Imbecility - this is dementia, which is a moderate degree of oligophrenia, expressed in intellectual underdevelopment. The disease is caused by a delay in the development of the brain of the fetus or baby in the first years of life.

Imbecility is externally noticeable in the form of physical as well as mental abnormalities. The ability to learn from imbeciles is limited to reading by syllables, counting items and money. Emotions and thinking in patients are inert, as well as stiff. Imbeciles by constant training and imitation are accustomed to the simplest work. Changing the situation for those suffering from imbecility is hard. Blind imitation and increased suggestibility can cause asocial behavior.

The imbecility makes up to 20% of the total number of cases of oligophrenia, and the prevalence of the disease reaches the 4th case per 10,000.

Imbecile causes and symptoms

Causes of imbecility lie in hereditary factors (microcephaly, Down syndrome, intrauterine fetal damage, past infectious diseases by the mother, rubella, toxoplasmosis, syphilis), immunological incompatibility of the blood of the fetus and mother, various harmful effects on the fetus, birth injuries.

In mobility imbecile sufferers are poorly undeveloped, movements are angular and not coordinated. Minor, precise, manual motor acts are not available for them. Their gait is often stiff, clumsy, hunched.

The face of imbeciles does not have a mimic game, it is frozen, dull, blinking of the eyes is very rare. Many patients have pronounced congenital stigmas (bulging ears, adherent lobes, defective occlusion, coarse facial structure, microcephalic or hydrocephalic skull). Imbecile sufferers have focal neurological symptoms. It is difficult for such patients to master the skills of tidiness, however, they are happy to take up good work, they are proud of their successes and express displeasure, anger, if someone litters in the place they have cleaned. In this case, patients reveal poor switching and extreme lack of independence.

Characteristic of imbecility

IQ is determined by imbeciles in the range of 20-50. The international classification of diseases identifies imbecility, as pronounced, in which (IQ is 20-35), as well as moderately pronounced, in which (IQ is 35-50).

Those who suffer from imbecility understand well the speech addressed to them, they are able to pronounce short phrases, but their speech is poor and also has inaccuracies. The active dictionary consists of 200-300 words. Patients' thinking is consistent, concrete, primitive, distractions are not available for them, the stock of information is extremely narrow. Such people are characterized by a sharp underdevelopment of memory, attention, and will.

Characteristics of imbecility include the following signs: lack of initiative, inertia, suggestibility, and loss in a new environment. It is possible for those suffering from imbecileism to inculcate the simplest labor skills, to teach in counting, reading, writing. Individuals are able to learn how to perform simple counting operations, as well as learn non-complex labor skills and self-serve. They are capable of rewinding threads, cleaning the yard or premises, performing one operation (for example, gluing boxes, washing dishes).

Emotions in patients more diverse than idiots. They react adequately to censure and praise, have a strong attachment to their relatives. Those suffering from imbecile are devoid of any initiative, are inert, suggestible, are easily lost in the changed situation. Such people constantly need supervision and care, and an unfavorable environment can make imbeciles asocial. Those suffering from imbecileness do not have the ability to generalize, abstract thinking.

Degree of imbecility

In this disease, there are three levels of imbecility: severe, moderate and mild. All of them are expressed in various levels of mental underdevelopment. The assimilation of new material is given to patients with great difficulties. This occurs within the framework of concrete ideas and without any generalization. Independent thinking imbeciles are incapable. Adaptation to the world around them is carried out only in a familiar and familiar atmosphere. A slight change in the situation leads the patient to difficult moments, and he constantly needs guidance.

Imbecile sufferers are highly suggestible. Their personal interests are very primitive and boil down mainly to the fulfillment of physiological needs. Often they are voracious and sloppy to eat. Their sexual behavior is characterized by differences with increased sexual desire and licentiousness.

In their behavior oligophrenia in the degree of imbecility is divided into two groups. The first includes living, active, mobile, and the second includes sluggish and apathetic, indifferent, unresponsive people. By character traits distinguish among imbeciles friendly, good-natured, docile, sociable and aggressive, malicious. Those who suffer from imbecility cannot live independently, they need constant qualified supervision. To do this, they are determined in special schools, in institutions such as medical and labor workshops.

Imbecile treatment

The treatment is focused on the proper upbringing, as well as the management of the actions of the sick. Doctors prescribe nootropic drugs, antipsychotics, tranquilizers; recommended classes in the system with a speech therapist, a neuropsychiatrist, shown training at home.

Regular school environments cannot be tolerated by such patients. Children may have speech defects (stuttering, lisping, tongue-tied), which requires correction. Imbeciles can be taught to count, read, write, but complex arithmetic operations are beyond their power.

The asocial environment has a bad effect on imbeciles, for which reason patients pose a threat to society. With the development of pathological uncontrollable situations, patients are hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital.

Treatment of imbecility is conditionally divided into specific (causal) and symptomatic. Specific therapy is carried out with phenylketonuria, as well as other enzymopathies. Hypothyroidism is treated with compensating hormone therapy (thyroidin); congenital syphilis, toxoplasmosis is treated with antibiotics, drugs Arsenic, Chloridin; brain infections in children are treated with antibiotics, sulfa drugs.

The effectiveness of treatment is the more successful, the earlier it is started. Great is the value of remedial treatment and educational activities.

The forecast directly depends on the depth of mental retardation. Primary prophylaxis includes medical genetic counseling. Such counseling is carried out on the territory of medical and genetic institutions.

Symptomatic therapy uses drugs that stimulate brain metabolism, these include (Cerebrolysin, Nootropil, Aminalon); B vitamins; psychostimulants (Phenamine, Sidnocarb); dehydrating agents (Lasix, Magnesium Sulphate, Diacarb); drugs absorbing effect (iodide Kalia, Biyohinol); biogenic stimulants. Convulsive syndrome is eliminated by the systematic administration of antiepileptic drugs.