Psychology and Psychiatry

Personality traits

Personality traits are a distinctive set of traits inherent in a person, expressing the peculiarity of states, psychological processes, aspects of character, and behavioral patterns in society or the natural environment. The qualities of a person’s personality are always personal. They have quantitative characteristics, and are therefore measured by degree, stage of development, or level.

The personality set of features is simultaneously characterized by stability (at the time of measurement) and dynamism, in other words, they are in constant development (over the years of human existence). Their development and transformation is due to the many conditions of biological orientation and social nature. The spirituality of the individual has a significant impact on their appearance and further development.

What it is

The personal qualities of people are the so-called personal "attributes" of a person, affecting all possible aspects of his life activity, starting with the choice of daily wardrobe and ending with professional preferences. Simply put, these are innate characteristics and acquired character traits. Some personal parameters can be modified due to the impact of society, life circumstances, others remain constant. Among psychologists there is a perception that the majority of personality traits is formed in the first five years of the existence of a child, in subsequent years they are only subject to adjustment.

To personality traits of innate nature include various features of character. For example, Cattell classifies to them the intellect, the peculiarities of the processes of memorization and perception, memory, musical or artistic talent, the fundamental properties of temperament.

In turn, Jung followed a similar theory and divided people according to their main subtypes into intuitive, sensory, sensory, mental.

Particularly influenced by personal characteristics when choosing a professional sphere. Most psychologists say that a person who is inappropriate for the chosen activity can never achieve success in it.

Moreover, each sphere of employment is characterized by a separate set of desirable personal qualities and undesirable. For example, a successful businessman needs the following "attributes": diligence, independence, purposefulness, adequacy of self-esteem, courage, responsibility, initiative, stress resistance and sociability. In addition, such parameters as uncertainty, aggressiveness and tactlessness should be absent.

The teacher must have observation, an adequate level of exactingness, tact. He should be balanced and attentive, but at the same time he should not have to be aggressive, not to be closed, irresponsible and not punctual.

All the qualities inherent in personality, and which are found throughout its existence, are related in pairs. They have a positive component and negative color in accordance with their orientation.

The main personality traits manifest the specifics of mental phenomena, characteristics and states of a person, express his character traits, temperament sides, peculiar behavior, extraordinary interaction with society, the environment, his own persona. Simply put, they show the individual psychological attributes of the individual. Also these qualities include the skills, knowledge and skills present in the subject.

A person who knows what personal qualities are can identify them in order to chart a course and ways of remedial work.

In addition, such knowledge will help to better understand relatives, colleagues and just surrounding subjects, will contribute to the optimal interaction with society and the preservation of relationships.

Thus, to know your own personal characteristics is necessary in order to understand how to further develop yourself. Whereas, understanding the characteristics of other subjects is important for determining compatibility and suggesting exactly which relationships can be established.

Positive qualities are usually maintained and develop steadily, from negative ones - most people diligently try to get rid of or correct.

At the same time, the division of personal qualities into parameters with a positive color and with a negative component is very conditional, since it is based on generally established moral and ethical standards. It should be understood that the non-black component will not be white, therefore the personality characteristics cannot be divided into good qualities and bad parameters.

Traditionally, the negative personal qualities include the following: deceit, duplicity, irresponsibility, neglect, aggression, rudeness, incontinence, laziness, carelessness, rudeness, hatred, excessive selfishness, inertia, weak character, sloth, insecurity, obedience, moronity, inactivity, weakness, sloth, uncertainty, obedience. , indifference, excessive self-criticism, envy, revenge, as well as many others.

The listed traits generate appropriate behavior. For example, a lazy subject, lazy in any activity, and an irresponsible one invariably fails others.

The presence of the above negative parameters harm both the owner, and the society, to close persons. However, they are perfectly amenable to correction. With a little effort, you can improve your own being, relationships with loved ones, colleagues, and just become happier.

Among the positive components of the personality of the individual are such as: kindness, compassion, empathy, diligence, responsibility, patience, peacefulness, diligence, friendliness, culture, morality, reliability, selflessness, directness, truthfulness, confidence, intelligence, reasonableness, optimism, commitment, cheerfulness , vigor, accuracy, attentiveness, tenderness, care. Damn with a positive color is much more than listed, as well as negative components.

