Victim is the predisposition of a person to be a victim. At the same time, social predisposition differs, where the probability of becoming a victim depends on the criminal situation of the region, as well as psychological victimization, when characterological and personal traits acquired as a result of upbringing or psychological trauma result in provoking behavior.
According to the psychological factor, the victim’s victim is seriously criticized by many authors and is practically discredited in jurisprudence, where only one side is responsible for the crime committed. As evidence of this, the facts are cited that the behavior of the victim is perceived as a provocation solely by the criminal and is not objective. That is why this concept is not used in court cases of murder and rape, but takes place in practical psychology. It makes sense to talk about victimization, when a person is more likely to get into trouble, which is caused by various internal causes.
What is the victimization behavior
The concept of victimhood was introduced in the science of victimology, which studies the behavior of victims and criminals. Special behavior, on the verbal and non-verbal level, makes the criminals almost unmistakably choose certain individuals for their victims. For example, if a rapist shows aggression against several women, he will continue his actions only with the one that shrinks from fear, keeps silent, endures unworthy behavior, tries not to attract attention, and at the same time looks frightened. To those who immediately repulses, engages the public in the interaction and gives an unambiguous understanding of the inadmissibility of such actions, is likely to be left alone.
At the moment, the concept of victimization implies not only a greater likelihood of another person attacking, but also verbal insults, humiliations and the frequency of getting into unpleasant and traumatic situations, such as accidents, accidents, choking doors or often breaking appliances. Suffering from hostilities and natural disasters come here, a person looks like a magnet attracting failure.
Like any concept, victimization has its own distinctive features and characteristics. Such people are characterized by unstable emotional reactions, distorted perception of their own feelings, which ultimately leads to the formation of an external locus of control.
Features of education, which do not involve the development of caution, form a frivolous style of behavior, inability to distinguish between dangerous situations, and, accordingly, the ability to stand up for themselves or in time to leave the sphere of unfavorable developments.
Socially-approved qualities of diligence and integrity in their extreme manifestation, form the position is always ready for submission. Moreover, the more a person has in life to obey others, the more difficult it is to refuse and confront when there is a real need, thanks to the developed strategy of behavior. Such people argue that it is easier to submit to the abuser and avoid beatings, withstand the beatings from her husband and by this let him calm down, complete the weekly work rate in two days to the detriment of health, but maintain the favor of colleagues. There are many rationalizations, but the result is the same - the person suffers and continues to endure.
Victimousness is a different focus and severity. In general, such a couple is inherent in any person, and in a healthy version, it is responsible for the opportunity to sacrifice their interests, for the sake of further benefits. However, being a personal characteristic, victimization is considered a pathological trait and requires psychological and sometimes psychiatric correction.
Causes of victimization
Victim of victim is manifested in the commission of actions that lead to dangerous or negative consequences. Self-preservation instincts intended for the inverse function, at the moment do not work or appear conditionally, for example, only at the verbal level, and at the behavioral one are absent. There are several main reasons for such deformations.
Initially, this is a type of personality, describing a passively subordinate position. It is these most among the victims, and the behavior looks like meeting the requirements of the aggressor. Perhaps they will not be performed completely or slowly, but, nevertheless, the person obeys.
The second type of personality is provocative. Such people unconsciously seek to attract attention to themselves or are not aware of the consequences of their actions. Vivid examples of provocative behavior are the recalculation of large sums of money in an unfavorable public place (at the station or in the criminogenic area in the evening), sexualized behavior that goes beyond the boundaries of flirting and so on.
Education and experienced child psychotrauma are for the emergence of the victim complex. The highest risk of the development of victimization behavior among victims of violence, to whom no one provided help and support, was not carried out psychotherapy or all the relatives took the side of the rapist and blamed the victim for the incident.
Children of victimized or dysfunctional parents (various types of dependence, low level of social culture, high level of aggressiveness, etc.) do not form an adequate assessment of the situation, and they build relationships with the world like a parent family. Such a child may be extremely surprised that in other families no one is ever beaten, besides this, the concept of punishment becomes so necessary that as an adult, a person begins to provoke those who are not peculiar to violence because of their own increased level of anxiety.
Involvement in various antisocial groups, oddly enough, also forms the behavior of the victim. It should be noted that not only bright groups that violate the general order influence the formation of the position of the victim, but also any society. Teachers with emotional burnout do not teach children to resist aggression, and they pour out negative on children, the peer group can be of low social level and mock those who are different. The more acts of violence are perceived by the inner circle as the norm, the more tolerance is formed in a person.
