Personality is a qualitative individual characteristic that combines the stable and permanent properties of the psyche that determine the behavior and characteristics of a person’s relationship. Literally, translated from Greek, character means omen, trait. Character in the structure of personality combines in itself a combination of its various qualities and properties, which imprint on behavior, activity and individual manifestation. The set of essential, and most importantly, stable properties and qualities determine the whole lifestyle of a person and his ways of reacting in a given situation.
The nature of the individual is formed, defined and formed throughout his life. The relationship of nature and personality is manifested in the activities, communication, causing the typical ways of behavior.
Any feature is a stable and unchanging stereotype of behavior.
Characteristic personality traits in a general sense can be divided into those that set the general direction for the development of manifestations of character in the complex (leading), and those that are determined by the main directions (secondary). Leading features allow you to reflect the very essence of character and show the main important of its manifestations. It should be understood that any trait of a person’s character will reflect the manifestation of his attitude to reality, but this does not mean that any of his attitude will be a direct trait of character. Depending on the living environment of the individual and certain conditions, only some manifestations of the relationship will become defining traits of character. Those. A person may react aggressively to one or another irritant of the internal or external environment, but this will not mean that the person is malicious by nature.
In the structure of the nature of each person there are 4 groups. The first group includes the features that determine the basis of the personality, its core. These include: honesty and insincerity, fidelity of principle and cowardice, courage and cowardice, and many others. To the second - traits that show the attitude of the individual directly to other people. For example, respect and contempt, kindness and malice, and others. The third group characterizes the relationship of the individual to itself. It includes: pride, modesty, arrogance, vanity, self-criticism, and others. The fourth group is related to work, the activity or work performed. And it is characterized by such traits as diligence and laziness, responsibility and irresponsibility, activity and passivity, and others.
Some scientists additionally single out another group that characterizes a person’s attitude to things, for example, neatness and negligence.
Also distinguish such typological properties of character traits as abnormal and normal. Normal features are inherent in people who have a healthy psyche, and abnormal ones include people with a variety of mental illnesses. It should be noted that similar personality traits can relate to both anomalous and normal. It all depends on the severity or whether it is an accentuation of character. An example of this is healthy suspicion, but when it goes off scale, it leads to paranoia.
The decisive role in the formation of personality traits is played by society and the attitude of the person towards him. You cannot judge a person without seeing how he interacts with the team, without considering his affections, antipathies, companionship or friendly relations in society.
The attitude of the individual to any type of activity is determined by his relationship with other persons. Interaction with other people can encourage a person to be active and innovate or to keep in suspense, to generate his lack of initiative. An individual's self-image is determined by his relationships with people and attitudes towards activity. The basis for the formation of the consciousness of the person is directly related to other individuals. The correct assessment of the character traits of another person’s personality is a fundamental factor in the formation of self-esteem. Also, it should be noted that with a change in human activity, not only the methods, methods and subject of this activity change, but also the attitude of the person towards himself in the new role of the actor.
The main feature of character in the structure of personality is - its certainty. But this does not mean the dominance of one trait. The character may be dominated by several features that are contradictory or non-contradictory. A character may lose its certainty in the absence of its distinct features. The system of moral values and beliefs of the individual is also a leading and determining factor in the formation of the characteristics of character. They establish a long-term orientation of individual behavior.
The characteristics of an individual’s character are inextricably linked with his stable and deep interests. The lack of integrity, self-sufficiency and independence of the individual is closely interrelated with the instability and superficiality of the interests of the individual. And, on the contrary, integrity and purposefulness, perseverance of a person directly depends on the content and depth of his interests. However, the similarity of interests does not yet imply the similarity of the personality characteristics. For example, among scientists one can meet both cheerful people and sad ones, both good and evil.
To understand the characteristics of the character of the person should also pay attention to his affection, leisure. This may reveal new facets and features of character. It is also important to pay attention to the conformity of the actions of a person with his established goals, because the individual is characterized not only by action, but also by how he produces them. The focus of activity and the actions themselves form the dominant spiritual or material needs and interests of the individual. Therefore, character should be understood only as a unity of the image of acts and their orientation. It is on the combination of the personality traits of a person and his properties that a person’s real achievements depend, and not on the presence of mental abilities.
Temperament and personality
The relationship of character and personality is also due to the temperament of the individual, abilities and other parties. And the concepts of temperament and personality character form its structure. Character is an aggregate of an individual's qualitative properties that determine his actions, manifested in relation to other people, actions, things. While temperament is a combination of the properties of the individual psyche, affecting his behavioral responses. For the manifestation of temperament meets the nervous system. Character is also inextricably linked with the psyche of the individual, but his features add up throughout life under the influence of the external environment. And temperament is an innate parameter that cannot be changed, you can only restrain its negative manifestations.
