Morality is the desire of the individual to evaluate conscious actions, the state of a person on the basis of the totality of conscious norms of behavior inherent in a particular individual. The expression of the ideas of a morally developed person is a conscience. These are the deepest laws of decent human life. Morality is an individual's idea of evil and good, the ability to correctly assess the situation and determine the typical style of behavior in it. Each individual has his own criteria of morality. It forms a specific code of relations with a person and the environment as a whole, based on mutual understanding and humanism.
What is morality
Morality is an integral characteristic of a person, which is the cognitive basis for the formation of a morally healthy person: socially oriented, adequately evaluating the situation, having an established set of values. In today's society, the use of morality as a synonym for morality is commonplace in general use. Etymological features of this concept show the origin of the word "character" - character. For the first time the semantic definition of the concept of morality was published in 1789 - the Dictionary of the Russian Academy.
The concept of morality combines a certain set of personality traits of the subject. Primary is honesty, kindness, compassion, decency, hard work, generosity, empathy, reliability. Analyzing morality as a personal property, it should be mentioned that everyone is able to bring their own qualities to this concept. For people with different types of professions, morality forms a different set of qualities. The soldier must be brave, the judge is fair, the teacher is an altruist. On the basis of the formed moral qualities, the directions of the subject's behavior in society are formed. The subjective attitude of the individual plays a significant role in assessing the situation in a moral way. Someone takes a civil marriage absolutely naturally, for others it is like a sin. Based on religious studies, it should be recognized that the concept of morality has retained very little of its meaning. Views of modern man on morality distorted and emasculated.
Morality is a purely individual quality that allows a person to consciously control his own mental and emotional state, personifying a spiritually and socially formed personality. The moral person is able to determine the golden measure between the ego-centered part of his self and sacrifice. Such a subject is able to form a socially-oriented, value-defined civic consciousness and worldview.
The moral person, choosing the directions of his actions, acts exclusively on his conscience, relying on the formed personal values and concepts. For some, the concept of morality is the equivalent of a “ticket to paradise” after death, and in life it is something that does not particularly affect the success of the subject and does not bear any benefit. For this type of people, moral behavior is a way to cleanse the soul of sins, as if to cover up your own wrong actions. Man being unimpeded in the choice, has its own life course. At the same time, society has its influence, it is able to set its own ideals and values.
In fact, morality, as a property necessary for the subject, is also extremely important for society. It is like a guarantee of the preservation of mankind as a species, otherwise without the norms and principles of moral behavior, mankind will eradicate itself. Arbitrary and gradual degradation - the consequences of the disappearance of morality as a set of trailers and the values of society as such. Most likely, and the death of a particular nation or ethnic group, if its head is immoral government. Accordingly, the level of life comfort of people depends on the developed morality. Protected and prosperous is a society, respect for values and moral principles, respect and altruism in which, above all.
So, morality is internalized principles and values, based on which a person directs his behavior, commits actions. Morality, as a form of social knowledge and relationships, regulates human actions through principles and norms. Directly, these norms are based on the point of view of impeccable, on the categories of good, justice and evil. Based on humanistic values, morality allows the subject to be human.
Rules of morality
In everyday use of expressions, morality and morality have the same meaning and common sources. At the same time, it is worthwhile for all to determine the existence of certain rules that easily outline the essence of each of the concepts. So moral rules, in turn, allow individuals to develop their own mental and moral state. To some extent, these are the “Laws of the Absolute” that exist in absolutely all religions, worldviews and societies. Consequently, moral rules are universal, and their non-fulfillment draws consequences for a subject that does not comply with them.
There are, for example, 10 commandments, obtained as a result of the direct communion of Moses and God. This is part of the rules of morality, the observance of which is argued by religion. In fact, scientists do not deny a hundred times more of the number of rules, they are reduced to one denominator: the harmonious existence of humanity.
