Transpersonal psychology refers to the modern direction of psychology, the purpose of the study of which is the consciousness and transpersonal unrest of man, as well as the nature, configuration, root cause and effect. Transpersonal psychology analyzes consciousness in a wide range of its manifestations: a variety of mental states, magical and cult unrest, spiritual crises, states close to death, the formation of insight, the development of creative abilities, individual resources, parapsychological phenomena.
After creating such directions in the field of psychology as a psychoanalytic concept, behaviorism and humanistic psychology, sometimes it is said in psychology about this direction that transpersonal psychology is the “fourth power”.
The peculiarity of the transpersonal approach is that when studying the human psyche, not only the data obtained by previous modern trends and other sciences are important, but also the results obtained as a result of research obtained in the study of various spiritual and cultural customs of the civilizations of the East and West on over hundreds of thousands of years.
The emergence of the modern direction
There is an individual sequence and connotational relationship between the humanistic and transpersonal trends in psychology. The founders of these projects were the same audience, namely: A. Maslow, M. Murphy, S. Crippner, A. Waits, E. Sutic, and others.
The emergence of humanistic psychology can be considered the result of understanding those actions that took place in various states, both in the life of society and in psychological science in the 60s of the last century. In the field of society, this period is a numerous movement created by young people and related to counterculture, the direction of which was concentrated selection. It was aimed at finding the newest configurations of commonality of individuals, without limitation to narrow standards, formed by a home-style, based on traditions and dictated by common sense, characterizing the material well-being of people and the value component of life.
In the field of psychology, this movement was considered a kind of protest related to the overwhelming influence of behaviorism and Freudianism, whose ideas were limited to the object of their own study of human behavior, in fact, eliminating the study of reason and personality. Representatives of the “new movement” did not in any way deny the substantial contribution that Z. Freud brought to the formation of psychology, but also saw its narrowness and limitations in psychoanalysis.
Maslow believed "that Freud gave us the psychology of the disease, and we now have to supplement it with the psychology of health." A significant contribution made by Maslow to humanistic psychology can be considered his theory of self-actualization of the individual. He put forward his own, well-known "hierarchy of needs", where, at the top, is the human need for self-realization, or according to his own rationale, "the absolute use of abilities, capabilities and available talents."
Humanistic psychology must be considered more likely by some movement, because it did not become an exact theoretical science, that is, this movement is a group of new constructive theoretical approaches to a person as possessing intelligence and self-awareness in psychotherapy and psychology.
The famous psychologist and author of many books related to existential psychology Irwin Yalom, one of those active creators of the so-called third wave, wrote the following about this: "In the vast tent of humanistic psychology, asylum found any and soon there was a mess consisting of all sorts of schools of psychology and areas that hardly had the opportunity to be explained among themselves even at the level of existential Esperanto. Gestalt therapy, the course that studies transpersonal experiences, categories of meetings, holistic medical science, psychosynthesis, tasavuf, and much more — all this, without exception, was found under one roof. "
A huge role in the formation of humanistic, and subsequently transpersonal foundations in psychology was attributed to the work that was carried out at the Esalen Institute, its location was California, USA. Here in different periods lived the very people who, in turn, largely determined the current view of the humanistic and transpersonal direction in the field of psychological science.
Somewhere in the mid-60s, the founders and those who express and support the ideology of the “third wave” came to the conclusion that the humanistic direction needs to be increased, expanded and supplemented.
The birth of the "fourth wave"
In the introduction to the second part of his work, “To the Psychology of Being,” Maslow announced that the “humanistic third psychology” is a kind of transitional configuration that prepares society for the most “sublime” fourth wave in psychology - the transpersonal, transhumane. more directed to the world as a whole, rather than to the human needs and interests, looking to the human nature and autonomy in the development of the human individual, his self-actualization, etc., far beyond the borders. "
In the process of many discussions about how to characterize the newest trend that arose against this background in 1968, the name “transpersonal psychology” was legitimized by the range of its founders - A. Maslow, E. Sutic, S. Grof and others. It is necessary to highlight the fact that for the first time the name "transpersonal" (transpersonal) was used as early as 1905 in the field of psychology by the North American specialist William James in his own direction of psychology at the Harvard Institute.
