Temperament properties are subjective mental properties that are stable and characterize the dynamic activity of the psyche and its processes, for example, during play, study, work, etc. Individual or personal characteristics of temperament can be explained by different levels of formation of the properties of the nervous system. Temperament as one of the personal properties of the individual is determined by innate human parameters. The basic properties of man, causing him as a person, have a manifestation not only in his makings, but also necessarily in temperament.
The main properties of temperament include such subjective characteristics of the individual, which determine the dynamic criteria of absolutely all subspecies of his activity; give the characteristic to features of course of processes in mentality; possess stability; for a long time persist, to put it after birth.
The properties of temperament in psychology, according to most, have a direct dependence on the properties of the nervous system of the subject. The combination of certain properties of the nervous system and the properties themselves determine the peculiarities of the flow of processes in the psyche, in turn, they predetermine the psychological categories of temperament.
The main properties of temperament that determine the subject activity of an individual and his sphere of communication are switching, activity, productivity, inhibition, rate of reactions, and excitability. If you apply activity to the cognitive processes of the psyche, then it is characterized by a possible degree of concentration of attention, memory, imagination, thinking on a particular object or its criteria.
Pace is expressed in the speed of work of the corresponding mental processes. Productivity in cognitive processes is evaluated by their products, the results that have been obtained in a certain period of time. Productivity will be higher where for the same time you manage to hear, see, remember, imagine or decide more.
Productivity should be limited from performance. Characterized by the ability to maintain the same rate of work for a certain amount of time. Switching, braking and excitability determine the rate of formation and occurrence, switching or termination of one or another cognitive process of the psyche from one particular object to another or from one type of action to another.
If we apply activity to objective activity, it means the amplitude and strength of the movements associated with it. The tempo in the subject activity is determined by the number of operations performed, movements for a certain amount of time. It is the pace and activity that directly determines the productivity of activities associated with the movement, if you do not impose other requirements on the corresponding actions.
If you apply activity to communication, then this characteristic of temperament is manifested in verbal and non-verbal communication. For example, a subject with high activity will have a more pronounced speech, facial expressions and gestures than a subject with reduced activity. In communication, people who have an excitable temperament property come in easier and faster. And people who have the inhibited property of temperament stop communicating much easier and faster, less talkative, it is difficult for them to switch from one topic of conversation to another. Productivity of communication is called the ability of perception, and the communication of information for a certain amount of time.
Depending on the personality characteristics of temperament properties, they are characterized by sensitivity and reactivity. Sensitivity is determined by the strength of external influences or influences, which is necessary for the emergence of an individual's mental response, and the speed at which such a reaction appears. Reactivity is characterized by involuntary reactions to internal or external manifestations of the same force. Activity shows how strongly and energetically an individual influences the world around and overcomes various obstacles to achieving goals, for example, purposefulness or perseverance. It is the ratio of activity and reactivity that determines the activity of the subject from internal causes or from random external circumstances, from intentions, goals, and beliefs.
The ratio of such categories as reactivity and activity determines from which circumstances human activity depends to a greater degree: on random external or internal factors (mood) or on purpose, belief or intention.
Plasticity shows how flexible and easy a person is to adapt to external influences. Rigidity shows the inertia of the subject's behavior.
The rate of manifestation of reactions is characterized by the rate of flow of various mental processes and reactions, for example, the dynamics of gestures, the speed of thinking.
Introversion and extraversion show the orientation of a person to himself or to the external environment. These parameters determine what the subject’s activity depends on: from images, thoughts that are connected with the future or the past (introvert), or from external impressions that are currently occurring (extrovert).
Emotional excitability shows how weak influence is necessary for the manifestation of emotional reactions, and with what speed it will occur. Emotional excitability (sensitivity) is determined by how little impact is needed to form a reaction and how quickly it can occur.
Properties of the nervous system and temperament
The properties of temperament in psychology are not completely unchanged. They begin to manifest themselves not from birth, not all at once, but develop gradually according to a specific sequence, which is conditioned by both the general laws governing the formation of nervous activity and the specific features of a certain type or type of nervous system.
The reason for the individual behavior of the individual lies in the properties of the nervous processes, such as inhibition and arousal, and in their various combinations. Pavlov considered the fundamental three categories of nervous processes that predetermine the typology of nervous activity or system. These include: the strength of the manifestations of processes, poise and mobility of manifestations. Strength is an indicator of the ability of the nervous system to endure strong stimuli. Balance shows the ratio of the two processes - inhibition and excitation. Mobility is an indicator of the rate of change of two processes - inhibition and excitation.
Properties of the nervous systems are private or partial and common. The first show private, personal special features, the second determine the characteristics of the temperament of the individual.
The physiological basis of temperament is the interaction of two signaling systems with the brain subcortex, and not the activity of the cortex itself. Also identified additional properties of the system. These include: lability, agility, concentration. Lability is characterized by the rate of occurrence and the direct course of two processes - inhibition and excitation. Dynamism is characterized by the speed and ease of generating reflexes. Concentration is an indication of the limits of differentiation of stimuli. In the course of numerous studies, an interrelation has been revealed, characterized by a significant dependence of the properties of temperament on the dominant properties of mental activity. It was also found that the properties of temperament, which are based on the types of nervous systems, are more stable and constant in comparison with other features of the psyche of individuals.
According to I. P. Pavlov, the personal characteristics of the subject’s behavior and the dynamics of mental activity are dependent on individual differences in the functioning of the nervous system. It has long been established by psychologists that the weakness of the nervous systems is not negative. It is just the way the body works that the stronger nervous systems successfully cope with certain life problems, and the weak ones cope with others. The advantage of a weak nervous system is its high sensitivity. In order to study the properties of the nervous systems it is necessary to study them, taking into account all the peculiarities of behavior and actions of people in various life situations.
Summing up the above, it should be concluded that the subject’s existing complex of personal typological characteristics of its nervous structures mainly determines the temperament, on which his personal style of behavior as well as the activity as a whole depends on. Any characteristic of the nervous system has a certain number of manifestations, each of which is not evaluated unambiguously either useful or harmful. Depending on the nature of the activity or on the situation and any of these manifestations can be unfavorable and favorable.