Trolling is a style of communication in the Internet space, aimed at mockery and provocative statements, the purpose of which is to increase the publicity and level of outrageous of some users, most often using anonymous pages and nicknames, to avoid personal clarification of relationships in real life. Examples of trolling in real interaction are any provocative and inflammatory communication, the use of slander, deception, artificially stirring up quarrels and disputes, a call for destructive actions and a style of communication without adequate adequate reasons.

Trolling deliberately violates the unspoken and spelled rules of the Internet space by posting inappropriate video and photo information, as well as text messages.

The term itself came from Scandinavian mythology, where there are characters - trolls, the main purpose of which is to harm others. By slightly expanding this function, evil acts include not only direct physical damage, but also psychological discomfort to a person or a group of people. At the moment, trolling is not reduced to personal communication, but in many cases it involves the creation of entire virtual communities that intentionally harm someone. For this purpose, the introduction of false information, designed to reduce trust, tolerance to selected resources, as well as cause paranoid and hysterical reactions among individual users who have been the victims of attacks, is used.

What is trolling

Trolling - behavior on the Internet, causing inadequate reaction of other participants in communication. For an outside observer, the process of bullying may look ridiculous, witty, raising interesting topics, while the victim perceives such attacks as cruel trolling. The mass character of the phenomenon and its severe psychological damage are due to the fact that it is impossible for the abuser to respond personally, and during the inflaming passions there is no possibility of a physical resolution of the issue. All that remains to the aggrieved party is ignoring, returning trolling (if skills match) or engaging in provocation.

Based on the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčanonymity, the most common trolling on the sites, allowing users to independently regulate their personal data, without checking for accuracy. Typically, these are various forums, conferences, open group discussions and similar places where registered users can create any personality for themselves, ranging from their name to sex and interests. In fact, the rest of the participants in the communication do not know who they are actually talking with, therefore, often the response actions are not successful. For example, thinking that they communicate with a teenage girl, many may wonder why she does not take offense at some statements, but easily parries them. The answer may lie in the fact that the real interlocutor is a man of about forty.

The nature of the interaction also has its own characteristics. From the first minutes of communication, the troll will not initially present false information or start provocative disputes. It looks like the average community member, shares common goals and ideas, supports conversations and shares unique information. Only over time, when a certain level of trust is achieved, the troll gradually begins to discredit values, share false references and stir up disputes - all this is done under the guise of concern for common interests and values, moreover, the first dissenters can be accused of trying to reorganize the foundations.

Moderators and administrators of public communities usually monitor the emergence of such individuals, and their direct responsibilities include the timely diagnosis and removal of such a participant from the public access. In those places where there is no appropriate administrative support, the space is rather quickly filled with misinformation, a huge number of questions appear to be not substantive in topics and the environment slowly fades away, since it does not arouse interest among current users.

Cruel trolling is a method of triggering an avalanche-like aggressive response to the maximum number of community members. To do this, there are specially designed systems for stuffing information, especially its filing and processing. Some approach this deliberately and make up entire campaigns - trolling, where he has long been part of any advertising and anti-advertising projects. Emotional promotion of the public and even negative involvement in the discussion of the product gives the effect of mass character and recognition. Roughly speaking, even if you read a dispute where all the participants are scolded by a new product, then in a store you are more likely to purchase it than a completely unknown brand.

But also such mechanisms are quite permissible at the personal level and are used by users who are not aware of themselves as trolls. Such individuals usually have broad intuitive knowledge in the field of psychology, and are also well-versed in the linguistic aspect. Not necessarily the end of the relevant faculties, it is quite enough to read and have a humanistic orientation of interests.

Causes of trolling on the Internet

The main reasons for such aggressive behavior is the presence of an internal conflict of personality. This usually refers to unexpressed aggression or a ban on its expression in real life. Variations are many-sided - a person could be forbidden to be angry from childhood, and then the anonymity of the Internet contributes to the expression of accumulated feelings, without revealing his own personality. Physical weakness does not allow many to go into open conflict with peers, because with increasing degree of tension of the situation, a person will not be able to defend their beliefs physically. This also includes mental weakness, which requires an immediate response and withstanding mental stress for a long time, being among the opponents. In the case of trolling, you can always get out of the conversation or have the opportunity to think for a long time about the answer. Lack of contact with other participants in everyday life significantly saves mental resources. Bullying in reality requires maintaining this position in the event of an accidental collision on the street, not to mention the daily contact in the team.

