Коллектив - это определенная социальная группа, имеющая высокий уровень развития, в которой межличностные отношения и взаимодействия обусловлены личностно значимым и общественно ценным содержанием их совместной деятельности.
The team is a holistic unity, suggesting the presence of the main components, substructures, members who interact from within such a holistic structure. The basic factor in establishing the psychological structure is its reflection in life activity in general. Substructures reflect various areas of such activity.
The characteristic of a socio-psychological climate is a certain combination of phenomena that have a significant impact on the behavior of members of such a collective and determine their interaction, climate, etc. Among such phenomena, there are: public opinion (social views, judgments, attitudes), public moods and social feelings, collective customs, traditions, habits, various phenomena that arise in the processes of interaction of subjects (mutual assessments and requirements, authority). The psychology of the team significantly affects the behavior of individuals in the team.
Depending on how some team members express themselves in activities, cognition and communication, the nature of interpersonal relationships in a team is formed, collective norms of behavior are formed, interests, public judgment is formed on such a team (for example, friendly or not, squabble, initiative and .d.) The main role in the development and formation of any team is assigned to communication. Thanks to communication, relationships in a team can be trusting or not, friendly, supportive, etc.
Therefore, a separate item in the description of various groups is always the socio-psychological characteristics of communication.
The most significant and basic socio-psychological characteristics of the team are its discipline, awareness, organization, activity and cohesion.
Discipline plays a regulatory role in the team and ensures consistency of actions within it. Informativeness determines one of the basic circumstances of the formation of consciousness in the behavior of the individual, corresponding to its goals and the state of the team. Organization is manifested in the nature of the reactions of a particular team to changes in external circumstances and external informational data.
Activity is an activity performed by an individual, not according to the need to fulfill his official duties, but as a free expression. Cohesion is a mental association that connects absolutely all members of a collective in the process of their joint activity and creates an integral unity of all such a collective. Cohesion is influenced by the individual psychological compatibility of all participants.
The complexity of the socio-psychological characteristics creates an idea of the internal state of the team, which has a name - the moral climate of the team. In order to assess the moral climate of the team, you can use information on staff turnover, labor productivity, quality and quantity of products produced, etc.
Favorable positive morale of the team is a prerequisite for efficiency and further development.
Socio-psychological characteristics of the child
In drawing up the socio-psychological characteristics of the child, certain phenomena of his interaction with the surrounding society in the process of activity are investigated. Initially, attention is paid to the composition of the child’s family: complete or incomplete, socially prosperous or unsuccessful, prosperity. Next, you need to pay attention to children's school performance (for students) or behavior in the team for children of preschool age, the behavior of children in the family. It is imperative to conduct a conversation with parents and other relatives, caregivers and teachers to make an accurate description.
You should also pay attention to the health of the child and the presence of hereditary, congenital or acquired diseases. Assessment of communication skills is given, their level of formation is studied. Here you need to look at the socio-psychological status in groups, to evaluate the peculiarities of social interactions, both with peers and educators or teachers.
When a psychological characteristic of young children is estimated speech, play, communication, self-image, about the world, etc. The content of the activities of young children should be the assimilation of cultural methods of using objects. An adult for a child during this period becomes a role model. Now an adult does not just give the child a certain object, but also shows how to use it. Early age is characterized by intensive learning methods of action with objects. By the end of this period, the child must learn to use them. In this period, explore the intelligence, personal sphere, psycho-physiological characteristics, the specifics of interpersonal relationships.
In the early school years, children form certain formations — arbitrary behavior. At this age, the child becomes more independent. He begins to absorb certain moral values and tries to follow specific rules and laws. Often this may be due to selfish needs, such as attracting attention and approval from adults. Thus, the behavior of younger students is reduced to one dominant property - the motive for achieving success. It is necessary to evaluate whether the child is able to make an adequate assessment of his action, whether he is able to defeat his desires. At this age, the child seeks to lead active reflections on his actions and to conceal personal experiences.
The development of younger schoolchildren directly depends on their academic performance, their adult assessment, personal relationships, and their social roles. Children at this age are greatly influenced from outside.
Adolescence for children is characterized by a period of self-determination. Social, professional, personal, spiritual self-determination becomes the leading task of this age. The leading activity is learning and professional.
In adolescence, adolescents strive for self-esteem, the formation of personal identity, the discovery of their inner self in all its manifestations, in integrity and uniqueness.
Psychological characteristics of the child's personality should include the study of the individual characteristics of the mental processes of the individual, the type of temperament, the main character traits, interests and aptitudes of children.
Socio-psychological characteristics of the family
The family is not only a peculiar unit of society, but also one of the most ancient social institutions. For the entire existence of the world, no society has managed without the creation of family relations.
In the course of its development, the family goes through some stages or life cycles of the family: the education of the family itself, the appearance of the first child, the appearance of the last child, the marriage of the last child - the so-called "empty nest", the death of one spouse.
The socio-psychological characteristic of family communication is primarily represented by the interaction of spouses with each other, secondly with children, then with parents of spouses and with friends. Communication is an exchange of information, spiritual contact and intimacy, discussion of issues. It is from communication that the degree of closeness between the spouses and the degree of closeness with the children depends.
Socio-psychological characteristics of the family and its composition includes the age of parents, level of education, family composition. Next, assess the material and housing circumstances, the standard of living in general. It is imperative to find out the attitude of adults towards their profession and socially useful activity. The situation in the family and the system of values, the presence or absence of conflict situations or factors provoking conflicts, hobbies of both spouses, their leisure time, family interaction with the school in which children study, relationships with teachers and the school as a whole, level of pedagogical skills and psychological skills are assessed. , the system of education, it turns out who occupies a dominant position in the family, attitude towards children and with children.