Psychology and Psychiatry

Socio-psychological characteristics

A socio-psychological characteristic is a combination of certain socio-psychological phenomena that characterize the properties, characteristics and qualities of an individual, various social groups, groups, etc., either due to factors of the social environment, its influence, or factors of a psychological nature.

The formation and development of the individual, social groups, groups are influenced by relationships within groups and individuals with each other, activities, political environment, ideology, cultural heritage, religion, education and much more.

Socio-psychological characteristics of personality

Personality is an individual with consciousness and activity, who has the opportunity to choose their own path and way of life. This choice depends on its innate and acquired personal characteristics, as well as psychological properties. The development of the individual as a member of society is influenced by his relationship, which develops in the processes of consumption and production of various material goods.

Socio-psychological characteristics of the individual and its formation depends on the political situation and ideology, the relationship of the subjects in the social groups to which they belong. In the process of personal communication and interaction, there is a mutual influence of one subject of interaction on another, in the process of which a commonality in attitudes, attitudes, or not formed.

Also in the process of functioning in social groups, the individual gradually acquires a certain authority, position, plays a specific role. Important in the personal formation are its physiological and anatomical features that have a huge impact on behavior, psyche, susceptibility to the influence of circumstances or other people.

Socio-psychological characteristics of the person according to Ananiev

The psychologist Ananyev argued that to properly characterize an individual, a full analysis of the situation in which he develops, his status and social position is necessary. If we assume that the personality of the subject is formed in the process of its activity, then this activity itself can be carried out only in a certain social situation. However, acting in this situation, any individual has a specific status, which can only be defined by a system of social relations that has already been established. Such status is objective, but awareness by the individual may be inadequate or adequate, passive or active.

Along with status, a person also takes a specific position characterizing the individual active side of the personal position in various social structures. Therefore, the personal position of the individual as the subjective active side of his status represents a certain system of interrelations of the individual, motives and attitudes, which he follows in his usual activities, values ​​and goals, which this same activity is directed to. And the system itself is implemented through the inherent role of individuals in certain social circumstances of development.

Socio-psychological characteristics of a person is a complex structure consisting of factors of external and internal environment, which affects the formation of the individual in the process of its socialization, life and development.

Socio-psychological characteristics include not only certain specific mental processes and their combinations that appear in the process of activity, but also the properties of the psyche that characterize each person, his inclinations and interests, abilities, character and temperament.

There is no, absolutely similar in properties to the psyche of people. Each of the subjects differs from other people by a set of features that, when combined together, form an individual personality.

The mental properties of individuals include significant and stable features. So, for example, if it is peculiar to anyone to periodically experience irritation, but this does not mean that irritability is a feature of his character.

Man does not receive the properties of the psyche in the finished version. All properties of the psyche of individuals (abilities, interests, character, inclinations) are developed throughout his life. Such features are to some extent stable, but this does not mean that they are unchanged. Constant mental properties do not exist. As long as the individual lives and develops, the properties of his psyche also change.

Socio-psychological characteristics are not innate. Congenital are only certain physiological and anatomical features. Features of anatomical and physiological nature, which form congenital differences between subjects and are called inclinations. They have a very important significance in the processes of formation and development of the individuality of individuals. However, it cannot be assumed that the makings predetermine individuality. They are not the sole and main factor determining individuality. Based on certain inclinations, various properties of the psyche are formed depending on the conditions of a person’s life.

Pavlov divided the types of nervous activity into signs such as strength, balance, and mobility. Strength determines the performance of brain cells (arousal and inhibition). Equilibrium determines the relationship between arousal and inhibition. Mobility characterizes the ability to change the processes of inhibition and excitation. Based on this, and depending on the combination of these signs, a typology of higher nervous activity has been developed.

It is the types of nervous activity that are the main characteristic of the subjective characteristics of the nervous system of the individual. Although the type of nervous activity is an innate symptom, this does not mean that it does not change in the course of a person’s vital activity, his upbringing and the influence of the circumstances of the social environment. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish between types of higher nervous activity inborn and prevailing in the process of environmental conditions and education.

The nature and personality, abilities and interests of a person are always conditioned by his life way. Only in the process of overcoming various difficulties develops character and will, in the process of engaging in any activity, abilities and interests are formed.

