A psychopath is an individual characterized by an antisocial pattern of behavior, an inability to empathize and remorse in causing harm to others, self-centeredness, deceit, lack of depth of emotional reactions. Such an individual does not feel guilty about his own behavior. In addition, psychopathic personalities are not capable of establishing adequate relationships with other human subjects. Subjects psychopaths are poorly corrective, but sometimes their state of "inadequacy" with adulthood is somewhat improved.
Characteristics and signs of a psychopath
Explicitly expressed asocial personality disorder, forming serious obstacles for adaptation in society. Often, such a deviation of character is not acquired and finally it is fixed at the pubertal stage, after which it does not persist throughout the life.
The described violation often begins to develop in the pre-pubertal period. His first manifestations include the heartlessness, the paucity of emotions.
According to research, one or two human subjects per 100 are psychopaths. Along with this, in the criminal environment, their prevalence reaches 15–25 criminals per 100. In addition, approximately 10% of the adult population, not being clinical psychopaths, show psychopathic traits, harming surrounding individuals.
The origin of the psychopath, in addition to social conditioning, is also characterized by its connection with neurobiological dysfunction, due to which an individual suffering from the disorder in question does not have the ability to empathize and deeply experience emotions (affection, joy). However, in spite of this, such a subject may look "fascinating" thanks to a pronounced ability to faithfully imitate emotions.
There is a theory of "safe" psychopathy, which states that a category of subclinical psychopaths can be distinguished, which formally observes the law. Such individuals reach professional heights due to the presence of psychopathic features in the character, which others mistakenly take for leadership traits. However, in the long run, this often harms the team.
The results of large-scale studies conducted in the previous century in the states, psychopathic traits were found in 1% femin and 5% of the stronger half. The prevalence among the psychopathic personalities of men is also evidenced by data from studies of behavioral patterns of criminals. At the same time, an excellent hypothesis is widespread among academics: the scope of female psychopathy is understated. Simply beautiful feminines are characterized by a different manifestation of psychopathic traits, for example, they are often less pronounced and are found in psychological violence, rather than physical violence.
Not all psychopathic personalities are predisposed to coercion, pressure, violence, but still such subjects are dangerous for society, especially individuals who have a criminal past. Their actions are destructive, more in relation to human nature. The psychopathic personality shows exaggerated demands on the surrounding society. Such individuals are characterized by conflict, falling into a rage for no apparent reason and are often capable of suicide.
- in the absence of empathy (they feel the pain of other individuals, but do not respond with reciprocity);
- in attempts to manipulate the social environment (they are professional manipulators, nosy and cunning);
- in laziness;
- In the tendency to lead a parasitic lifestyle (do not like to work and do not work).
- irresponsibility and deceit;
- manipulation of people, their feelings;
- lack of empathy and remorse;
- ignoring the safety of others;
- Neglect of social foundations and laws.
The difference between the two deviations under consideration consists in the complete absence of pain in the psychopathic personalities, with the preservation of the ability to plan. Sociopathic personalities are no longer restrained, impulsive, and therefore cannot “stick” for a long time in one role.
Psychopaths are often sociable, charming or prudent, sociopaths are more likely to react aggressively, they are insolent, they are more often enraged, and also more inhuman and may experience much more emotional outbursts.
Psychopaths often lack emotional experience. They do not understand why the people around them are upset, happy or feel a whole palette of emotions. Psychopathic personalities often have a good education and a permanent job. They can acquire family ties or enter into a romantic relationship. At the same time, the environment will not even suspect that their “neighbor” has psychopathic inclinations. In individuals living, so to speak, "normal" life, the symptoms of a psychopath can be quite vague and most noticeable only among the closest environment.
If the psychopath decides to commit an atrocity, then he carefully plots all the details of the process. He will think over everything carefully and plan it in advance. He will carry out his plans coolly and slowly. If a psychopath becomes a criminal, then all his offenses are organized "qualitatively." That is why, due to calm, pedantry and innate charm, excellent speculators are obtained from the described category of people.
