Cyclothymia - This is an affective mental disorder characterized by mood swings and which is very close to vague dysthymia, as well as hyperthymia with episodes of hypomania. Pathological changes in mood occur as a separate or dual episodes, separated by mental health states or their alternation, are characteristic of cyclothymia. This mental disorder is characteristic of a young age, and often turns into a protracted chronic course.

Cyclothmy usually manifests itself in spring or autumn. The duration of the individual phases of the disease reaches six months. Women get sick more often than men because of their tendency to melancholy. 25% of all ill people have only one phase of the disease.

Cyclothation, as a term, was often used to describe bipolar disorder, and in the traditional medical classification it was considered as one of the unexpressed variants of the cyclofrenia class.

In comparison, it is noted that the prevalence of cyclothymia is significantly higher than the psychotic affective disorders. But nevertheless, it is necessary to take into account that at the first signs of depression, up to 50% of the patients turn for help, 60% of which are treated by general practitioners, and the second half of people want to hide the symptoms of depression.

Hypomania in cyclothymia is often not perceived by people as a disease, especially if it is approaching hyperthymia. Much less often these states are in the field of view of psychiatric specialists. In this regard, a significant portion of patients are not diagnosed. Therefore, the real prevalence of cyclothymia is significantly higher than the figures given.

Cyclothymia includes cycloid personality disorders. German psychiatry refers to the disease all diseases of a manic-depressive nature, independent of the severity and the specific form of the disorder.

The term cyclothymia was proposed by K. Calbaum in 1882. Diseases of a neuropsychic tone with periods of fluctuations of unsharp excitement with weak pronounced depression were referred to this term. After Kraepelin attributed manic-depressive psychosis to the nosological unit, cyclotime was transferred to the central core of endogenous affective diseases. Further, non-psychotic and psychotic forms of bipolar disorder joined the disease.

Cyclothymia causes

In patients with mood changes are not associated with external circumstances, however, individual episodes are caused by psychogenic, which refers to stressful situations. In general, a predisposition to this disease is inherited.

Cyclothymia is often noted in relatives of patients with bipolar psychosis, which can later lead to bipolar disorder or to cyclic depression with its varieties.

Cyclothymia and its causes are not fully understood, but there remains an increased risk of occurrence due to genetic factors. In this case, there is not just one gene that would be responsible for the occurrence of cyclothymia.

The classification of cyclothymia includes the following types of depression: apathetic, vital, anesthetic.

Hypomaniac phases are marked, both erased and approaching hyperthymia, and differ in psychopathological, vital features, and also stand out in the somatopsychic and personal sphere.

Cyclothymia symptoms

Symptoms of cyclothymia have much in common with signs of bipolar disorder, but they are less pronounced. Often the patient is prone to depression (phases of depression) which is then replaced by an upbeat mood (hypomania or hyperthymia). If there are episodes of mania or clinical depression, the diagnosis of cyclothymia is not considered.

Cyclothmy is usually marked by the following symptoms: loss of interest in communicating with people, impaired concentration, difficulty making decisions, memory problems, helplessness, hopelessness, apathy, irritability, guilt, lack of motivation and confidence, low self-esteem, increased or decreased appetite, ideas self-destruction, decreased libido, sleep disturbances, fatigue, euphoria, ambitious plans, hypochondria.

It is important to differentiate cyclotime from hypomania. The symptoms of hypomania manifest themselves in a constant slight elevation of mood for several days. People have increased activity and energy, a sense of well-being, as well as physical and mental productivity. People are characterized by increased socialization, excessive familiarity, talkativeness, increased sexual activity, reduced need for sleep, irritability, increased self-esteem, anger, rude behavior, frustrated attention.

During those periods when irritability and mixed symptoms prevail, the sick conflict for no reason with everyone: with employees, with friends, with family members. Complaints to a psychiatrist are usually associated with difficulties in relationships, disorganization, low efficiency in activities. Patients often abuse drugs and alcohol. Many are involved in religious cults and dilettantism.

Cyclothymia treatment

The goal of treatment is to stop the current episode as well as prevent relapse. In severe form of cyclothymia with a tendency to suicide, hospitalization in a closed-type psychiatric hospital is indicated.

In a condition where there are no concerns, outpatient treatment is carried out with the use of antidepressants. Rapid change of the phases of the disease is treated with lithium preparations.

Treatment of cyclothymia is the use of psychotropic drugs and the use of psychotherapy. Psychotropic drugs are necessary to normalize the mood and improve the patient's well-being. This is effective if for example the patient suffers significantly from mood swings. Psychotherapy gives the patient a sense of security, helps to cope with mood swings. Effective also in the treatment of light therapy, used in seasonal depression. Such methods as ECT and sleep deprivation are well recommended. If necessary, make an intravenous drip of antidepressants, combined with nootropics, tranquilizers, benzamide neuroleptics.

Cyclothyme treatment is often carried out on an outpatient basis. In the case of hospitalization, it is necessary to limit the time of hospitalization of the patient until such time as active methods of therapy are used. In this way, the influence of the inaction factor on patients is reduced and hospitalism is prevented.

If, however, the therapy is carried out outside the hospital, then the collaboration of the patient with the doctor is of particular importance. It is very important to interest the patient in the treatment process aimed at recovery. Therefore, it is necessary to have a positive attitude, to adhere to the treatment regimen, not deviating from the scheme.

It has been established that the majority of patients stop taking antidepressants a month later, whereas it is more expedient to continue therapy to consolidate the effect for up to six months. In this case, the task of the doctor is to stop the prejudice that psychotropic drugs are harmful and to convince of the effectiveness of the treatment.