Disgraphia is a fragmentary deviation arising in written speech activity due to insufficient development (or disintegration) of the mental functions involved in the reproduction and management of written speech. The described disorder is manifested by persistent, characteristic, recurring errors that appear during writing, which do not disappear without targeted corrective intervention.
First of all, diagnosing dysgraphia involves evaluating written work, speaking review and writing verification. In the case of the violation in question, the correctional effect consists in eliminating the disorder of sound pronunciation, developing non-speech functions, vocabulary, phonemic processes, grammar, and speech coherence.
In order to write down the dictated sentence correctly, a person needs to know, in addition to the subtleties of writing letters, the peculiarities of their differentiation and preserve the semantic verbal sequence. The process of mastering the skills of writing is due to the close relationship with the degree of maturity of all aspects of oral speech activity (sound pronunciation, phonemic perception, connectedness of speech, its lexical and grammatical correctness).
Therefore, the origin of dysgraphia often includes similar organic causes and functional factors that give rise to: dyslalia (against the background of the preservation of auditory function and innervation of the articulation apparatus, deviations in the reproduction of sounds are observed), alalia (underdevelopment of speech activity or its absence with the preservation of hearing and intelligence), dysarthria (abnormalities in pronunciation due to disorder of innervation of organs necessary for speech reproduction), aphasia (local lack of speech or violation of formulate voice activity) psychoverbal delay ripening.
If there is a disorder in the demarcation of sounds, a violation of their pronunciation, deviations in analysis and synthesis, then dysgraphy may develop. Most scientists who study the causes of dysgraphia are convinced that its formation is significantly affected by anomalous factors affecting the crumbs in the mother's womb, as well as after the work on the light. In addition, long-term physical illnesses and head injuries can also cause dysgraphia. Disgrafia in children is often genetically determined.
In addition to these aspects, it is possible to highlight the socio-psychological moments leading to the emergence of this deviation, such as: bilingualism of parents (bilingualism), lack of speech interaction, incomprehensible or incorrect speech of adults, inattention to children's speech communication, premature teaching of the child to read and write (when there is no psychological readiness ).
The lack of speech communication is far from the last position in the generation of the violation in question. In families where adults freely communicate in different languages, the described defect can also be observed quite often.
Disgraphia in adults is observed no less than in children. The main cause of this deviation in the adult period is tumor processes that occur in the brain, meningococcal infections, brain injuries, asphyxia.
Manifestations that characterize the pathology described include typical reproducible errors in the letter that are not determined by lack of knowledge of grammar and language norms.
Classical errors observed with different variations of disgraphs can be found in:
- mixing and replacing graphically similar handwritten letters (for example, w - w, m - l) or phonetically similar sounds (b - n, w - w);
- violation of separateness or fusion of writing words;
- distortion of the alphabetic-syllable construction of the word (alphabetic permutations, their addition or omissions);
- agrammatism (defects of verbal transformations and consistency of words).
Non-speech symptomatology is also distinguished, namely: neurological abnormalities, cognitive impairment, perception, memory, motility, mental abnormalities.
In addition to the above, this deviation is characterized by slow letters and vague handwriting. Also often observed are "slipping" of words from lines, fluctuations in the height of letters and their inclination, replacement of lower case letters with capital letters and vice versa.
With articulatory-acoustic variation of dysgraphics, the characteristic errors of writing are due to incorrect sound pronunciation (the individual also writes as he says). Here the replacement and transmission of letters when writing repeat similar sound errors in oral communication. The articulatory-acoustic type of the deviation in question is observed in rhinolalia, polymorphic dyslalia, and dysarthria. In other words, the described species occurs in babies with phonemic immaturity of speech.
The acoustic form is characterized by the underdevelopment of phonemic perception against the background of the preservation of sound pronunciation. Errors in the letter here are shown by replacing the letters corresponding to the close sounds (hissing - whistling, deaf - voiced and vice versa).
The discography that has arisen as a result of the disorder of linguistic generalization and analysis characterizes a deviation in the division into syllables of words, into words of sentences. The described type of dysgraphia manifests itself as gaps, repetitions or alphabetic-syllable permutations, writing additional letters or lowering the endings of words, writing together prepositions with words and vice versa, separately with prefixes. Dysgraphia is found more often in younger schoolchildren precisely on the basis of discord in language analysis and generalization.