Types of victimization
Being a multidimensional concept, victimization is divided into types.
It is this type that is most associated with personality-psychological traits, injuries received and upbringing peculiarities that form an inadequate response of the individual. Such personal victimization is activated under appropriate circumstances, but instead of choosing safe behavior, the future victim unknowingly chooses a provocative line of conduct. In girls, this can manifest itself with a close look into the eyes of strangers or attempts to catch the car at night on the track. Men brag about their material savings in the company of criminals or try to sort things out by physically resolving the conflict with a rival who is clearly stronger.
The love of extreme sports, the unjustified desire for heroism, the return to the battlefield after injury - actions consciously chosen by man, but they initially carry a threat to life. Some explain this by an increased need for adrenaline or a thirst to increase their self-esteem, and indeed there is such a motivation, but the scale of sacrifice in this type of people is increased.
Mass victimization concerns groups of people and has its own gradation, depending on the characteristics of individuals and conditions. Group victimization unites certain categories of the population with the same signs or parameters of victimization (for example, children or the disabled). Object victimization involves the commission of certain types of crime (theft, murder or rape). Most often, a person is subject to a single species, that is, the one who is robbed is unlikely to be raped. Subject victimization attracts various criminals.
The most prominent example of mass victimization is the Stockholm syndrome, when victims go over to the side of the aggressors. This does not happen immediately, sufficient continuous contact and strong traumatic emotions are experienced, after which, even being held hostage and receiving real physical injuries, the victims begin to protect the offenders, sympathize with and help them.
How to get rid of victimization
The heightened propensity to become a victim is not an innate quality, but is accordingly amenable to correction. In situations where the frequency and intensity of losses becomes significant, the condition is stabilized by tranquilizers and antidepressants with simultaneous psychotherapeutic correction.
If the situation is not so critical, then only psychotherapy is shown, aimed at restoring adequate self-esteem and developing new behavioral strategies. One of the main tasks is to shift the regulatory role of actions from an external source to an internal one. This means that before you make a decision or follow the advice, request or even the order of someone, you need to relate what is happening to your needs. In a healthy state, a person will not perform actions that cause him harm, who would not ask for it, even the direct boss. This implies a large share of responsibility for their lives and their course. From this perspective, it is no longer possible to blame others for the failures or to look for excuses for why the misfortune occurred. Finding a foothold in his feelings and decisions, the person himself begins to organize his life in a safe manner, calculating the consequences in advance.
Lack of exposure to external manipulation requires that others cannot play on feelings of guilt, pity, or inferiority. A girl who knows her strengths and weaknesses is unlikely to agree to the sentence "yes, who else you need me, sit down." Ability to refuse in any sphere of life is an excellent training against victimization. The more the skill of tactful opposition develops, the less are the chances of unknowingly becoming a victim.
You must begin to follow your own thoughts, because the more an individual regrets himself, appears in his own eyes helpless and unhappy, the more this state is transmitted to others. In fact, this is also a provocation, because if someone complains for the first time, they help him, for the second they don’t pay attention, and for the third it can trigger quite specific aggressive actions.
Behavioral behavior is a phenomenon that manifests itself at all levels of social organization, it cannot be locked up exclusively on the victim’s criminal dyad, and accordingly preventive measures are carried out on several levels at once. It all starts with the state organs of law and order, economic, political and cultural influence. This is the introduction of the necessary laws and drawing up a healthy position in defending the rights of victims and punishments of criminals. In places where the behavior of people is not regulated by laws that are common, objective, and understandable for all, the crime rate increases, and with it, victimization.
After the general level of prevention and regulation of society, a specialized correction of victimhood is necessary, which should be carried out among potentially disadvantaged groups of the population. These include colonies, antisocial groups, centers for drug addicts and homeless, socially disadvantaged families. In schools and even kindergartens, it is necessary to introduce classes where children will learn to distinguish lawful actions from violent ones, as well as adequately evaluate their own behavior for provocative statements or actions.
The most substantive work on prevention must be done individually with persons exposed to violence, physical injury, inappropriate attitude and other situations that include the concept of victimization. After the first psycho-traumatic situation that occurred, psychotherapeutic work is needed to overcome the experience. It is also important enlightenment in terms of jurisprudence and behavioral psychology, explaining the moments when a person can be accused of provocative behavior.
Various trainings and courses, as well as psychotherapeutic groups are excellent methods of preventing victimhood, because they develop the necessary personal qualities (confidence, independence, ability to navigate in the environment and people.