If psychopaths are accurate, pedanty and more focused on particulars, then sociopathic personalities are characterized by carelessness and inconstancy. They often do not think at all about the results and reactions to them.
Usually sociopaths tend to change jobs often, they have no special knowledge and education, they are easier to find among the marginal strata of society. A sociopathic person can make a decision in a second to rob a bank and commit robbery without any plan.
How to recognize a psychopath?
A psychopathic disorder is considered a rather complex personality disorder, since psychopaths often seem "normal," even charming. Due to the mystery and complexity of psychopathy, it is often difficult to recognize a psychopath.
Psychopaths are in constant search for thrills. They choose actions that stimulate their insatiable craving for danger. And it doesn’t matter to them whether such acts harm their own person or other individuals. They also care little about the legitimacy of their actions. The described category of persons is prone to manipulation. They are skillful "jugglers" of human emotions, actions, actions. They are also experienced cheaters. Often, they manipulate individuals or cheat them solely for the reason of somehow having fun.
In general, most psychopaths suffer from too high self-esteem. This category of people considers themselves to be much more intelligent and influential than they really are. They like to “apply” to successful individuals, to people who have power, as this increases their personal status. They are convinced that they deserve a better attitude than other human subjects. Their excessive sense of personal importance often leads to a crack in the “mask of normality”. When it seems to psychopaths that people do not pay their "important" position, the status of proper attention, they tend to consciously hurt.
Psychopathic personalities are impulsive and irresponsible. Both of these qualities are a sign of the disorder in question. Individuals psychopaths in their own behavior, as well as in the way of existence, do not notice anything worthy of censure. They are characterized by a pronounced desire to avoid responsibility for their own decisions or for the consequences of decisions taken.
The considered category of persons is egocentric, therefore their actions are caused by whims, current mood, desires. They can deceive, steal, offend only because of what they want at the moment. Their intimate relationships are often characterized by volatility and constant change of partners.
Psychopaths have a lack of personal ethics. As a rule, they do not comply with solid moral standards. They only do what is beneficial to them at a particular moment. They are of little interest that others can suffer from actions.
- short sleep;
- lack of gratitude;
- many unfinished business;
- in case of minor conflicts, the charges of the enemy in vices and lies;
- lack of long-lasting love relationships;
- extreme hobbies;
- baseless jealousy;
- sexual perversion;
- non-standard thinking.
In the sons of Adam, the violation in question manifests itself in the form of a deliberate strategy of behavior in society, disguise of real facts, success in the professional field, and high activity.
In feminine, this disorder is found in emotional imbalance and incontinence, depressive moods. They are characterized by heartlessness and ignoring the feelings of loved ones. Since in women-psychopaths cold calculation prevails, based on personal aspirations, over other emotions, there is no understanding and feeling of love, developed egoism, they cause interest among many men.
Classification of psychopathic personalities
Considered ailment is attributed to the borderline states of the psyche. They occupy a position between character accentuations and progressive mental disorders.
In order to classify psychopaths, you can use various aspects and approaches. There are constitutional or nuclear psychopathies, which combine the types of disorders caused by hereditary pathology, and regional psychopathies, primarily due to improper upbringing.
In the post-Soviet space, the classification proposed by P. Gannushkin in 33 years of the previous century was the most popular.
The term "psychopathy" is rather ambiguous, since it can be used as a synonym for dissocial disorder and as a designation of mental pathologies in general. As a result, Gannushkin uses the term "constitutional psychopathy," emphasizing the static, innate etiology of the group of disorders in question.
P. Gannushkin divided psychopathic personalities into: hysterical characters, unstable, asthenic, antisocial epileptoid, schizoid, paranoid, cycloid, constitutional-stupid.
Asthenics, in turn, suffer from asthenic psychopathy or psychasthenia.