The listed parameters with a “+” sign generate proper skills in the work environment, personal interaction, and social life.

From the above list of qualities with negative and positive color it is clear that there are features that express a person’s attitude to society, work, peace, things. All because the individual set of human characteristics is found in everything, starting from his friendly relationships and ending in the manner of dressing.

There are no people entirely composed of "good" qualities, however there are a huge number of individuals who have positive traits. At the same time, each individual is able to minimize the number of negative qualities in himself, replacing them with positive antagonists.

Socio-psychological qualities

Every day, people have to interact with society, expressing their own communication skills and a complex of social and psychological personality traits.

The concept of "personality" already implies a certain quality, since each subject must independently develop a personality in his own person. No one is born at once as a person. Such a process of formation is influenced by a lot of circumstances, and above all, it is education, the street environment, the conditions of existence.

Socio-psychological personal parameters are developed due to the influence of interaction with surrounding subjects, the result of which is the emergence of formed beliefs, social demands in relation to themselves, society.

Psychological traits and social characteristics are formed under the condition of the presence of communicative interaction with social subgroups. Social personality traits reflect its fundamental features that allow people to seize certain positions in society.

Socio-psychological parameters in the structure of personality subdivide individuals into three types: athletics, picnics and asthenics.

People belonging to the first variety, have the features of a socially energetic personality, seeking to stay in the circle of attention. Athletic wants to gain the confidence of others, to take a leading position in the social environment. Such personalities are quite expressive.

People of the second species quickly adapt to new conditions. They build relationships with other individuals in society, based on the ability to freely express their own beliefs, interests, principles, while avoiding conflict situations.

People belonging to the latter species are characterized by low sociability. They are introverts, not seeking to overgrow with connections, relationships and new acquaintances.

Socio-psychological personality traits are determined by:

- the content of the person’s worldview;

- interests and needs, the degree of rapid switchability from one to another or their stability, low content of interest needs, or vice versa;

- the level of integrity of such a worldview and personal attitudes;

- the degree of awareness of their own purpose in the social environment;

- extraordinary manifestation of a complex of various qualities.

Thus, a person for a healthy life should always develop social traits and psychological qualities in his own personality. Since the level of socio-psychological parameters of the person has a direct impact on the performance of activities.

Strong-willed personality traits

Many would undoubtedly want everything in life to flow by itself, so as not to have to make an effort. However, daily life dispels their dreams. After all, every day people have to solve many problems, they face a lot of difficulties and they are constantly forced to make efforts.

Even going to the nearest supermarket is already a bit of an effort. At the same time, in order to move forward and develop, people act, but the path of progress, each subject chooses individually. Its length and speed on it is most often due to the attitude of the individual to the difficulties, how much he intends to overcome in order to achieve the goal. Simply put, in this way a person uses his own volitional qualities.

By volitional qualities of personality include the following:

- decisiveness (the ability to instantly identify the purpose and trajectory of the path to its implementation, even in extreme circumstances);

- single-mindedness (confident progress towards the goal set, the determination to give time and make efforts in order to achieve it);

- perseverance (the ability to bring a new business to successive completion, not to deviate from the intended, not to look for a simpler way);

- courage (overcoming confusion and fear in sober understanding of potential hazards);

- endurance (self-control, the ability to restrain one’s own actions through the will, which impede the realization of the plan);

- discipline (meaningful subordination of their own actions to certain norms);

- independence (the ability to commit acts alone, not looking at the environment, as well as the behavior of other individuals to evaluate according to their own convictions).

It is believed that the human volitional parameters do not relate to innate qualities. It should be understood that their formation is due to temperament, which depends on the physiological characteristics of the nervous system. The response of people to certain life difficulties is related to the intensity and speed of reactions of the psyche, however, the formation of strong-willed personality parameters occurs only in the process of activity and experience.

The first manifestations of volitional acts are observed in the early childhood period, when the crumb tries to control himself (does not require immediate satisfaction of needs). Communication and cognition of the surrounding reality form a character in which the volitional traits will later take over the leading position in the structure of the personality.