The reason for the character is temperament. Temperament and character in the structure of personality are closely interrelated with each other, but at the same time they are different from each other.
Temperament contains mental differences between people. It differs in the depth and strength of the manifestations of emotions, activity of actions, impressionability and other individual, stable, dynamic features of the psyche.
It can be concluded that temperament is an innate foundation and basis on which a personality is formed as a member of society. Therefore, the most stable and permanent personality traits are temperament. It is equally manifested in any activity, regardless of its focus or content. Remains unchanged and in adulthood.
So, temperament is the personal characteristics of the individual, which determine the dynamic course of his behavior and mental processes. Those. the concept of temperament characterizes the pace, intensity, duration of mental processes, external behavioral reaction (activity, slowness), but not conviction in views and interests. It is also not a definition of the value of the individual and does not determine its potential.
There are three important components of temperament, which are related to the general mobility (activity) of a person, his emotionality and motor skills. In turn, each of the components has a rather complex structure and is distinguished by various forms of psychological manifestation.
The essence of activity lies in the individual's striving for self-expression, the transformation of the external component of reality. In this case, the very direction, the quality of the implementation of these trends is determined just by the characterological characteristics of the individual and not only. The degree of such activity can be from lethargy and to the highest manifestation of mobility - a constant rise.
The emotional component of the temperament of the personality is a combination of properties that characterize the characteristics of the flow of various feelings and moods. This component is the most complex in its structure in comparison with the others. Its main characteristics are lability, impressionability and impulsiveness. Emotional lability is the speed with which one emotional state is replaced by another or ceases. Under the impressionability understand the susceptibility of the subject to the emotional influences. Impulsiveness is the speed at which an emotion turns into a motivating cause and force of actions and deeds without first thinking through them and making an informed decision to carry them out.
The character and temperament of the person are inextricably linked. The dominance of one type of temperament can help with determining the nature of the subjects as a whole.
Types of personality traits
Today in the specific literature there are many criteria by which the types of personality character are determined.
The typology proposed by E. Krechmer is now the most popular. It consists in the division of people into three groups depending on their physique.
Picnic people are people who are prone to the formation of overweight or slightly plump, of small stature, but with a large head, a broad face and a shortened neck. The type of character they have is cyclothymic. They are emotional, sociable, easily adapting to a variety of conditions.
Athletic people are tall and broad-shouldered people, with well developed muscles, a hardy skeleton and a powerful chest. They correspond to the Ixotic type of character. These are powerful people and quite practical, calm and unimpressive. Ixotimists are restrained in gestures and facial expressions, poorly adapted to change.
Asthenic people are people who are prone to thinness, the muscles are poorly developed, the chest is flat, the arms and legs are long, and have an elongated face. Corresponds to the type of character schizotymic. Such people are very serious and prone to stubbornness, difficult to adapt to change. Characterized by isolation.
K.G. Jung developed another typology. It is based on the prevailing mental functions (thinking, intuition). Its classification divides subjects into introverts and extroverts, depending on the dominance of the external or internal world.
An extrovert is characterized by directness, openness. Such a person is extremely sociable, active and has many friends, comrades and just acquaintances. Extroverts love to travel and take everything from life. An extrovert often becomes the initiator of parties, in companies he becomes their soul. In ordinary life, he focuses only on circumstances, and not on the subjective opinion of others.
Introvert, on the contrary, is characterized by closure, facing in itself. Such a person fences off from the environment, carefully analyzing all events. Introverts make contact with people hard, so he has few friends and acquaintances. Introverts prefer solitude to noisy companies. These people have an increased degree of anxiety.
There is also a typology based on the relationship of character and temperament, which divides people into 4 psycho-types.
A choleric person is a rather impetuous, fast, passionate, and at the same time unbalanced person. Such people are prone to mood swings and emotional outbursts. Choleric men do not have an equilibrium of nervous processes, so they are quickly depleted, mindlessly expending forces.
Phlegmatic distinguished by calmness, slowness, stability of moods and aspirations. Outwardly, they almost do not show emotions and feelings. Such people are quite persistent and persistent in their work, but they always remain balanced and calm. The phlegmatic person compensates for his slowness in work by diligence.
Melancholic is a very vulnerable person, prone to stable experience of various events. To any external factors or manifestations melancholic reacts badly. Such people are very impressionable.
A sanguine person is an agile, active person with a lively character. He is subject to frequent changes of impressions and is characterized by the speed of reactions to any event. It is easy to try with failures or troubles that have befallen him. When a sanguine person is interested in his work, he will be quite productive.