For persons who have been diagnosed with the first type of the disorder described, there is inherently increased timidity, shyness, uncertainty, and impressionability. They are especially lost in a new or unknown environment, and they feel their own inferiority. High sensitivity arises as a result of physical overload, and the impact of mental stimuli. Often, this category of persons does not tolerate changes in temperature, type of blood, unhealthy response to harshness and tactlessness. At the same time, their disapproval reaction may be expressed by silent touchiness or grumbling. They are often characterized by autonomic disorders: sweating, head algii, discomfort in the myocardial region, gastrointestinal dysfunction, poor sleep. They get tired quickly. They tend to "jam" in their own health.
Individuals of the psychasthenic type of psychopathy are characterized by marked timidity, indecision and continuous fluctuations. Psychasthenes are shy, vulnerable, but besides that, they are still painfully proud. They are characterized by self-control, the desire for self-analysis. They are predisposed to abstract, abstract logical conclusions, annoying doubts and fears. Psychasthenes are afraid of any life metamorphosis, for example, a violation of the usual structure of life. This provokes an increase in uncertainty and causes anxiety. They are excellent deputies, but they will not pull senior positions. The need to independently resolve issues, to take the initiative is disastrous for them. Exaggerated claims, lack of a sense of reality lead to decompensation.
People suffering from schizoid psychopathy are notable for their lack of communication skills, their isolation from reality, the burden of processing their own experiences, coldness and callousness in relationships with their relatives. Emotional disharmony is inherent in them: hypersensitivity, impressionability with the significance of the problem, and emotional callousness, impenetrability, if the problem concerns "aliens." Their hobbies are extraordinary and original. Among this category of people there are many musicians, people engaged in theoretical sciences or art. Their judgments about other individuals are unpredictable and categorical. At work, the described category of persons is often uncontrollable, because they work, relying on their own views about life values.
The main feature of persons suffering from paranoid psychopathy, is the formation of significant, overvalued ideas, developed by 25 years. Since childhood, the considered category of persons has been characterized by stubbornness, straightforwardness, one-sidedness of interests. They are self-confident, touchy, vindictive, overly susceptible to neglecting their opinions around them. Sustained self-affirmation, the ultimate categorical views and actions, selfishness and excessive self-confidence create the basis for the emergence of confrontations with the environment. Obsession with offenses and certain thoughts, rigidity, conservatism are the basis on which dominant ideas affect significant experiences. Such ideas differ from delusional concreteness of content, their reliance on real facts. At the same time, their views are based on subjective conclusions, superficial and limited assessment of reality, which corresponds to the confirmation of his theory.
The leading characteristics of the epileptoid type of psychopathy are pronounced irritability and excessive excitability, irascibility, reaching to fits of rage, and the response does not respond to the strength of the stimulus. People who suffer from the disorder described, along with cycling, viscosity, and vindictiveness, are also characterized by sweetness, flattery, hypocrisy, and use of diminutive words in conversation. Excessive pedantry, cleanliness, despotism, selfishness and the prevalence of a sullen, pessimistic mood make the category of subjects considered intolerable in the professional sphere and everyday life. Gambling gamers, drunken drunks, sex deviants and murderers can often be found among psychopaths of this type.
Hysterical psychopathy manifests a thirst for recognition. In other words, psychopaths of this type are ready for anything just to draw the attention of the environment to their own person. This is manifested by demonstrative behavior, theatricality, hyperbolization and embellishment of personal experiences. Psychic infantilism, manifested in emotional responses, actions and judgments, is inherent to hysterical individuals. Their feelings are shallow and unstable.
Cycloid psychopathy unites individuals with a different, constitutionally defined, level of mood. Individuals with invariably low mood form a group of hypothetical psychopaths (constitutional depressive). These are gloomy, saddened, unsociable and dissatisfied individuals.
