Psychology and Psychiatry

Crisis of one year

The crisis of one year in a child is a natural stage of development, occurring in all children in approximately the same period (plus or minus three months). It is connected with serious changes in the process of interaction with the world and the acquisition of new skills, greater independence. During this period, the child becomes available vertical movement, an independent choice of direction. Such abilities open up opportunities for knowledge of the world and entail a desire to actively interact with previously unknown objects. Children tend to try to touch and taste what they have not previously contacted, and the criticism of the degree of danger and the ability to cope with the tasks has not yet been established, which adds problems to parents.

In addition to knowledge, another active function is being formed - defending one's opinion. This manifests itself in the form of whims and scandals with parents regarding the food being taken, pastime, going to bed and place of stay. The child has not yet learned how to compare his desires with reality, but he already has the opportunity to achieve his own goal independently - to go to a candy vase, get out of bed and sleep in a chair, and so on.

The desire to explore the world is a leading need in this age, so attempts to touch a hot stove or put your fingers in the socket are completely organic for a child and cause horror to parents. At the junction of internal desire and external prohibitions conflict is born, and as a result - scandals.

The reasons

At this age, the first feeling of independence appears, the child is really sure that he can cope with most of the tasks and situations, and even more so with the satisfaction of his desires. Parents, realizing the impossibility of this, continue to limit - to hold their hand while walking, to prohibit undertakings in the study of the garbage chute, to force them to eat useful things, and not just treats.

The crisis of one year is characterized by significant changes, and it is important to understand that these are not whims of harmfulness, but signals to change from one’s own attitude in interaction with the child.

Disrespect for the manifestation of personal interests and needs causes a protest. Moreover, if in adulthood people can consciously understand that they are limited and defend their positions verbally, then at such an early age there are only unconscious mechanisms of the psyche as regulatory factors. Just as in infancy, the child signaled any displeasure with crying and crying, he also continues to behave a year, sometimes adding brief comments about his reluctance. The less parents listen to what is happening and attach importance to the individual position of the child, the higher the degree of emotional reaction from pouting lips to hysteria with increasing temperature.

For about a year, for the first time, for the first time, the crumbs of self-awareness of themselves are a separate element, and not a continuation of the parental figures (in infancy, people do not differentiate the world between external and internal). Because of this acquired discovery and neoplasm, upholding one's own separateness and exclusivity is one of the leading tasks. At the border of conflicts, an understanding is born that he is not only separated from his parents, but is a person with completely different capabilities, characteristics and needs, for which other rules apply. This happens when confronted with prohibitions that are resolved by the elders, being aware of their strength in the face of difficulties and in many other moments.

At the same time, the parental opinion remains very significant for the child, which is reinforced by the instinct of self-preservation (if he is not comfortable, obedient and loved, he will not survive without adults). That is why any strict prohibition and acute emotional outburst of seniors are perceived not as an attempt to protect from danger, but as a manifestation of dislike for the child. These experiences are sometimes so traumatic that they leave a mark on all further development.

Crisis characteristics

The duration of a 1-year crisis varies from a week to months, due to the type of child’s nervous system and how parents react to changes in their psyche.

The symptoms of the crisis of one year are quite similar for all children and are based on the opportunity to understand the changes in their own development and the opportunities that are opening up thanks to them. The first thing that parents will have to face is disobedience and parenting difficulties. A child can be stubborn, capricious, arising from confidence in overcoming tasks (get a toy from the top shelf, carry a huge basin of water). Attempts by parents to help or limit are perceived as disbelief, impairment of its importance and cause only a desire to prove the opposite.

Despite the feeling of being separate, there is a strong fear of losing the mother (bordering on the fear of death). He will receive the missing attention in any way (persistence, complaints, demands, manipulations). There is a desire not to obey the parental requirements, but rather to command the parents. As a result, protest behavior may relate to refusal to perform the usual ritual procedures (bathing, eating, dressing). In a milder version, instead of giving up, the child will show a desire to do everything on his own.

There is an inconsistency of desires, when a child begs for a long time to go out and seeks home five minutes later, asks for water and immediately refuses. To perceive such behavior as a mockery is not worth it - the baby may become confused in desires, or wants to check how much older people listen to them.

An incomplete understanding of the rules of the new world can cause frequent mood swings and unexpected reactions — flashes of aggression or crying. Characteristic is a strong emotional seizure of their experiences, which is why it is difficult to calm the baby.

How to behave parents

Sharp changes in the behavior of the baby take the parents off guard, despite the general awareness of the crisis of the first year of life. Some try to ignore what is happening, others try to force everything back to its place. The way out is in the area of ​​understanding that change is inevitable and not only the child will have to adapt and learn new rules and requirements, but adults should also take into account the stages of development and the needs of the psyche.

To reduce the number of conflicting moments, it is necessary to eliminate prohibitions as much as possible. Naturally, no one has canceled the safety rules, so all items that contact with which is dangerous for children must be moved to inaccessible places - this is better than regularly forbidding them to touch. In moments of independence, you should be patient - let him dress what he wants and do it himself, help you with homework and so on. Even if you have to correct everything later, this is better, since the child himself learns new actions, with time he will understand his mistakes. Knowledge of the world as a leading activity cannot be pacified by prohibitions or attempts to do everything for the child, but you can discourage the hunt for activity or cause an attack of hysteria.

In childhood, the body still retains sensitivity, so you can not force to eat, drink or sleep when he does not want it. Just when he gets hungry, asking to feed, you can give food. Preferably, by giving a choice, a sense of autonomy and a feeling that parents listen to needs develops.

Do not stop communicating, remember that at this age, even to lose sight of parents is a huge stress for a child. And ignoring can seriously disrupt the balance of the child’s psyche. In addition, in the process of active interaction, you can satisfy his curiosity about the outside world under supervision and teaching the correct line of conduct.

Do without violence and pressure, the child already understands who is in charge here. Everything that he does is dictated by his own aspiration and need for development - the task of the parents is to help in this, to cooperate, not hinder. The desired behavior can be obtained using your own example. At such an early age, children transmit their behavior to adults without delay, so if you wash your hands, eat healthy foods, walk at the agreed time, then the child will perform all these actions. At this stage, he has nowhere to take other strategies of behavior, respectively, if the parents are not satisfied with something, you should start with your own changes.