Also K. Leonhard identified 12 types, often found in people with neuroses, accentuated characters. And E. Fromm described three social types of characters.
Everyone has long known that in the psychological character of the personality in the process of its development and vital activity significant changes occur. Such changes are subject to typical (natural) and atypical (individual) trends.
Typical trends include changes that occur with a psychological character in the process of adulthood. This happens because the older an individual becomes, the faster he gets rid of the childish manifestations in character that distinguish childish behavior from an adult. For children's personality traits include moodiness, tearfulness, fear, irresponsibility. To adult traits that come with age, include tolerance, life experience, rationality, wisdom, prudence, etc.
As one proceeds along the path of life and acquires life experience, an individual experiences changes in his views on events, and their attitudes toward them change. What together also affects the final formation of character. Therefore, there are certain differences between people of different age groups.
For example, people aged about 30 to 40 years old live mostly in the future, they live with ideas and plans. All their thoughts, their activities are aimed at the realization of the future. And people who have reached the age of 50 have come to the line where their present life meets simultaneously with the past life and the future. And therefore, their character is modified in such a way as to correspond to the present. This is the age when people say goodbye to their dreams, but are not yet ready to nostalize for the years they have lived. People who overcame the 60-year-old frontier have practically not thought about the future, they are much more concerned about the present, they have memories of the past. Also, due to physical ailments, the previously taken pace and rhythm of life are no longer available. This leads to the appearance of such traits as slowness, measuredness, tranquility.
Atypical, specific trends are directly related to the events experienced by a person, i.e. caused by past life.
As a rule, such traits of character that are similar to the ones that already exist are much faster and more consolidated.
It should always be remembered that the character is not constant, it is formed throughout the entire life cycle of a person.
Social character of personality
Individuals of any society, despite their individual personal characteristics and differences, have a common psychological manifestations and properties, therefore, act as ordinary representatives of this society.
The social character of the individual is a general way of adaptability of the individual to the influence of society. It is created by religion, culture, education and family upbringing. It should also be borne in mind that even in a family, the child receives the upbringing that is approved in this society and corresponds to the culture, is considered normal, ordinary and natural.
According to E. Fromm, social character means the result of a person’s adaptation to a particular way of organizing a society, to the culture in which he is educated. He believes that not one of the well-known developed societies in the world will allow individuals to self-realize fully. From this it turns out that the person from birth is in conflict with society. Поэтому, можно сделать вывод, что социальный характер личности - это своеобразный механизм, позволяющий личности свободно и безнаказанно существовать в любом социуме.
Процесс адаптации индивида в обществе происходит с искажением характера самого индивида и его личности, в ущерб ей. Social nature according to Fromm is a kind of protection, an individual’s response to a situation that causes frustration on a social environment that does not allow a person to express himself freely and fully develop, putting it in limits and limitations. In society, a person will not be able to fully develop, laid in him by nature, makings and opportunities. As Fromm believed, the social character is grafted into the individual and is stabilizing in nature. From the moment an individual begins to have a social character, he becomes completely safe for the society in which he lives. Fromm identified several options of this nature.
Accentuation of personality
Accentuation of the character of a person is a pronounced feature of character traits that is within the accepted norm. Depending on the magnitude of the severity of character traits, the accentuation is subdivided into hidden and obvious.
Under the influence of specific environmental factors or circumstances, some subtle or not at all manifest features can be clearly expressed - this is called a hidden accentuation.
Under the clear accentuation understand the extreme manifestation of the norm. This type is characterized by consistency of traits for a particular character. Accentuations are dangerous in that they can contribute to the development of mental disorders, situationally-defined pathological behavioral disorders, psychosis, neuroses, etc. However, one should not confuse and identify the accentuation of the personality character with the concept of mental pathology.
K. Leongrad singled out the main types and combinations of accentuations.
A feature of the hysteroid type is egocentrism, excessive thirst for attention, recognition of individual abilities, the need for approval and reverence.
A high degree of sociability, mobility, a tendency to mischief, excessive autonomy tend people with hyperthymic type.
Asthenoneurotic - characterized by high fatigue, irritability, anxiety.
Psychosthenic - manifested by indecision, love of demagogy, self-digging and analysis, suspiciousness.
A distinctive feature of the schizoid type is isolation, detachment, lack of communication.
Sensitive type is manifested by increased sensitivity, sensitivity, shyness.
Excitable - characterized by a tendency to regularly recurring periods of melancholy mood, accumulation of irritation.
Emotionally labile - characterized by a very changeable mood.
Infantile-dependent - is observed in people who have played with children, who avoid taking responsibility for themselves for their actions.
Unstable type - manifested in the constant burden of various kinds of entertainment, pleasures, idleness, idleness.