In the erroneous declension of words, the violation of the consistency of words and prepositional constructions (wrong word order, the release of members of a sentence) agrammatic dysgraphia appears. This species usually accompanies a general underdevelopment of speech communication, due to alalia and dysarthria.
When the optical variation of the described disorder, when writing, the letters are mixed or replaced graphically similar. Violation of the reproduction and recognition of isolated letters indicates a literal variety of optical dysgraphia. If you incorrectly spell out the letters in a word, you can talk about the verbal form of this disgraphing. Characteristic errors of the analyzed form of dysgraphia are the addition of letter elements or their omission (x instead of, or vice versa), the mirror image of the letters.
Often, with the deviation in question, nonverbal symptoms are found: decreased performance, hyperactivity, neurological failures, distractibility, memory loss.
Disgraphing in adults is characterized by similar symptoms and is manifested by persistent errors when writing against the background of knowledge of spelling norms and rules of grammar.
Types and forms
The following forms of the disease under consideration can be distinguished: acoustic, articulatory-acoustic, agrammatic, optical, and dysgraphic, caused by a breakdown in the process of analyzing and summarizing the sign system that correlates the conceptual meaning and the typical sound (language).
The acoustic variation of dysgraphia is manifested by the substitution of letters corresponding to phonetically similar sounds. The specificity of this variety lies in the correct pronunciation of such sounds orally. Often when writing, sonorous letters are mixed with deaf, hissing - with whistling, components - with affricates enclosed in them. In addition, the considered variety of dysgraphics is also found in the wrong designation when writing soft consonants, for example, “bastard”, “letter”.
Disgrafia in children articulatory-acoustic form is to produce errors in writing due to the presence of violations of the sound pronunciation. In other words, the baby, based on his own wrong pronunciation, fixes it in writing. Therefore, as long as the sound pronunciation is uncorrected, we should not deal with the correction of the letter, based on pronouncing.
Agrammatic dysgraphia due to the immaturity of the grammatical structure of speech. The kid writes contrary to grammatical rules ("good bag", "funny girl"). Grammatical flaws on the letter are found in verbal constructions, their combinations, sentences. This variation of dysgraphia is more often found in third-graders. Here the student has already mastered literacy and has "come up close" to the comprehension of the rules of grammar, but the child cannot master the norms of inflection of the nominal parts of speech. This is found in the incorrect spelling of the morphemes standing in the end of the verbal construction and showing the connection of the word with other words.
Optical variation of dysgraphia is based on the underdevelopment of visual synthesis and analysis of spatial representations. All letters of the Russian alphabet are "staffed" with a set of certain elements ("ovals" and "sticks"), and consist of several "characteristic" elements. Similar components, in every possible way connecting in space, form various letters: and, sh, y. When a baby doesn’t grasp the differences between letters, this leads to difficulties in mastering the skills of writing letters, as well as to their incorrect reproduction in writing.
Disgraphing in younger schoolchildren, provoked by a disorder in the process of analyzing and generalizing the sign system, is considered the most common. She has such mistakes: missing letters and even syllables, “relocating” letters, syllables, writing additional words in a word, missing words, doubling letters, syllables, writing together with prepositions together, adding syllables from different words to the prefixes.
Some authors also highlight the motor form of dysgraphia, which is caused by difficulties in the work of brush movements when writing. In addition, there is a violation of the relationship of motor representations of words and sounds with visual images. As a result, a writing spasm is possible, which is characterized by the appearance of a change in the motor acts of the hand, which provokes deviations in the written activity. At the same time the ability to perform other actions by hand saved.
Diagnostic measures, first of all, include the exclusion of physiological causes, hearing anomalies and visual pathologies. Therefore, a survey is conducted by "narrow" specialists - an oculist, neuropathologist, and otolaryngologist.
In this case, first of all, in order to diagnose the violation in question, it is necessary to conduct a speech therapy study, since, in the first turn, it is necessary to assess the level of maturity of speech functions. Here it is important to determine whether the erroneous spelling of letters is dysgraphic or is it the usual ignorance, based on ignorance of the norms of spelling.