Personal development occurs only in conditions of overcoming obstacles. Often, the more pronounced manifestations of a person’s volitional parameters are, the more successful his professional sphere, standard of living, social relationships, and satisfaction with his own being as a whole.

Everyone wants to be a strong personality, but very few people realize that a strong personality has exactly the qualities acquired, thanks to daily work and the struggle against life's obstacles. That is, simply put, a strong person is a subject who has developed strong-willed personality parameters, confidence and a positive outlook, since no troubles and obstacles can frighten or stop them.

Thus, all volitional characteristics of an individual are developed throughout existence, interaction and activity. At the same time, childhood is considered to be a particularly significant stage of such formation.

Moral qualities

Morality is the system of a person's internal values, which determine his behavioral response, attitude to the social environment, close people and his own person. The system of human internal norms is developed due to the impact of a variety of factors: family relationships, personal experience, school environment, and social relationships.

Morality is racial, humanistic, religious-fanatical, nationalistic, which is due to the values ​​that were the basis for the formation of the internal rules of man.

The moral formation of the child’s personality is determined by his perception of moral norms, knowledge of such norms, habits of behavioral reactions, and the inner position of the child.

For the development of the baby as a social creation, it is the knowledge of the norms of behavior that is of paramount importance. The preschool age of the child is characterized by the assimilation of social behavioral postulates through interaction with the environment (close people, peers, educators).

The assimilation of norms, above all, involves a gradual understanding and understanding of the role of the baby, as well as the development of behavioral habits through interaction with society. Emotionally sensed stimulating force is displayed in the habit - the child has to act in violation of normal behavior, which gives the child a feeling of discomfort. In addition, the assimilation of norms implies a baby’s absorption of a certain emotional attitude to norms.

Important personal qualities, such as tact, correctness, respectfulness, careful attitude to heritage, nature, are the basis on which the successful coexistence of man in society is built.

Among the primary moral qualities are the following:

- philanthropy (selfless help to people, kindness);

- loyalty (this feature has two directions: self, that is, following one’s own principles, ideals, and outside, which means loyalty to the Fatherland);

- respect;

- disinterestedness (deeds without personal gain);

- spirituality (a characteristic that includes moral aspects and religiosity, which exalts the spirit of a person).

Professional quality

Modern professional activities are quite diverse and complex. After all, there is a huge number of varieties of activities that people need to engage in, so that society can safely exist and progress. The specific type of work activity that an individual implements in order to thereby bring sense to society and show himself as an individual is called a profession.

Today, there are many crafts that allow people to take an active part in various areas of society. Some professions involve productive work, others - the service sector, others - management, and fourth - education.

The type of activity associated with production is characterized by certain specifics that impose specific requirements on the worker and the circumstances under which this activity proceeds. At the same time, one can single out a general requirement put forward by all professions, and it is called reliability. After all, all mechanisms, instruments of labor, and instruments must be reliable. In addition, all the psychophysical features and personality parameters of the employee must also be reliable.

Professional personality forging is an integral, movingly unfolding process, including the development of professional goals and the absolute realization of one’s own qualities in activity. The main contradiction of professional development is considered to be the clash between the established personal parameters and the objective requests of the main activity, the meaning of which covers its influence on the further development of the personality.

Embodying himself in activity, a person gradually changes, which gives rise to the reorganization of the motives of the main activity, the development of new personality parameters.

Professional skills, organization, initiative, accuracy, competence, punctuality, and dedication are usually referred to as professional qualities.

The primary psychological adjustment that ensures the timely and accurate performance of professional duties is self-control and the ability to improve it. Self-monitoring refers to the ability of an individual to accurately assess the implementation of work activity, to timely detect and eliminate the blunders. Self-control can be embodied under the condition of understanding what should be controlled and according to which pattern it is necessary to make this control. If these parameters are not clearly specified, then self-control is complicated and the person cannot establish the correlation of the planned with the existing one in time.

The development of self-control is a steady desire to learn the most effective techniques and methods of performing professional duties.

The abilities described above are inextricably interconnected with such a personal parameter as responsibility, which implies the desire of a person to realize his own work activity in such a way as to bring the maximum sense to society. An irresponsible employee will be negligent in their professional duties, to allow miscalculations in their work.