The main thing in the process of the formation of the individuality of the subject, his inclinations, interests and character is the worldview - the systematic nature of the views of individuals on the surrounding phenomena of society and nature.

Beliefs that are conditioned by the subject’s life course also directly affect the course of that path, the subject’s activity and his way of life.

At an early age, the main thing in shaping the characteristics of the human psyche is upbringing in the family, society and training.
Socio-psychological characteristics of the individual includes inclinations and interests that express the direction of the individual. Interest is the tendency of drawing attention to a particular subject. Attention is the focus of consciousness at a particular moment on a particular object. The difference between interests and inclinations lies in the fact that the interest is directed to any object, and the inclination is directed to engage in some specific type of activity.

The main thing in the formation of interests and aptitudes of the individual are its needs. But not every need is capable of generating an interest characterized by stability, which expresses the direction of the individual. For example, when a person is hungry his need for food prevails and his main interest will be food, but such interest will be temporary until his satisfaction, i.e. it will not be a feature of the individual.

The most important reason for the acquisition of various knowledge, expanding horizons is interest. Describing the orientation of individuals, in the first place, one should pay attention to the breadth of interests and their content. The full development of individuals depends on the breadth of interests. However, this does not mean the absence of any one main interest.

Purposefulness and life is determined by the central interest of the individual, which forms the core, near which other interests are grouped and manifested. Also an important characteristic of interest is its stability. In the absence of sustainability in interests, a person is not able to achieve great success in any field of activity.

Another characteristic feature of interests is their strength or effectiveness. Effective interest encourages a person to actively seek satisfaction and is formed into the strongest motive for action.

The next socio-psychological characteristic of a personality is talent and ability.

Ability is the properties of the psyche, responsible for the successful implementation of any activity or several activities. And the totality of the makings that constitute the natural condition for the development of abilities is called giftedness. The main significance among the instincts are the signs underlying the differences in the types of nervous activity (mobility, strength, balance of the processes of inhibition and arousal). Consequently, the talent of the individual is closely related to the innate form of the higher nervous activity of the individual.

Nervous processes that characterize the type of nervous activity that has developed as a result of the development have the most important factor for understanding the physiological basis of abilities. Abilities, although they are dependent on the makings, still are only a consequence of development. Their development is realized only in the process of such an activity, for which these abilities are necessary, also in the process of learning this activity. The combination of abilities that provide the opportunity for creative expression in the performance of activities are called talent for this type of activity.

The next psychological characteristic is temperament. Long since and to this day there exists a certain typological characteristic of temperament (sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic).

Temperament is the subjective characteristics of the individual, which are expressed in emotional excitability, in the tendency to a strong manifestation of feelings (for example, in gestures, facial expressions), in mobility. Proceeding from this: the sanguine person is characterized by weak feelings, but quickly arising, choleric - strong and quickly arising, melancholic strong and slowly arising, phlegmatic - weak and slowly arising.

In addition, sanguine and choleric people are characterized by quickness of movement and mobility, for phlegmatic and melancholic people - slowness of movement and mobility. The main features of temperaments also depend on the properties of the higher nervous activity described above. Temperament is characterized by stability throughout life. Each of the types of temperament has negative manifestations and positive. Therefore, in the process of life, a person must learn to “master” the manifestations of temperament and subjugate himself.

The next socio-psychological characteristic is character. It means a set of basic properties of the human psyche, which leave an imprint on all his actions and actions under various circumstances. Character traits are the properties of the individual psyche that make up character, for example, industriousness, initiative, laziness, cowardice.

In relation to temperament, we cannot use the words “bad” or “good,” however, it can be said that a person knows how to control his temperament poorly or, on the contrary, is good. In relation to the nature of such words are applicable. This means that the character is directly expressed in behavior and actions.

As well as you can evaluate and character traits. Some are positive, others are negative manifestations of character.
The character is determined by the goals and methods of their achievement, the attitude that is experienced and expressed by feelings, to society, the world, to activities that depend on the outlook of the individual, his beliefs.

Social personality characteristics

For all the importance of the natural qualities of the individual, we should not forget that the essence of the personality is social. The individual is not born as a person; he becomes it in the process of his socialization. The nature of the transformation of an individual into a person directly depends on the society in which he lives.