When examining children for dysgraphia, first and foremost, check:
- the degree of general development of the crumbs;
- the level of maturity of oral speech (here assess the quality of the pronunciation of sounds, the ability to distinguish them, the presence of phonemic generalization and analysis, the specifics of the grammatical construction of speech, vocabulary);
- the ability to carry out sound analysis;
- state of motor skills (speech and manual), the completeness of the articulation apparatus;
- the amount of vocabulary, correctness of speech construction;
- written speech (here is the analysis of the written works of the child, he is given a task consisting of such blocks: rewriting text, dictation, descriptions of pictures, reading by syllables and letters).
Also, in order to determine the causes of dysgraphies, a study of vision, hearing tests and maturity of the central nervous system is necessary. In addition, testing is conducted to identify the leading hand.
A method for assessing the skills of phonemic speech analysis is often used to detect this deviation in children of the early school period. Crumb give a few exercises that show the level of ability to verbally analyze the sound of a series of words. Testing includes tasks, performing which the child will demonstrate the ability to:
- recognize and emphasize the specified sound in the word;
- select images whose names begin with the indicated sound;
- to invent words;
- to divide sentences into words, then into syllables;
- match the words according to the sound composition;
- identify sound distortion in the words uttered by the crumb or by another individual;
- play several syllables behind the speech therapist.
In order to test a preschooler for the likelihood of dysgraphia, it is recommended to evaluate his approach to drawing, as well as the nature of the drawings themselves. If a three-four-year-old does not like to draw, then this often indicates the susceptibility of the baby to disgraphing. The drawings of a child with dysgraphia are distinguished by the presence of intermittent, torn, trembling lines, either made too weak or, on the contrary, by too strong pressing of a pencil
Correction and treatment
If a violation is found, it is necessary to immediately begin work to correct the defects of the letter.
Correctional program is determined in accordance with the type of deviation and is carried out by the following methods:
- performance of exercises that improve memory;
- learning a little spelling norms;
- work to increase vocabulary;
- performance of written exercises of various nature;
- the appointment of sedatives.
There are many ways to correct writing defects caused by dysgraphia. The most effective among them are the following methods: "word model", recognition of sounds and letters, Abbigauz Method, error correction.
The “word model” technique involves the use of cards with an image of an object and a schematic outline of a word. The kid is given a card on which an object is drawn and the word scheme is drawn. He needs, looking at the card, to identify the object and pronounce the sounds of the word in order. Then he needs to correlate each sound with the letter, and then write the word.
The method of recognizing sounds and letters involves the child writing a large number of letters. Then the little one needs to underline the words with the designated sound and write it. After that, the baby will need to find these letters in the word and sentences and cross them out. The last stage consists in working with drawings, the designation of which contains the sound being worked out.
Abbigauz method involves filling in the gaps in the words. The baby is given words familiar to him, but some letters are missing in them. The child must fill in the spaces with the correct letters, read the word and write it down correctly.
The method of correcting errors involves finding a tiny bit of errors, correcting them, and writing the correct words. The baby is given a card with a word in which an error is made, and they sound the word correctly. The child should find the error, correct it and correctly rewrite the word.
Preventive measures aimed at preventing violations of the reading process and writing defects should be introduced even at the preschool stage, especially in children with speech abnormalities. It is necessary to work towards the development of attention, visual images, spatial representations, memory, the formation of grammatical construction, vocabulary, the ability to conduct language analysis and synthesis, and the elimination of oral speech disorders.
For the prevention of the disease described, the entire environment surrounding the crumb must stimulate the development of his cognitive sphere, intellectual function.
From the stage of infancy, special attention should be paid to the full formation of oral speech activity, because the main foundation on which the letter is based is oral speech.
If a baby has certain problems in pronunciation or there are sound replacements, then it is necessary to eliminate the defects described and only after their elimination can be taken as a learning to read. Often there are cases when the crumbs are put sounds, however, he continues to confuse them in pronunciation. This also requires correction, since similar replacements are possible when writing.
Таким образом, основной акцент при проведении профилактических мер, направленных на предотвращение дисграфии, должен ставиться на обучение правильному звуковому разграничению и верному произношению.