Erikson believed that the elements of the personality and its structure are formed gradually in the process of social development and, as a result, are the product of such development, the result of the whole way of the individual.
Erickson denies the possibility of individual development of an individual, but at the same time does not deny individuality as a separate concept. He is convinced that for all the subjects there is a common plan for their development and believes that the very personal development lasts for the whole life of the subjects. Along with this, he identifies certain stages of development, each of which solves a specific dilemma.
One of the most important concepts in Erickson's concept is ego-identity. He believed that the whole personal development of the subject is focused on the search for precisely this ego-identity. However, the main emphasis is placed in the period of youth.
"Regulatory identity crisis" - is the main point in the formation of the personality in the transition period of adolescents. The crisis here is seen as a turning point, a critical point of development. During this period, adolescents are equally aggravated as increasing potential and vulnerability. The adolescent personality is faced with a choice of two alternatives, one of which leads to negative behavior, the other to positive.
According to Erickson, the main task before the subject in his youth is to develop a sense of identity, which goes against the ambiguity of the personal role of the "I". During this period, the teenager must answer the following questions: "The focus of my further path", "Who am I?". It is in the search for this very identity that a teenager determines the importance of actions, develops concrete assessment norms of his own and other people's behavior.
This process is inextricably linked with an awareness of one’s own competence and value. One method of solving the identity dilemma lies in fitting different roles. The main danger, according to Erickson in the identification process, is the possibility of blurring the “I”, which arises as a result of doubts over which direction to direct your life path. The next reason for the danger of the process of self-identification is the lack of maternal attention. Also, the common causes of such dangers can be inconsistency of the methods and principles of parenting, which creates a favorable atmosphere of uncertainty for the child and, as a result, a sense of distrust.
Erickson identity is an important condition for an individual’s mental health. Если идентичность не сложилась, то такая личность будет чувствовать себя потерянной, не найдя своего определенного места в социуме. Согласно Эриксону идентичность - это характеристика зрелости личности.
Основным вкладом Эриксона в концепцию развития считается его теория о стадиях развития личности.
The first stage is infancy, corresponding to the stage of Freud's oral fixation. The main thing in this period is to develop trust and confidence. The formation of trust in society depends entirely on the ability of the mother to convey to the child a sense of constancy of feelings and recognition.
The next stage is autonomy. The child is trying to "stand up" and move away from the trustees. The kid starts saying no. If parents try to support its manifestations of independence and protect from negative experience, then a healthy imagination, abilities of restraint and concessions to their body are formed. The main objective of this period is to develop a balance between the restrictions and what is permitted, the acquisition of skills of self-control and independence.
The next stage is the initiative. At this stage the installation appears - “I am what I will be” and the installation “I am what I can” is produced. In this period, the child tries to actively know the world that surrounds him. With the help of the game, it models various social roles and acquires duties and new affairs. The main thing in this stage is the development of initiative. Also, the identification of gender.
Fourth stage. At this stage, such qualities as diligence or inferiority may develop. The child learns everything that can ease and prepare him for adulthood (for example, dedication).
The fifth stage (from 6 to 11 years old) is school age. Identity is formulated in "I am what I have learned." This period is characterized by the increasing opportunities of the child to self-discipline and logical thinking, the ability to interact with peers, according to the established rules. The main question is "Can I?".
The next stage is the stage of identity or role disorder (11–18 years). Characterized by the transition from childhood to adult. This period leads to physiological and psychological changes. The main question is "Who am I?".
The next stage is early adulthood. Questions in this stage refer to the image of "I." It is characterized by self-accomplishment and the development of close relationships with other people. The main question - "Can I have an intimate relationship?".
The seventh stage is adulthood. Brings a more steady feeling. Now "I" is expressed in bestowal in relationships, both at home and at work and in society. There was a profession and children. The main questions are: "What does my life have today?", "What will I do next in life?".
Eighth stage - late adulthood or maturity. It is characterized by the acceptance of one’s role and one’s life in the deep sense of awareness, an understanding of one’s personal dignity. The work is over, there is time for reflection and grandchildren.
The main direction in the concept of the development of the personality of Erickson was the consideration of the social adaptation of the individual in the process of his growing up and development.
Vygotsky's personality development concept
In his conception, Vygotsky treated the social environment not as a “factor”, but as a “source” of personal development. The impact of the environment is caused by the experiences of the child.
The child develops in two intertwined paths. The first lies in natural maturation. And the second is through mastering cultures, ways of thinking and behavior. Auxiliary ways of shaping thinking and behavior are systems of symbols and signs, for example, writing or language.
It is the child’s mastery of the relationship between meaning and sign, the use of speech, that influences the emergence of new functions of mental processes that distinguish the behavior of the human person from the animal.
Initially, an adult, using a specific means, controls the child and his behavior. At the same time sends the child to perform any involuntary function. Further, in the next stage, the child applies to itself such methods of control that adults have used in relation to him. Now the child applies them to adults. In this way, according to Vygotsky, each mental function manifests itself in the process of development twice - for the first time as a collective activity, and in the second - as a child's thinking.
By internalizing the "natural" functions of the psyche are transformed, acquiring automation, arbitrariness and awareness. After this, the reverse process becomes possible - exteriorization, i.e. output outside the result of mental activity. This principle is called "external through internal."
Personality Vygosky presented as a social concept, as it combines the supernatural and historical in man. Such a concept cannot encompass all the signs of individuality, but can put an equal sign between a child’s personality and its cultural development. In the process of development, an individual masters his own behavior. Personality can not be innate, but can occur in the process of cultural development. By assigning the selected forms and methods in the activities that have historically formed, the child develops. Therefore, in the process of personal development, its education and training become mandatory.
Training is a driving force of development. However, this does not mean that learning becomes the same development. It simply forms an area of proximal development. This area determines the functions that have not yet matured, but are already in the process of development, determines the further development of the mind. The phenomenon of proximal development confirms the leading role of learning in the development of mental activity.
In the process of such development, the personality of an individual undergoes a certain series of changes that are of a social nature. Due to the accumulation of new opportunities, the destruction of one social condition and the emergence of another, sustainable development processes are replaced by critical periods in the life of the individual, in which the rapid creation of psychological entities takes place. Such crises are characterized by the unity of the negative and positive sides. They play the role of peculiar steps in the further development of the child.
Appeared in any period of education qualitatively change the functioning of the psyche of the individual. For example, the emergence of adolescent reflection completely rebuilds mental activity.