The development and formation of the personality is promoted by its relationship with the subjects who play various social roles, as well as the participation of the personality in such a repertoire. Depending on how many social roles an individual is capable of reproducing, he may be less adapted to life or less. Therefore, the process of personal development often serves as the dynamics of the development of social roles.

There are two types of social roles: interpersonal and conventional. Standardized duties and rights, for example, father, boss, are conventional roles. Rights and duties, the fulfillment of which is dependent on the personality characteristics of individuals, are called interpersonal roles.

Personal and business relationships have a greater influence on the formation of the personality of an individual. The position of a person in society, his duties and rights determine the status of the individual.

Socio-psychological characteristics of the group

The behavior and psychology of an individual as a person directly depends on the social environment. And the social environment itself is a society in which all the subjects are connected to each other in various numerous or not so stable associations, which are called groups.

A group represents a number of subjects (at least two) that are included in a joint activity and have similar goals, motives, tasks, connected with each other by a certain systematic relationship.

A small group is a direct way to influence a society or large social groups on an individual. Such groups are average associations of subjects (no more than 30) that are engaged in a common action or deed and are in mutual relations with each other. In such groups, each individual spends a huge part of his life, i.e. they are peculiar cells of society. Therefore, personality depends directly on the relationships that have developed in small groups. Examples of the most important groups in the process of development and personality formation are: the school class, family, team, friends, etc.

Groups are characterized by the psychological and behavioral community of members, which isolates and distinguishes the group, makes the group a relatively autonomous and socio-psychological formation. Such a community can manifest itself on various grounds, ranging from external (for example, common territory) to very deep internal (family members).

The boundary of the psychological community is determined by the cohesion of the group. Group cohesion is one of the main and most important socio-psychological characteristics of its level of development.

Groups differ in the structure and nature of relationships that exist directly between its members, in size, in subjective composition, qualitative features of values, rules and norms of relationships that participants share, interpersonal relationships, content and goals of activity.
The composition of the group, which is characterized by its members, is called composition. And the size is called the quantitative composition, i.e. composition is a qualitative composition.

The structure of interpersonal interaction, the exchange of personal and business information is called communication channels. The important point is the features of verbal communication, the predominance of one or another style of communication. For example, communication is expressed in the form of orders, proposals (typical for working groups) or in the form of threats (family). This characterizes the peculiarities of interactions in groups and can lead to the separation of certain members, reduction of communication, etc.

Another important characteristic of the group is the psychological climate of the group. The characteristic of the socio-psychological climate lies in the given moral-emotional tone of interpersonal interactions. There are also two more types of climate in groups. The first is a social climate, conditioned by the awareness among members of a group of common goals and objectives. The second is the moral climate, which is determined by the morality of the group, values, accepted norms.

The highest stage of development of the group becomes the team, the characteristic features of which are manifested in the activities and interpersonal relationships.

Socio-psychological characteristics of the team

Коллектив - это определенная социальная группа, имеющая высокий уровень развития, в которой межличностные отношения и взаимодействия обусловлены личностно значимым и общественно ценным содержанием их совместной деятельности.

The team is a holistic unity, suggesting the presence of the main components, substructures, members who interact from within such a holistic structure. The basic factor in establishing the psychological structure is its reflection in life activity in general. Substructures reflect various areas of such activity.

The characteristic of a socio-psychological climate is a certain combination of phenomena that have a significant impact on the behavior of members of such a collective and determine their interaction, climate, etc. Among such phenomena, there are: public opinion (social views, judgments, attitudes), public moods and social feelings, collective customs, traditions, habits, various phenomena that arise in the processes of interaction of subjects (mutual assessments and requirements, authority). The psychology of the team significantly affects the behavior of individuals in the team.

Depending on how some team members express themselves in activities, cognition and communication, the nature of interpersonal relationships in a team is formed, collective norms of behavior are formed, interests, public judgment is formed on such a team (for example, friendly or not, squabble, initiative and .d.) The main role in the development and formation of any team is assigned to communication. Thanks to communication, relationships in a team can be trusting or not, friendly, supportive, etc.

Therefore, a separate item in the description of various groups is always the socio-psychological characteristics of communication.
The most significant and basic socio-psychological characteristics of the team are its discipline, awareness, organization, activity and cohesion.

