Psychology and Psychiatry

Concepts of personal development

Concepts of personal development are concrete ways of understanding and explaining the development of a person’s personality. Today, there are various alternative concepts of development that describe the personality of an individual as a unifying whole and explain the differences between the subjects.

The concept of personal development is much broader than the mere development of opportunities and abilities. Knowledge of the psychology of personal development allows us to understand the very essence of human nature and his individuality. However, modern science at the moment can not offer a single concept for the development of the personality of the individual. The forces that contribute to development, pushing it, are the internal contradictions inherent in the development process. Contradictions consist of opposing conflicting principles.

Basic concepts of personal development

The gradual development of the personality of the subject is not a simple coincidence of various accidents, but a process determined by the regularity of the development of the psyche of individuals. Under the concept of development understand the process of qualitative and quantitative changes in the psyche, spiritual and intellectual sphere of the individual, in the body as a whole, which is determined by the influence of internal and external circumstances, uncontrolled and controlled conditions.

People have always sought to study and understand such patterns, to understand the nature of the formation of the psyche. To this day, this problem is no less relevant.

In psychology, there have long been two theories of theories about the driving forces of personal development and its formation: the sociogenetic and biologizing concept of personal development.

The first concept shows the development of personality due to the direct impact of social environmental factors. This theory ignores the self-activity of a progressive individual. In this concept, a person is assigned the passive role of a being who merely adapts to the environment and setting. If you follow this concept, it remains inexplicable that in the same social conditions completely different individuals grow.

The second theory is based on personal development, caused mainly by hereditary factors. That is why the process of personal development is spontaneous (spontaneous) character. Based on this theory, it was assumed that a person from birth is predisposed to certain features of emotional manifestations, the pace of manifestations of actions and to a specific set of motives. For example, some from birth are prone to crimes, others to successful administrative activities. According to this theory, initially in the individual the nature of the form and the content of its mental activity are laid down, the stages of mental development, the order of their appearance are determined.

Biologizing concept of personal development is displayed in the theory of Freud. He believed that personal development, mainly, is dependent on libido (intimate desire), which manifests itself from early childhood and is accompanied by specific desires. A mentally healthy person is formed only if such desires are satisfied. In cases of dissatisfaction with desire, the individual becomes prone to neurosis and other deviations.

Such a concept, like a sociogenetic one, represents a person who is initially devoid of activity.

Thus, it should be concluded that the concepts described cannot be taken as the basis for understanding and explaining the patterns of personal development. None of these concepts can reveal the main forces that govern the development of personality.

Therefore, of course, the formation of the personality of the subject is influenced by biological and social factors, such as: the surrounding circumstances and conditions, heredity, lifestyle. These are all concomitant factors, as it has been proved by many psychologists, that a person is not born, but becomes in the process of its development.

However, to this day there are many different views on the development of personality.

The psychoanalytic concept relates to the development, as the adaptation of the biological nature of the subject to social life, the development of his specific means of meeting the needs and protective functions.

The concept of traits is based on the fact that absolutely all personality traits are developed in vivo. This theory insists that the process of generation, transformation, stabilization of personality traits is subject to other, non-biological factors and laws.

The biosocial concept of personal development represents man as a biological and social being. All his mental processes, such as: sensation, thinking, perception, and others, are due to biological origin. And the interests, orientation, abilities of the individual are formed as a result of the impact of the social environment. The biosocial concept of personal development addresses the problem of the relationship between the social and the biological in personal development.

The humanistic concept of personal development interprets personal development as the direct formation of the subject's “I”, asserting its significance.

Modern concepts of personal development

Today, the most mysterious problem of knowing the nature of man himself remained. The history of the emergence of various theories of personal development should be divided into stages: the formation of psychoanalysis (Freud, Adler, Jung), the humanistic explanation of psychoanalysis in the context of its partial overcoming - the humanistic concept of personality development (Erickson, Maslow, Rogers, Fromm), the theory of personality (A. Meneghetti) - modern psychology.

Let us dwell on the last stage - the concept of the personality of Meneghetti. The author of this concept says that the science of psychology cognizes the individual at all levels, at the same time studying the hidden aspects of being of the subject. The basis of his concept is the concept of semantics.

