the smoker cannot stop harming himself);

• reduction of social involvement in order to create conditions that allow for unhindered smoking (for example, an individual tries to avoid establishments in which smoking is prohibited, or restricts communication with subjects who do not tolerate cigarette smell).

Stages of nicotine addiction

Nicotine entry into the human body triggers a huge number of chain reactions at the cellular level and the process of transporting nerve impulses. Such reactions are considered reversible. In other words, in the absence of nicotine exposure, they stop or stabilize. At the physiological level, craving for “nicotine sticks” is considered as a stage of dependence.

Signed addictive premorbidnom condition arising from episodic smoking. At this stage, on average, there are up to 15 smoking episodes per month. In addition, there are also manifestations caused by intoxication after smoking, namely: weakness, mild nausea, dizziness.

The initial stage of nicotine addiction is characterized by the regularity of siphoning a cigarette. Smokers feel vigor, mood enhancement, ability improvement, which is the first bell of the appearance of attraction. Now the individual smokes more often. The symptomatology that took place during the debut acquaintance with nicotine sticks is absent. Daily demand for cigarettes increases. This stage people can pass pretty quickly, but on average, the initial stage is characterized by a duration of one and a half to five years.

The first stage of chronic nicotine addiction is marked by the transition to systematic smoking. It consumes about 10 cigarettes per pack (sometimes more) per day. Appears light psychological traction directly to the process of smoking. The penetration of nicotine already generates cellular chain reactions, corresponding manifestations appear. The body becomes tolerant of nicotine penetration. After smoking a cigarette there are no complaints about the deterioration of health. This stage is characterized by a duration of up to 5 years.

At the next stage of chronic dependence, nicotine need grows and gradually becomes more and more stable. Now smokers are drawn for a cigarette regardless of the reason - poor health or good mood, overstrain or morning vigor, unobtrusive conversation or friendly gatherings, walking or watching a movie. There are already withdrawal symptoms with a sharp decrease in the dosage of nicotine.

This picture is complemented by the occurrence of morning cough, pressure fluctuations, the appearance of discomfort, there is aggressiveness, problems with falling asleep, slight lethargy. Steadily want to smoke. The idea of ​​this action may occur at night. A pack of cigarettes per day is already the norm. The duration of this stage is due to the purely individual physiological characteristics of the smoker, but on average it lasts 10 years.

The third stage of nicotine addiction is marked by the absence of putting meaning into the process of smoking. Often, a smoker reaches for a “nicotine stick” unconsciously. There are no specific pretexts and certain intervals between smoke breaks, there is also no preference in the brand. The process of smoking brought to automatism. In addition, there are: forgetfulness, irritability, apathy, anxiety, frequent headaches, and appetite is lost. At the same time, the respiratory organs, digestive system, myocardium, capillary elasticity decreases. A distinguishing feature of smokers with experience is the yellowish tone of the epidermis.

The above stage division is considered conditional, since habituation is affected by several factors: the type of cigarettes, the age of exposure to nicotine bondage, gender, health, individual resistance to harmful substances.

Nicotine addiction treatment

Directly, the process of renouncing tobacco is often quite complicated due to habituation generated by nicotine.

Most often, smokers try to quit on their own - sharply and definitively, but statistics show that no more than 7% of individuals are able to renounce nicotine addiction or other assistance from the first time without a pill.

The two most effective means of drug therapy of nicotine addiction are: combined nicotine replacement treatment (for example, chewing gum with a band-aid) and Varenicline.

Below are a few crucial points to be considered when studying materials, how to get rid of nicotine addiction, and choosing an effective method.

Nicotine slavery often requires repeated attempts to quit smoking. Treatment of nicotine addiction is effective in a wide coverage of subpopulations (social and educational level, age, gender, health).

Medical recommendation to quit the addiction in question is in today's medicine the most beneficial intervention from the economic side, even with a small percentage of smokers following such advice. Clarification of the effects of smoking, support and encouragement, motivation - these factors multiply the probability of renunciation of smoking.

In addition, various courses, trainings, and psychological programs aimed at overcoming addiction are considered effective.

