Psychology and Psychiatry

Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness characterized by frequent changes in mood, energy changes that are not typical, which can lead to serious consequences. This chronic disease affects in adults the quality of work, in children - the deterioration of school, in extreme cases, entails suicidal tendencies. In terms of symptoms, bipolar disorder is similar to a psychological disorder, the consequences of which cause suffering not only to a sick person, but to everyone around him. However, bipolar disorder is curable, and a person suffering from this chronic disease needs constant prophylaxis. In rare cases, the disease manifests itself at an early age. Adolescents and older schoolchildren are in the main risk group.

Bipolar disorder is very difficult to determine, and sometimes it happens that this disease is already determined in people of retirement age. This disease has two opposite poles of impaired emotional behavior. Absolutely all people have frequent mood changes, seemingly for no reason: now we laugh, then we cry. And that's fine. In a patient with bipolar disorder, such mood swings go to the extreme limits of a depressive or manic state and sometimes last for years.

Bipolar affective disorder

This condition is a serious disease expressed by depressive and manic periods, which alternate with the normal state of the human psyche. Bipolar affective disorder is inherent in almost 1.5% of the population. Recognizing and correctly diagnosing this disease is very difficult. From the moment a patient visits a doctor, sometimes 8 or more years pass. Symptoms of bipolar affective disorder in some may manifest themselves 1-2 times a year, and in others - every day, replacing the excited manic state with a depressive state.

Bipolar affective disorder is known worldwide. It affects a huge number of people, lowering their standard of living, limiting their ability to work. Mental instability, mood swings are serious signs of bipolar disorder.

Bipolar affective disorder, known as manic-depressive psychosis, manifests itself in the form of manic and depressive states, and sometimes in two forms simultaneously. The patient has a frequent change of behavior: from the symptoms of mania, manifested in aggression, euphoria, to severe depression with obvious signs of inhibition. Between these conditions, the patient is calm and healthy, behaving like a person with a balanced psyche. Mania can be expressed in a person’s excessive excitement, a surplus of energy in which he is in a euphoric state, mindlessly wasting money, solving “global problems”. The patient's sleep is disturbed, absent-mindedness is noticed, speech becomes abrupt, accelerated, it is almost impossible to kill him. There is no strict order of manifestation of these phases of morbidity.

People suffering from bipolar affective disorder may also suffer other nervous disorders. Overnight, the state of mania turns into bipolar depressive disorder, in which a person falls down in spirit, loses his physical strength, shows anger, hatred of everything around him. Sometimes thoughts of suicide flash, addiction to drugs arises.

Bipolar depressive disorder is observed in those who have been depressed for 2–3 years three to four times. And each attack lasted several weeks or months. At the same time, the period of time during which a person led a normal, measured lifestyle, turned out to be very small.

Relatives of the patient sometimes do not understand the behavior of a loved one, do not consider his oddities a mental illness. They write off all on the harmful nature, bad mood.

Bipolar disorder causes

The causes of this chronic disease to date so thoroughly and have not been studied. There is no one single reason. There is a combination of several factors. Scientists are inclined to believe that hereditary genes play one of the defining roles, passing from one generation to another. Plus added to the individual person.

Now scientists are studying the brain, the structure of a person who is overtaken by bipolar disorder. And we can already say that it is significantly different from the brain of a healthy person. In the future, scientists will be able to understand the occurrence of the causes of the disease, make a diagnosis as soon as possible and prescribe the correct treatment.

Bipolar disorder and its causes are often recurring stressful situations, side effects from the use of certain drugs during the treatment of other diseases.

Bipolar disorder symptoms

In a patient with bipolar disorder, all periods of mania and depression recur. In the "light" gaps symptoms of the disease is missing. But residual symptoms are present in one third of patients. Most often, the disease manifests itself in a depressed state, the main symptoms of the disease are usually seen in the morning and afternoon hours, fading towards evening.

Patients lose their appetite, the sense of taste of food disappears, significant weight loss is possible. In the elderly, there is a constant anxiety, a presentiment of some exciting event.

Regular recurrence of episodes of mania and depression is called type II bipolar disorder, in which these symptoms manifest themselves in a mild form.

Bipolar disorder II type is determined by more pronounced symptoms of mania, sometimes hypomania, and depressive state. Some patients experience a change of mood several times during the day. Women more often than men have symptoms of type II.

Bipolar disorder is marked by several phases and each person has a different number of them. Sometimes the symptoms of the disease can appear in acute form only once in a lifetime, but last for a long time.

In the manic phase of the disease, there are five stages.