Managhetti believed that the human nature is manifested through the semantic field. From the same premises proceeded with the structuralist school of philosophy. A semantic field is a space in which an individual interacts with various objects of the environment that surrounds him. The following components of the personality are involved in such a process: “I” is a conscious and complex zone, which lies in the subconscious. Only 30% of the relationship between subjects are consciously, the remaining 70% are at the subconscious level. The author criticized the moral principles in their national and personal manifestations. Since he believed that morality does not ensure the truth and accuracy of the actualization of the personality of individuals, but rather the contrary, it forces the “I” to launch its complexes as protective mechanisms and latent components of the “I”, often posing as “I”. Meneghetti represented the individual as In-ce (that is, the internal essence of the subject) with a constant value of N.

He assumed that being in a particular body manifests itself in the conditions of a particular family, overgrown with a number of different signs, preserving itself as a subject with a constant value of N.

This value is represented by intelligence, i.e. structure of life, emotional field, the result of conscious perception. He perceived man as a consequence of such rational activity. Also in the value of H includes the humanistic personal potential. These include: the emergence of creative impulses, positive and negative changes in personal development. At the same time, positive configurations develop the personality of the individual, while negative ones, on the contrary, block development. That is what he considered the only sign of morality in terms of psychological science. The "I" is the conscious part of the structure of the In-se, and everything else belongs to the unconscious, which has a more fundamental influence on the life of the individual. It is in the area of ​​humanistic potential that complexes are born.

Complexes are formed as a result of the nature of the love that an individual receives from birth. They are formed during the first years of life and are caused by the love of parents, who are always burdened by their own unconscious potential, which directly affects the child. The mental structure of the complexes remains with the individual, not developing throughout life. However, all the same while being an inseparable part of the individual.

The complex affects a person throughout his life, distorting absolutely all its manifestations, i.e. acting as a "false self". Therefore, it turns out that "I" does not have enough energy, since it goes to his "false I". At the same time, the true "I" cannot control the manifestation of the complexes at all, however any complex controls the actions of the "I". Therefore, the main task of psychology is to help the individual comprehend its entire structure, which can lie deep in the subconscious.

As the "I" grows and matures, he increasingly needs the energy that the "I" takes from the complexes. The purpose of personal development, Meneghetti considered the pursuit of the integrity of In-se. He argued that cognition was originally formed at the body level. This is because both the animal and man acquire information from surrounding conditions, only man also has a mind. Ideally, the possibilities of the “I” should develop to their full realization. The birth and actualization of the "I" must last continuously. This explains ontopsychology with the concept of immunology. Literally, this term refers to the action within me (in me). The roots of this concept lie in meditation, yoga and hypnosis. Immagogy means penetration into the unconscious, the so-called lucid dream. It is with its help that one can achieve complete awareness of the "I".

Summing up, we can conclude that the concept of personal development put forward by Meneghetti implies the “I” as the center of consciousness. “I” is only the upper part of an iceberg called the unconscious, which contains equal power elements of the “I” - complexes. Such complexes are formed as a consequence of the negative interaction of the “I” with the surrounding conditions and the world as a whole. The source of personality, he considered Ying-se, containing in itself a matrix of the realization of human existence. And the complexes are expressed in the barrier of information going from In-se to “I”. “I” has a dual structure: “I” is logical (that is, it is a logical aspect of personality) and “I” is a priori, formed due to the individual's attachment to the historical factors of its manifestation. A person becomes wise when he has a harmoniously developed two structures, the “I” and the In-se. Their interaction and manifestation consists in connecting In-se to the a priori “I”, expressed through the “I” of the logical.

Today the most relevant is the concept of personal development proposed by Meneghetti. However, all the previously existing theories of personality have some common visions: the primary is the deterministic behavior of the subject, the roots of which lie from childhood experience, but the subject may have different views in adult life.

The concept of spiritual and moral development of the individual

The main thing in the formation of the semantic characteristics of human life is its relation to other subjects or society as a whole. That attitude is the essence of human life. The whole life of the subjects depends on relations with other people, on the aspirations of the individual to the relationship, what specific relationships the individual is able to establish.

