Dysphoria is a mood disorder characterized by tension, as well as melancholy-spiteful irritability, reaching an explosion of anger with aggressiveness. Often this disorder is observed in such diseases as psychopathy, as well as epilepsy.

Dysphoria is the antonym of the term euphoria. The term dysphoria has been termed Greek, meaning torment and suffering. This manifestation is very painful for a person.

Dysphoria causes

The disease is observed in such diseases as dysmorphophobia, schizophrenia, hypoglycemia. Insomnia, chronic pain, sexual disorders, hyperthyroidism, Cushing's disease, epilepsy, flu, rheumatism leads to the causes of this disease.

Dysphoria is able to be present in the structure of the depressive syndrome, and also often as an acute reaction to stress. The disorder is often found in drug addiction, anxiety neurosis, premenstrual syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, in case of personality disorder (borderline personality disorder or dissocial personality disorder).

Dysphoria symptoms

This disorder is characterized by a feeling of hostility towards others, gloomy irritability. The disease does not have mental or motor inhibition, but on the contrary, it is characterized by frequent affective outbursts and ease in the manifestation of aggression.

Mild dysphoria is characterized by nagging, grumbling, touchy, and sometimes sarcastic and irony. Often, mild dysphoria environment perceives a characteristic feature of the individual.

Mild dysphoria is characteristic of febrile patients, as well as patients taking high doses of steroids - adrenal hormones. In some cases there is a modified affect, in others hostility and varying degrees of irritation. Inherent in movement disorders.

In some patients, a hindered state is observed, in others, increased activity and psychomotor agitation. Excitation with mild dysphoria is often monotonous and silent, whereas with short flashes it is accompanied by inarticulate sounds, shouts. Patients complain that it is difficult for them to concentrate, to think, they do not always understand that they are asked. In cases where the disorder is delayed longer than a week, autonomic and somatic disorders are recorded: sleep disturbance, loss of appetite, and as a result, weight loss, dry mucous membranes, fluctuations in blood pressure, tachycardia.

Severe dysphoria is marked by anger, melancholy, a sense of hopelessness, despair, as well as outbursts of rage and is characterized by a feeling of frustration, general dissatisfaction, loss of interest in life. Prolonged stay in this state can provoke the use of alcohol, drugs, and also push to commit unlawful acts or suicide. Sometimes it seems that the mood of the patient is a manifestation of an adequate response to situations in which he falls, but the frequency and frequency of symptoms suggest that it is a dysphoric disease.

In rare cases, the disorder manifests itself as a state of exaltation, characterized by talkativeness, enthusiasm, reasoning about the ideas of greatness and delusions. Often the disease is observed with a length of 2-3 days, much less delayed up to several weeks, and then stop unexpectedly.

In older people, the disorder proceeds as a mild depressive state with anxiety symptoms. Younger people tend to be picky and irritable. When somatogenic dysphoric disorders there is no nastiness, affective tension, and stupor less pronounced in contrast to epilepsy. The disease is accompanied by various disorders of the autonomic nervous system. In rare cases, the disease manifests itself as mild euphoria or apathy.

Dysphoria can often be exposed and healthy people. Sullenness and gloomy mood overtakes a person like a thundercloud and then there is a sensitivity to all actions of others, as well as a tendency to aggressive outbursts. Many researchers attribute the disorder to varieties of non-convulsive seizures.

How to differentiate dysphoria from depression?

Dysphoria is obsession, impatience, surprise, self-aggression, sudden finding, aggression. Mood changes, as acutely occur, as suddenly disappear.

Depression, on the other hand, has persistent symptoms and is cured by the sun, daylight. And dysphoria is that someone else is worse than yours and the realization of this results in relief of the state. The highest peak of dysphoria is to bring trouble to someone who feels good for him.

Gender dysphoria

This condition is a disorder of gender identity, in which a person is not able to recognize and accept the gender status of a woman or a man, and for this reason he feels acute dissatisfaction.

Gender dysphoria has various causes that lead to external manifestations as well as duration. For example, if a person’s behavior or physical appearance does not correspond to gender norms, then in this case they speak of gender non-conformity.

If a person violates gender boundaries through disguise - this is transvestism. The profound form of gender disorder includes transsexuality, in which an individual rejects gender status, changes sex through surgery, changes passport.

It is necessary to differentiate gender dysphoria from homosexuality, since these are different phenomena. Many people who experience gender dysphoria are mentally normal, but in spite of this, it can still be combined with mental disorders. In this regard, sex reassignment surgery is carried out after a psychiatric examination.

gender dysphoria photo

Premenstrual dysphoria

This condition develops in women experiencing premenstrual syndrome. The condition is characterized by low mood, depression, insomnia, a feeling of physical and mental discomfort, tearfulness, pain in the body.

Often a woman feels tired, depressed, with great difficulty concentrates attention. This disorder begins five days before the onset of menstruation and gradually disappears with the onset of menstruation. These symptoms are cyclical.

The diagnosis of premenstrual dysphoria is established if the symptoms affect the condition of the woman and interfere with the quality of her life.

Dysphoria treatment

The tactics of treatment of dysphoric disorders depends on the characteristics of the species, as well as the course of the disease. If there is epileptic dysphoria, then antiepileptic drugs or barbiturates are most effective in the treatment. Effectively combining neuroleptics with anticonvulsant therapy. Mild forms of the disease are stopped by Neuleptil.

The atypical nature of the twilight state is removed by neuroleptics. Affective background, consisting of anger and irritability, is treated by the addition of sedatives. If signs of depression, depressed state occur, antidepressants are recommended (Melipramine, etc.). Patients with a pronounced form are placed in a psychiatric hospital.

Treatment of premenstrual form includes taking oral contraceptives with lithium and progesterone drugs. Treatment with tranquilizers and antidepressants is also effective.

If a gender form is suspected, a psychiatric examination is appointed and only then the doctor builds an individual patient treatment program. In severe cases, sex change surgery is recommended.