Radical methods of getting rid of tobacco slavery today do not exist. All available methods of exemption from the oppression of nicotine can be grouped as follows: replacement, behavioral, pharmacopoeial, and non-drug therapy.

In the case of an uncontrolled nicotine craze, special products containing nicotine (replacement therapy) are widely used. Copying the effects of nicotine is due to the use of a solution of nicotine or chewing gum, rich in nicotine, which should be used only in conjunction with other means, since only its use will not relieve from many years of craving.

Medicines containing nicotine, give smokers the same sensations as with tobacco smoking. Studies have shown that exemption from tobacco slavery using a nicotine patch is more effective when compared with placebo treatment.

Nicotine aerosol contributes to the relief of abstinence from cigarettes, but only at the beginning of its use. Nicotine inhalations are useful for the short-term refusal to siphon "nicotine sticks."

The reason for the unsuccessful attempts to release nicotine addiction is a pronounced craving to smoke during abstinence. That is why, in the event of symptoms caused by the abolition of smoking, a proportional replacement of nicotine allows you to overcome the desire to drag on a cigarette. For this purpose, nicotine-containing agents are prescribed. Severe nicotine subjection (daily consumption of more than 20 cigarettes, smoking within 30 minutes after the first cigarette wakes up, unsuccessful efforts to stop smoking) is an indication for prescribing nicotine-containing drugs.

Replacement therapy is also indicated for patients who have a sustained motivation to break free from this bondage. The advantage of the described method is to reduce the need to use the previously usual daily number of cigarettes, as well as to mitigate the manifestations of the syndrome. A prolonged course of this therapy does not solve the problem of disaccustoming from the consumption of tobacco products. In addition, it is necessary to take into account that in the presence of somatic contraindications (diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, high pressure, liver pathologies, etc.) it is impractical to use this type of therapy. An overdose caused by tobacco smoking with the use of nicotine-containing drugs should also not be ruled out.

In order to develop a negative reflex to tobacco use tablets of nicotine addiction - drugs that cause vomiting, in conjunction with smoking.

Among non-pharmacological methods of salvation from nicotine slavery, they use the hypno-suggestive express method. The subject is immersed in a trance state and given therapeutic settings.

Prevention of nicotine addiction

Addiction to tobacco products in addition to the generation of nicotine addiction, it is also dangerous to develop persistent psychological addiction. There is little cure for physiological dependence, since the psychological factor is usually much more serious.

Preventive measures to prevent tobacco smoking and prevent its recurrence are based on the perception of the provoking factors of smoking and the substitution of the described harmful need with a healthier occupation.

Physical dependence on tobacco smoking will disappear all the same when nicotine is completely out of the body, and psychological cravings can return a person to addiction.

Below are a few key factors in tobacco prevention. And above all, it is possible to anticipate the occurrence of nicotine addiction through a permanent explanation of the harm of smoking.

It is also necessary to prohibit the advertising of tobacco products. After all, if from the blue screens they broadcast to an immature teenage psyche, that tobacco smoking will give freedom, inspiration, help to reach unprecedented heights, naturally, the young dreamer will want to try.

Restricting the ease of accessibility of tobacco products and the places where it is allowed to indulge in the harmful addiction in question is also a rather necessary measure. Since the degree of addiction to nicotine varies among different subjects. For example, an inveterate smoker cannot get through with any restrictive measures, and individuals who are prone to a moderate degree of involvement in the process will be deterred by the need to go in search of “nicotine sticks” or a place for their consumption.

In order to prevent the development of nicotine traction in the adolescent microsocium, the best way is considered to be the absence of this habit in their close environment. If the relatives are not in tobacco slavery, then the likelihood of smoking in children is sharply reduced. Parents are recommended to engage in sports exercises with children, try to captivate them with something, to occupy their free time.

It is very important to prevent the formation of the described negative habit in the adolescent microsocium, since it has been established that subjects addicted to smoking to the age of 15 die from cancer diseases affecting the lungs approximately 5 times more often than those who started smoking much later.

A deadly nicotine dose for an adult is considered a pack of cigarettes consumed at one time. For a teenager, this dose is only half a pack. You also need to understand that in addition to nicotine, tobacco products contain many more harmful substances. That is why it is so important to introduce the described and other preventive measures.