Constitutional-excited type is represented by hyperthymic personalities. They differ from the previous category by optimism, activity and invariably elevated mood. They are sociable, carefree, talkative people. Due to increased sex traction is illegible in relationships, have promiscuous sex.
Emotionally unstable individuals, characterized by constant mood changes, are classified as cycloid subtypes. The mood of cyclothymics ranges from sad to joyful. Periods of joyful or bad mood have unequal duration.
The emotive-labile category of psychopaths are subjects whose state changes occur extremely frequently. Неустойчивые психопаты пребывают в повышенной зависимости от воздействия извне. Это слабохарактерные, легко внушаемые лица.
A feature of the antisocial subtype of the psychopath are pronounced moral defects, partial emotional inhibition, the almost complete absence of social emotions, feelings of shame.
A constitutionally stupid variety of psychopaths is manifested by its limitations, mental deficiencies. They study well. This is different from oligophrenia. However, after entering into an "adult" life, they have difficulties due to the need to use in practice the baggage of knowledge and take the initiative.
How to erase a psychopath male from your life
Today the psychopathic traits of the sons of Adam are not uncommon. When the symptoms of this disorder manifest themselves in family relationships, then the spouse of the psychopath will not be envied.
In relationships, a male psychopath is often a despot. For him, the norm play feelings partner. Crossing out these men from your own life is quite difficult. After all, they are always eloquently and repentantly asking for forgiveness, looking sincerely in the eyes, like skilful mummers, or threatening. A close look at the frightened spouse for them is a real pleasure. It should be understood that in such tense moments should not shed tears of offense, to justify or insult the husband-abyuzer.
The most sensible solution is to break the relationship with the home psychopath. Since the category of men in question achieves the desired, only when emotionally destroys its victim. And therefore it is necessary to learn how to behave competently with a male psychopath:
- for any attacks of a psychological orientation by the faithful, it is necessary to distance himself from him, for example, to do something important;
- when breaking relationships, you need to be careful, because an unexpected break often provokes an outbreak of rage, aggressiveness, because in a relationship a psychopathic man is often prone to violence. Therefore, the ideal way to break is to report this remotely, by telephone or by taking advantage of the possibilities of the world wide web;
- it is recommended to talk about the problem to relatives, so that they have an idea, it is desirable that they are always close up;
- No need to blame yourself, because it is not only a rupture of relationships, but also the salvation of one’s own person and relatives from real danger;
- the plan of breaking the relationship with the spouse-abuzer must be kept secret from him, since he will perform all sorts of actions in order to prevent this from happening.
How to recognize a psycho woman
The manifestations of the disorder being analyzed are clearly visible in the sons of Adam. These are threats, aggressiveness, physical violence. Female psychopaths act thinner, mainly through psychological abuse.
The signs of this disorder in femin are determined by differences in the behavioral model, due to emotional experiences and an unusual idea of society and its own location in it. The main difference between women psychopaths is immersion in their own reality and personal experiences. Inadequate actions and emotional evaluation of events are often inherent in them.
Also, the disturbance in the weak half is manifested in the asthenic, unstable and excitable type. Psychopathic symptoms in femin causes their behavioral manifestations.
Women-asthenic women are characterized by weakness, helplessness. They constantly fall out of their hands, because of this they are unsuitable for work. They are easily tired, both from mental work, and from physical activity. The considered category of femin is subject to the influence of others; they have no personal opinion. Often made the object of manipulation.
An excitable psychopath is the opposite of the previous type. Such women are stubborn and uncompromising, scandalous. They can argue endlessly, defending their opinions. At the same time, this category of the weak half is considered to be quite good workers, since they are not without creative potential and responsibility.
Aspiration to adventures, various kinds of adventures, beautiful life, unusual actions, the unstable type is outrageous. Women of this type prefer men, with whom communication will be saturated with bright emotions, will be an adventure. However, long-term relationships are not included in their plans.