Today in the specific literature there are many criteria by which the types of personality character are determined.
The typology proposed by E. Krechmer is now the most popular. It consists in the division of people into three groups depending on their physique.
Picnic people are people who are prone to the formation of overweight or slightly plump, of small stature, but with a large head, a broad face and a shortened neck. The type of character they have is cyclothymic. They are emotional, sociable, easily adapting to a variety of conditions.
Athletic people are tall and broad-shouldered people, with well developed muscles, a hardy skeleton and a powerful chest. They correspond to the Ixotic type of character. These are powerful people and quite practical, calm and unimpressive. Ixotimists are restrained in gestures and facial expressions, poorly adapted to change.
Asthenic people are people who are prone to thinness, the muscles are poorly developed, the chest is flat, the arms and legs are long, and have an elongated face. Corresponds to the type of character schizotymic. Such people are very serious and prone to stubbornness, difficult to adapt to change. Characterized by isolation.
K.G. Jung developed another typology. It is based on the prevailing mental functions (thinking, intuition). Its classification divides subjects into introverts and extroverts, depending on the dominance of the external or internal world.
An extrovert is characterized by directness, openness. Such a person is extremely sociable, active and has many friends, comrades and just acquaintances. Extroverts love to travel and take everything from life. An extrovert often becomes the initiator of parties, in companies he becomes their soul. In ordinary life, he focuses only on circumstances, and not on the subjective opinion of others.
Introvert, on the contrary, is characterized by closure, facing in itself. Such a person fences off from the environment, carefully analyzing all events. Introverts make contact with people hard, so he has few friends and acquaintances. Introverts prefer solitude to noisy companies. These people have an increased degree of anxiety.
There is also a typology based on the relationship of character and temperament, which divides people into 4 psycho-types.
A choleric person is a rather impetuous, fast, passionate, and at the same time unbalanced person. Such people are prone to mood swings and emotional outbursts. Choleric men do not have an equilibrium of nervous processes, so they are quickly depleted, mindlessly expending forces.
Phlegmatic distinguished by calmness, slowness, stability of moods and aspirations. Outwardly, they almost do not show emotions and feelings. Such people are quite persistent and persistent in their work, but they always remain balanced and calm. The phlegmatic person compensates for his slowness in work by diligence.
Melancholic is a very vulnerable person, prone to stable experience of various events. To any external factors or manifestations melancholic reacts badly. Such people are very impressionable.
A sanguine person is an agile, active person with a lively character. He is subject to frequent changes of impressions and is characterized by the speed of reactions to any event. It is easy to try with failures or troubles that have befallen him. When a sanguine person is interested in his work, he will be quite productive.
Also K. Leonhard identified 12 types, often found in people with neuroses, accentuated characters. And E. Fromm described three social types of characters.
Everyone has long known that in the psychological character of the personality in the process of its development and vital activity significant changes occur. Such changes are subject to typical (natural) and atypical (individual) trends.
Typical trends include changes that occur with a psychological character in the process of adulthood. This happens because the older an individual becomes, the faster he gets rid of the childish manifestations in character that distinguish childish behavior from an adult. For children's personality traits include moodiness, tearfulness, fear, irresponsibility. To adult traits that come with age, include tolerance, life experience, rationality, wisdom, prudence, etc.
As one proceeds along the path of life and acquires life experience, an individual experiences changes in his views on events, and their attitudes toward them change. What together also affects the final formation of character. Therefore, there are certain differences between people of different age groups.
For example, people aged about 30 to 40 years old live mostly in the future, they live with ideas and plans. All their thoughts, their activities are aimed at the realization of the future. And people who have reached the age of 50 have come to the line where their present life meets simultaneously with the past life and the future. And therefore, their character is modified in such a way as to correspond to the present. This is the age when people say goodbye to their dreams, but are not yet ready to nostalize for the years they have lived. People who overcame the 60-year-old frontier have practically not thought about the future, they are much more concerned about the present, they have memories of the past. Also, due to physical ailments, the previously taken pace and rhythm of life are no longer available. This leads to the appearance of such traits as slowness, measuredness, tranquility.
Atypical, specific trends are directly related to the events experienced by a person, i.e. caused by past life.
As a rule, such traits of character that are similar to the ones that already exist are much faster and more consolidated.
It should always be remembered that the character is not constant, it is formed throughout the entire life cycle of a person.
Social character of personality
Individuals of any society, despite their individual personal characteristics and differences, have a common psychological manifestations and properties, therefore, act as ordinary representatives of this society.
The social character of the individual is a general way of adaptability of the individual to the influence of society. It is created by religion, culture, education and family upbringing. It should also be borne in mind that even in a family, the child receives the upbringing that is approved in this society and corresponds to the culture, is considered normal, ordinary and natural.
According to E. Fromm, social character means the result of a person’s adaptation to a particular way of organizing a society, to the culture in which he is educated. He believes that not one of the well-known developed societies in the world will allow individuals to self-realize fully. From this it turns out that the person from birth is in conflict with society. Поэтому, можно сделать вывод, что социальный характер личности - это своеобразный механизм, позволяющий личности свободно и безнаказанно существовать в любом социуме.
Процесс адаптации индивида в обществе происходит с искажением характера самого индивида и его личности, в ущерб ей. Social nature according to Fromm is a kind of protection, an individual’s response to a situation that causes frustration on a social environment that does not allow a person to express himself freely and fully develop, putting it in limits and limitations. In society, a person will not be able to fully develop, laid in him by nature, makings and opportunities. As Fromm believed, the social character is grafted into the individual and is stabilizing in nature. From the moment an individual begins to have a social character, he becomes completely safe for the society in which he lives. Fromm identified several options of this nature.
Accentuation of personality
Accentuation of the character of a person is a pronounced feature of character traits that is within the accepted norm. Depending on the magnitude of the severity of character traits, the accentuation is subdivided into hidden and obvious.
Under the influence of specific environmental factors or circumstances, some subtle or not at all manifest features can be clearly expressed - this is called a hidden accentuation.
Under the clear accentuation understand the extreme manifestation of the norm. This type is characterized by consistency of traits for a particular character. Accentuations are dangerous in that they can contribute to the development of mental disorders, situationally-defined pathological behavioral disorders, psychosis, neuroses, etc. However, one should not confuse and identify the accentuation of the personality character with the concept of mental pathology.
K. Leongrad singled out the main types and combinations of accentuations.
A feature of the hysteroid type is egocentrism, excessive thirst for attention, recognition of individual abilities, the need for approval and reverence.
A high degree of sociability, mobility, a tendency to mischief, excessive autonomy tend people with hyperthymic type.
Asthenoneurotic - characterized by high fatigue, irritability, anxiety.
Psychosthenic - manifested by indecision, love of demagogy, self-digging and analysis, suspiciousness.
A distinctive feature of the schizoid type is isolation, detachment, lack of communication.
Sensitive type is manifested by increased sensitivity, sensitivity, shyness.
Excitable - characterized by a tendency to regularly recurring periods of melancholy mood, accumulation of irritation.
Emotionally labile - characterized by a very changeable mood.
Infantile-dependent - is observed in people who have played with children, who avoid taking responsibility for themselves for their actions.
Unstable type - manifested in the constant burden of various kinds of entertainment, pleasures, idleness, idleness.