Education is an integral part of education and the concept of the spiritual and moral development of the individual. It is thanks to family upbringing and school education that the process of familiarizing with the cultural and moral values ​​of society takes place. It is necessary to instill in children the ability to live in a cultural social space. Such a space should meet the interests and needs of students, thereby pushing them towards the creation and implementation of accepted moral values.

In the present conditions, the emphasis in the concept of spiritual and moral education is done on the focus of the educational process, as well as on universal ethics, which means that it is necessary to prevent the reduction of education to narrowly national, corporate, group and other interests. A developed person should be brought up in all directions of culture, religion, touching absolutely all social classes and groups, ethnic groups.

It is important to combine in the educational process the purposefulness of the universal values ​​of people and reliance on the traditional, national spiritual values ​​of society. This combination should form the basis of the life activity of the current society, as well as the basis of the optimal dialogue between different communities and groups.

The shift in orientation occurs from external morality constraints to internal moral attitudes and the subject's orientation towards the multiplying role of moral attitudes as an internal self-regulation of the individual, rather than towards morality, which is more an external regulator of behavior.

The problem of the individual's ability to self-determination, focus on the semantic and value component of the educational process is important. It should consist in the student himself being able to develop value meanings through the acquisition of moral knowledge, to emotionally feel it, test it on personal experience in building relationships with other individuals and the environment, and take an active role in such a process. It is the assimilation, the gradual development, the acquisition of experience and knowledge of behavioral relationships that should constitute the basis of spiritual and moral development.

The goal of spiritual and moral development is the upbringing and development of literate, highly moral, cultural personalities with universal human and national values ​​of individuals whose activities are aimed at creation.

The values ​​accepted by all people in the conditions of any social and historical changes in the development of civilization are considered universal values. These include: equality, good, beauty, life, cooperation and others. And national values ​​are determined by universal, perceived subjective consciousness through national culture and national identity.

Erickson's personality development concept

Erikson believed that the elements of the personality and its structure are formed gradually in the process of social development and, as a result, are the product of such development, the result of the whole way of the individual.

Erickson denies the possibility of individual development of an individual, but at the same time does not deny individuality as a separate concept. He is convinced that for all the subjects there is a common plan for their development and believes that the very personal development lasts for the whole life of the subjects. Along with this, he identifies certain stages of development, each of which solves a specific dilemma.

One of the most important concepts in Erickson's concept is ego-identity. He believed that the whole personal development of the subject is focused on the search for precisely this ego-identity. However, the main emphasis is placed in the period of youth.

"Regulatory identity crisis" - is the main point in the formation of the personality in the transition period of adolescents. The crisis here is seen as a turning point, a critical point of development. During this period, adolescents are equally aggravated as increasing potential and vulnerability. The adolescent personality is faced with a choice of two alternatives, one of which leads to negative behavior, the other to positive.

According to Erickson, the main task before the subject in his youth is to develop a sense of identity, which goes against the ambiguity of the personal role of the "I". During this period, the teenager must answer the following questions: "The focus of my further path", "Who am I?". It is in the search for this very identity that a teenager determines the importance of actions, develops concrete assessment norms of his own and other people's behavior.

This process is inextricably linked with an awareness of one’s own competence and value. One method of solving the identity dilemma lies in fitting different roles. The main danger, according to Erickson in the identification process, is the possibility of blurring the “I”, which arises as a result of doubts over which direction to direct your life path. The next reason for the danger of the process of self-identification is the lack of maternal attention. Also, the common causes of such dangers can be inconsistency of the methods and principles of parenting, which creates a favorable atmosphere of uncertainty for the child and, as a result, a sense of distrust.

Erickson identity is an important condition for an individual’s mental health. Если идентичность не сложилась, то такая личность будет чувствовать себя потерянной, не найдя своего определенного места в социуме. Согласно Эриксону идентичность - это характеристика зрелости личности.

Основным вкладом Эриксона в концепцию развития считается его теория о стадиях развития личности.

The first stage is infancy, corresponding to the stage of Freud's oral fixation. The main thing in this period is to develop trust and confidence. The formation of trust in society depends entirely on the ability of the mother to convey to the child a sense of constancy of feelings and recognition.