1. Hypomania is manifested by elevated mood, repetitive periods of physical vigor. At the same time, a person's speech is fast, often intermittent, the topics of conversation change rapidly, attention is dissipated.

2. At the stage of severe mania, the symptoms of bipolar disorder increase. Patients laugh all louder, speech is more and more incoherent, attention is missing. Mania greatness manifests itself. A person thinks that he can "move mountains", impracticable ideas are expressed, the duration of sleep is reduced.

3. During the stage of manic fury, the symptoms of the disease reach their maximum level: the behavior becomes uncontrollable, the randomness of body movements increases, the speech is incoherent, consisting of fragments of phrases or words.

4. The fourth stage - the stage of calm movement, while maintaining the euphoric mood.

5. The reactive stage is characterized by a return to the normal state of a person and even by possible inhibition.

The depressive phase is distinguished by the following four stages:

1. At the initial stage of depression in a person, physical performance gradually decreases, mood disappears, the general vitality weakens, there is a slight difficulty in falling asleep.

2. The next stage - the growing depression. There is a markedly noticeable decrease in mood, a slowdown in movement, a drop in working capacity. Sleepless sleep develops into insomnia, appetite decreases.

3. The third stage - severe depression, in which the periods of the disease reached the maximum level. The patient becomes quiet, reticent, responds in monosyllables, almost in a whisper. It may be stationary, for a long time without looking at one object. There are thoughts of self-deprecation, their own uselessness

4. The fourth stage is reactive. The patient recovers, the behavior returns to normal.

The duration of the phases is not precisely determined, but the patient himself can feel the approach of one of the states and accurately determine his symptoms. Sometimes these people listen to their behavior and, as it were, await the onset of symptoms of bipolar disorder.

Bipolar mental disorder

In rare cases, psychosomatic symptoms appear in the latter stages of the disease. This is primarily a hallucination in any of their manifestations: sound, delusional or visual. The patient is inherent in delusions of grandeur with manifestations of manic symptoms. He sees himself as the head of state, in the guise of a very influential person.

Bipolar disorder of the human psyche in the stage of depression is expressed in the denial of the good around, everything is seen in a distorted form, there is a feeling of being useless for others, a burden for them. The patient is confident in their economic insecurity, especially if money problems currently exist. With these symptoms, an erroneous diagnosis of a severe mental illness, schizophrenia, is sometimes made.

Bipolar mental disorder is often not associated with illness. Alcohol abuse, drug addiction, failure to work or problems in your personal life are the causes of the disease.

Bipolar personality disorder

Bipolar personality disorder manifests itself with frequent changes in manic, depressive, and mixed states, sometimes one state flows into another. Bipolar personality disorder is often called a hereditary disease. The age of patients ranges from 18 to 30 years. The descendants of these people also have a tendency to this disease.

Bipolar personality disorder is divided into several types. The first type includes people who have had at least one manic episode of the disease in their lives. To the second - people with depressive episode of the disease. Most often there is depression, in which a person can be a large part of his life.

During the disease there are mixed episodes that occur at different stages of the disease. The most noticeable are the periods when a patient has symptoms of bipolar disorder 4 or more times a year.

Treatment of bipolar disorder

The most important thing in the treatment of bipolar disorder is to choose the right scheme and clearly adhere to it. Thus, mood changes and associated symptoms of the disease stabilize.

Treatment of bipolar disorder must necessarily take place in the complex: drug and psychological, which is the best option to control the course of the disease.

Treatment of bipolar disorder should proceed without interruption prescribed by the doctor of the course. If, during the course of treatment, a change of mood occurs again, you need to contact your doctor to change the prescribed drugs and treatment plan. The more thoroughly and frankly we discuss the problems that arise with a psychiatrist, the more effective the cure process will be.

If the disease is not running, then you can contact the therapist. But it is best to be under the control of a psychiatrist, preferably a graduate with a great practice of treatment in this area.

First of all, the psychiatrist prescribes a medicine like Lithium. This drug stabilizes mood. Lithium is an effective remedy for bipolar affective disorder, prevents the development of symptoms of manic and depressive disorders.

Together with the main drugs prescribed additional, such as Valproate, carbamazepine, which are anticonvulsants. Another drug prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder is aripiprazole. Available in tablets, in liquid form or in the form of injections. For problems with insomnia, drugs such as clonazepam and lorazepam are prescribed, but they are prescribed at the first stage of the disease so as not to cause addiction.

In combination with medical treatment, psychotherapy is recommended. It is very important that the relatives and friends of the patient with bipolar disorder understand the seriousness of the disease and help him quickly adapt to a normal life.