And also it should be noted that transpersonal psychology takes its origins from historical events related to the development of culture and religion. In addition to William James, the founders of this trend before the advent of the modern form of transpersonal psychology include: Otto Ranca, with his thoughts on the injuries he received upon birth; K.G. Jung, who filled the psychological science with the concept of archetypes, mythical, cultural, religious and supernatural fixations; R. Assagioli was a psychoanalyst in the past who, in the psychosynthesis he founded, was based on the theoretical part of occultism, religious-mystical and Buddhist teachings, overcoming with their assistance European cultural and anthropological limitations; In addition, it is necessary to mention the transcendentalists from America - Emerson and Toro.
Studies of transpersonal psychology
The distinction of the transpersonal orientation from the humanistic one was that the former had a desire to overcome the limits of the subject area of study that were predetermined by the difficulties associated with self-actualization, the creative side, humanistic psychotherapy and the pedagogical science itself.
The newest subject area has absorbed not only the accomplishments collected and achieved by that period in the field of scientific psychology and psychotherapy, approaches in the form of savings, preserved by more than one generation, occult values of the East, including tasavuf, Buddhism, yoga, the Indian philosophical system of teaching - advaita, but also the customs of shamanism of one of the oldest cultures.
The world outlook of the latest trend in psychological science is the results obtained as a result of the modern study of the human brain and discoveries made in the field of quantum systems behavior (primarily the teachings of the neurosurgeon K. Pribram and physical science scientist D. Bohm), which formed extensive opportunities for the study of human reason.
As a result of these teachings, it became clear that "this appearance, as we believe, is personal consciousness, in its essence contains a number of possibilities of multi-purpose consciousness. And this reality, in which we are convinced, is considered to be only one small component of the significant most extensive range, where we can in no way fit in with the help of, of course, the narrow abilities of our perception.
- established as the subject of science the amount of psychological experience that was provided by mysticism and religion;
- identified the problem of explaining psychology in the material used in the spiritual search for world ideological and church customs for the entire period of the existence of the civilization of people;
- recommended the newest extensive and expanded map of the human nervous system;
- introduced revolutionary views on internal declines (crises) as a resource for the formation of the human individual, and not its inconsistency, anomaly;
- provided the world spiritual experience of mankind with a view from a scientific point of view, which allowed a new look at the human individual in those areas in which he is able to go beyond his own limits - a state of ecstasy, balancing on the verge of life and its end.
Based on the whole person’s vision with the possibility of increasing his spirituality, traditional and atypical general philosophical anthropology, world-wide spiritual foundations, various methods of self-knowledge and psychotherapy, such as meditation, art treatment, holotropic breathing, intense fantasy, psychosynthesis, self-hypnosis and much more.
The main features and picture of the future
A characteristic feature of transpersonal psychology is the union of various schools in the field of psychological science, philosophy (including Eastern and Western), and other sciences in addition (for example, quantum physics and anthropologism). A variety of psychological schools in this area of psychology are only modifications comparable to the "terrain plan", trying to more or less successfully describe one or another often extremely small aspect of reality, but not having a chance to demand conformity with reality itself.
The applied role of transpersonal psychology is to provide a new opinion on the mental state of health and its anomalies, while providing an integrative, diverse approach to a person. Transpersonal excitements possess the strongest healing abilities, possess an enormous role in shaping the creative, moral and aesthetic qualities for the emotional recovery of society.
The picture of the future of transpersonal psychology is due to the fact that, as a current of modern psychological science, it contributes to the study of harmonious and holistic ways of forming a personality, the growth of its creative activity and the reconstruction of life.
The methods that transpersonal psychology uses, including active integrative psycho-technologies, contribute to positive individual changes, self-knowledge and significant discoveries in relationships and understanding of such aspects as the meaning of life and death, harmony with oneself and the surrounding society, striving for unity and reunion with the world at large.