Discipline plays a regulatory role in the team and ensures consistency of actions within it. Informativeness determines one of the basic circumstances of the formation of consciousness in the behavior of the individual, corresponding to its goals and the state of the team. Organization is manifested in the nature of the reactions of a particular team to changes in external circumstances and external informational data.

Activity is an activity performed by an individual, not according to the need to fulfill his official duties, but as a free expression. Cohesion is a mental association that connects absolutely all members of a collective in the process of their joint activity and creates an integral unity of all such a collective. Cohesion is influenced by the individual psychological compatibility of all participants.

The complexity of the socio-psychological characteristics creates an idea of ​​the internal state of the team, which has a name - the moral climate of the team. In order to assess the moral climate of the team, you can use information on staff turnover, labor productivity, quality and quantity of products produced, etc.

Favorable positive morale of the team is a prerequisite for efficiency and further development.

Socio-psychological characteristics of the child

In drawing up the socio-psychological characteristics of the child, certain phenomena of his interaction with the surrounding society in the process of activity are investigated. Initially, attention is paid to the composition of the child’s family: complete or incomplete, socially prosperous or unsuccessful, prosperity. Next, you need to pay attention to children's school performance (for students) or behavior in the team for children of preschool age, the behavior of children in the family. It is imperative to conduct a conversation with parents and other relatives, caregivers and teachers to make an accurate description.

You should also pay attention to the health of the child and the presence of hereditary, congenital or acquired diseases. Assessment of communication skills is given, their level of formation is studied. Here you need to look at the socio-psychological status in groups, to evaluate the peculiarities of social interactions, both with peers and educators or teachers.

When a psychological characteristic of young children is estimated speech, play, communication, self-image, about the world, etc. The content of the activities of young children should be the assimilation of cultural methods of using objects. An adult for a child during this period becomes a role model. Now an adult does not just give the child a certain object, but also shows how to use it. Early age is characterized by intensive learning methods of action with objects. By the end of this period, the child must learn to use them. In this period, explore the intelligence, personal sphere, psycho-physiological characteristics, the specifics of interpersonal relationships.

In the early school years, children form certain formations — arbitrary behavior. At this age, the child becomes more independent. He begins to absorb certain moral values ​​and tries to follow specific rules and laws. Often this may be due to selfish needs, such as attracting attention and approval from adults. Thus, the behavior of younger students is reduced to one dominant property - the motive for achieving success. It is necessary to evaluate whether the child is able to make an adequate assessment of his action, whether he is able to defeat his desires. At this age, the child seeks to lead active reflections on his actions and to conceal personal experiences.

The development of younger schoolchildren directly depends on their academic performance, their adult assessment, personal relationships, and their social roles. Children at this age are greatly influenced from outside.

Adolescence for children is characterized by a period of self-determination. Social, professional, personal, spiritual self-determination becomes the leading task of this age. The leading activity is learning and professional.

In adolescence, adolescents strive for self-esteem, the formation of personal identity, the discovery of their inner self in all its manifestations, in integrity and uniqueness.

Psychological characteristics of the child's personality should include the study of the individual characteristics of the mental processes of the individual, the type of temperament, the main character traits, interests and aptitudes of children.

Socio-psychological characteristics of the family

The family is not only a peculiar unit of society, but also one of the most ancient social institutions. For the entire existence of the world, no society has managed without the creation of family relations.

In the course of its development, the family goes through some stages or life cycles of the family: the education of the family itself, the appearance of the first child, the appearance of the last child, the marriage of the last child - the so-called "empty nest", the death of one spouse.

The socio-psychological characteristic of family communication is primarily represented by the interaction of spouses with each other, secondly with children, then with parents of spouses and with friends. Communication is an exchange of information, spiritual contact and intimacy, discussion of issues. It is from communication that the degree of closeness between the spouses and the degree of closeness with the children depends.

The family must have certain social functions:

Socio-psychological characteristics of the family and its composition includes the age of parents, level of education, family composition. Next, assess the material and housing circumstances, the standard of living in general. It is imperative to find out the attitude of adults towards their profession and socially useful activity. The situation in the family and the system of values, the presence or absence of conflict situations or factors provoking conflicts, hobbies of both spouses, their leisure time, family interaction with the school in which children study, relationships with teachers and the school as a whole, level of pedagogical skills and psychological skills are assessed. , the system of education, it turns out who occupies a dominant position in the family, attitude towards children and with children.