Another option for the emergence of trolling - unresolved feelings. It is usually characteristic of secluded, lonely people or those who for various reasons became an outcast in their group. A lot of unspoken and pent-up tension accumulates, if at the same time there are no friends or other support where it is possible to place a negative, then a person can do this anonymously on the network. In such cases, communication occurs at the level of phantoms - one of which is the troll itself, who appears to be an anonymous fictional person, and the other is his interlocutor. It does not take into account the features of the victim, it can be outwardly similar to the one who hooked in real life or write an opinion that has offended the troll for several hours. This person will receive all the negative, addressed not to him, but to someone else, the real one in the biography of the aggressor.

The troll will never become attached to a topic that is far from it, so the subject of the dispute is diagnostic to identify personal problems. And in most cases it is a lack of love, an attempt to get attention. Such a mechanism is an infantile defense, a childish way of reacting. Approximately, as a child begins to learn poorly, gets involved in fights, is rude and breaks something, only so that adults give even negative attention, but the troll, with its provocations, wants to achieve not universal hatred, but participation and empathy.

The Internet itself contributes to trolling, where the feeling of impunity disarms almost any social restrictions. Being sure that anonymity is complete and you will not have to answer for any words and actions, the troll can reach serious threats and actions pursued by law. At the moment, the behavior in the network is the most revealing for many individuals, especially those who are forced due to the peculiarities of the profession or personal situation to restrain a lot.

But not only serious psychological problems lie behind the causes of trolling, for many it becomes a way of entertainment. The peculiar experiments on people, allowing to dispel boredom. To scoff at your friends is fraught with loneliness, cruel jokes can lead to litigation and physical clarification of relationships, but this does not mean that such ideas do not arise in people's heads. So it turns out that when they are bored in the queue, as entertainment and getting a certain dose of adrenaline from a stranger reaction, a part of the population chooses not to watch the video, but to stroll strangers.

Types of trolling

Examples of trolling are numerous, it makes sense to consider its main types. The first typology distinguishes thin and thick trolling. The first implies a good preparation, understanding of the topic, uniqueness of humor and refinement of statements, it is usually appreciated not only by the troll, but also by others, and sometimes the person to whom this applies. Thick trolling is carried out at a low, rude level, forbidden pressure points are used, black and not tolerant humor - such communication brings pleasure only to the aggressor himself, and the rest of the people perceived as mockery.

The most primitive type is the dissemination of incorrect information, malicious links and rumors. Following him is the provision of incorrect information about his own personality.

Entertainment options may include changing your gender on dating sites, impersonating a foreigner or celebrity. There are also two extreme options used in thematic communities, where the troll can pretend to be completely insane and unintelligible to the person who brings what is happening with his questions to the point of absurdity. But there is also an option where a person positions himself as an all-knowing expert.

One of the most brutal manifestations of trolling is considered to bring a person with an unstable psyche to a nervous breakdown. Themes can be chosen the most varied, as well as paths of influence. The difference is that the victim is always carefully selected among those who are in a shaky emotional state and gives a quick and bright emotional reaction. Usually, after the first response received, the terrorized person is not left alone, and the nerve reactions already received are used on the following days to further weaken the nervous system.

Political trolling is a separate species, it is used both to incite conflicts, and to attract voters' attention to the desired problem. It can be used to diagnose the necessary group or the reaction of the individual. The essence boils down to the statement of the provocative assertion and escalation of the conflict on recent acute political events. Just as a debate about politics is caused, it can be a debate about tastes, and this may concern those where there is no right opinion a priori.

Group trolling is significantly different from personal. There is a group of people who have one common goal, most often in such communities their own rules for achieving goals are developed, there is a certain language. Such companies include either PR specialists and politicians, or self-interested people (for example, an online game team, thus, can embroil its competitors).