Since ancient times, many peoples have the concept of a certain “Golden Rule”, which carries the basis of morality. His interpretation has dozens of formulations, while the essence remains unchanged. Following this "golden rule" an individual should behave towards others as he treats himself. This rule forms the concept of man, that all people are equal with respect to their freedom of action, as well as the desire to develop. Following this rule, the subject reveals his deep philosophical interpretation, which states that the individual must learn in advance to realize the consequences of his own actions regarding "another individual", projecting these effects on himself. That is, the subject who tries on himself mentally the consequences of his own act, will think about whether to act in this direction. The golden rule teaches a person to develop his inner gut, teaches compassion, empathy and helps develop mentally.
Although this moral rule was formulated in antiquity by famous teachers and thinkers, it has not lost its relevance in the modern world. "What you do not want yourself, do not do to another" - this is the rule in the original interpretation. The occurrence of such an interpretation is attributed to the origins of the first millennium BC. It was then that the humanist revolution took place in the ancient world. But as a moral rule, its status was “golden” in the eighteenth century. This prescription focuses on the global moral principle according to the relationship to another person within different situations of interaction. Since its presence in any existing religion is proven, it can be noted as the foundation of human morality. This is the most important truth of the humanistic behavior of a moral person.
Considering modern society, it is easy to notice that moral development is characterized by decay. In the twentieth century in the world there was a sudden fall of all the laws and values of the morality of society. Problems of morality began to appear in society, which negatively influenced the formation and development of humane humanity. This fall reached even greater development in the twenty-first century. For the whole existence of man, many problems of morality were noted, which somehow had a negative impact on the individual. Guided by spiritual landmarks in various epochs, people put something of their own in the concept of morality. They were able to create things that in modern society terrify absolutely every sane person. For example, the Egyptian pharaohs, who, fearing to lose the kingdom, committed unimaginable crimes, killing all newborn boys. Moral norms are rooted in religious laws, the adherence to which shows the essence of the human person. Honor, dignity, faith, love of country, to man, loyalty - the qualities that served as a direction in human life, to which at least to some extent reached part of the laws of God. Consequently, throughout its development, it was common for society to deviate from the religious precepts, which led to the emergence of moral problems.
The development of moral issues in the twentieth century is a consequence of world wars. The era of the decline of morals stretches from the times of the First World War, in this insane time, human life has depreciated. The conditions in which people had to survive, erased all moral restrictions, personal relationships depreciated evenly, as did human life at the front. Humankind's involvement in inhuman bloodshed dealt a moral blow to the morality.
One of the periods of the emergence of moral problems was the communist period. During this period, it was planned to destroy all religions, respectively, and the norms of morality embodied in it. Even if in the Soviet Union the development of the rules of morality was much higher, this position could not hold for a long time. Together with the destruction of the Soviet world, there was a decline in the morality of society.
For the current period, one of the main problems of morality is the fall of the institution of the family. What pulls a demographic catastrophe, an increase in divorces, the birth of countless children in non-marriage. Views on family, motherhood and fatherhood, on raising a healthy child have a regressive character. Development of corruption in all areas, theft, deception is of some importance. Now everything is bought, exactly, as it is sold: diplomas, victories in sports, even human honor. These are precisely the consequences of the fall of morality.
Moral education is a process of purposeful influence on a person, which implies an influence on the consciousness of the subject's behavior and feelings. During the period of such education moral qualities of the subject are formed, allowing the individual to act within the framework of public morality.
Moral education is a process that does not involve interruptions, but only close interaction between the student and the educator. To educate the child moral qualities should be by example. It is rather difficult to form a moral personality; it is a painstaking process in which not only teachers and parents take part, but also the social institution as a whole. In this case, the age peculiarities of the individual, his readiness for analysis, perception and processing of information are always provided. The result of the education of morality is the development of a holistic moral personality, which will develop together with its feelings, conscience, habits and values. Such upbringing is considered to be a difficult and multifaceted process, summarizing the pedagogical upbringing and influence of society. Moral education involves the formation of feelings of morality, a conscious connection with society, a culture of behavior, consideration of moral ideals and concepts, principles and behavioral norms.
Moral education takes place in the period of study, in the period of education in the family, in public organizations, and directly includes the self-improvement of the individual. The continuous process of moral education begins with the birth of the subject and lasts his entire life.