The next stage is autonomy. The child is trying to "stand up" and move away from the trustees. The kid starts saying no. If parents try to support its manifestations of independence and protect from negative experience, then a healthy imagination, abilities of restraint and concessions to their body are formed. The main objective of this period is to develop a balance between the restrictions and what is permitted, the acquisition of skills of self-control and independence.

The next stage is the initiative. At this stage the installation appears - “I am what I will be” and the installation “I am what I can” is produced. In this period, the child tries to actively know the world that surrounds him. With the help of the game, it models various social roles and acquires duties and new affairs. The main thing in this stage is the development of initiative. Also, the identification of gender.

Fourth stage. At this stage, such qualities as diligence or inferiority may develop. The child learns everything that can ease and prepare him for adulthood (for example, dedication).

The fifth stage (from 6 to 11 years old) is school age. Identity is formulated in "I am what I have learned." This period is characterized by the increasing opportunities of the child to self-discipline and logical thinking, the ability to interact with peers, according to the established rules. The main question is "Can I?".

The next stage is the stage of identity or role disorder (11–18 years). Characterized by the transition from childhood to adult. This period leads to physiological and psychological changes. The main question is "Who am I?".

The next stage is early adulthood. Questions in this stage refer to the image of "I." It is characterized by self-accomplishment and the development of close relationships with other people. The main question - "Can I have an intimate relationship?".

The seventh stage is adulthood. Brings a more steady feeling. Now "I" is expressed in bestowal in relationships, both at home and at work and in society. There was a profession and children. The main questions are: "What does my life have today?", "What will I do next in life?".

Eighth stage - late adulthood or maturity. It is characterized by the acceptance of one’s role and one’s life in the deep sense of awareness, an understanding of one’s personal dignity. The work is over, there is time for reflection and grandchildren.

The main direction in the concept of the development of the personality of Erickson was the consideration of the social adaptation of the individual in the process of his growing up and development.

Vygotsky's personality development concept

In his conception, Vygotsky treated the social environment not as a “factor”, but as a “source” of personal development. The impact of the environment is caused by the experiences of the child.

The child develops in two intertwined paths. The first lies in natural maturation. And the second is through mastering cultures, ways of thinking and behavior. Auxiliary ways of shaping thinking and behavior are systems of symbols and signs, for example, writing or language.

It is the child’s mastery of the relationship between meaning and sign, the use of speech, that influences the emergence of new functions of mental processes that distinguish the behavior of the human person from the animal.

Initially, an adult, using a specific means, controls the child and his behavior. At the same time sends the child to perform any involuntary function. Further, in the next stage, the child applies to itself such methods of control that adults have used in relation to him. Now the child applies them to adults. In this way, according to Vygotsky, each mental function manifests itself in the process of development twice - for the first time as a collective activity, and in the second - as a child's thinking.

By internalizing the "natural" functions of the psyche are transformed, acquiring automation, arbitrariness and awareness. After this, the reverse process becomes possible - exteriorization, i.e. output outside the result of mental activity. This principle is called "external through internal."

Personality Vygosky presented as a social concept, as it combines the supernatural and historical in man. Such a concept cannot encompass all the signs of individuality, but can put an equal sign between a child’s personality and its cultural development. In the process of development, an individual masters his own behavior. Personality can not be innate, but can occur in the process of cultural development. By assigning the selected forms and methods in the activities that have historically formed, the child develops. Therefore, in the process of personal development, its education and training become mandatory.

Training is a driving force of development. However, this does not mean that learning becomes the same development. It simply forms an area of ​​proximal development. This area determines the functions that have not yet matured, but are already in the process of development, determines the further development of the mind. The phenomenon of proximal development confirms the leading role of learning in the development of mental activity.

In the process of such development, the personality of an individual undergoes a certain series of changes that are of a social nature. Due to the accumulation of new opportunities, the destruction of one social condition and the emergence of another, sustainable development processes are replaced by critical periods in the life of the individual, in which the rapid creation of psychological entities takes place. Such crises are characterized by the unity of the negative and positive sides. They play the role of peculiar steps in the further development of the child.

Appeared in any period of education qualitatively change the functioning of the psyche of the individual. For example, the emergence of adolescent reflection completely rebuilds mental activity.