Anticipation - it literally means anticipation, i.e. the ability of the system in one way or another to predict the development of various events, results of actions, phenomena. In psychological science, two aspects of these concepts are distinguished: the ability of an individual to imagine the likely outcome of an action before it is completed, and the ability of an individual's thinking to imagine a possible means of solving a problem before its real resolution; the ability of an individual's body to prepare to respond to various events before they occur. Such an expectation is usually manifested by a certain posture or movement.
When the cognitive processes of the psyche are associated with their attitude to time, it usually turns out that perception is connected with the present, the mechanism of anticipation - with the future, memory - with the past.
In the processes of perception, which take place in the present, the past experience is always included, on the one hand, which remains in memory, on the other hand, there is always anticipation (perception of the future) in perception.
Anticipation is a peculiar phenomenon of anticipatory reflection, which can provide an opportunity for the subject to “look into the future.”
Although the phenomenon of advanced reflection and refers to the future, still it necessarily relies on the experience lived, remaining in the memory of the individual. Found in the actual acts of the individual, committed at a certain moment of the present time. In the memory of the individual, what has happened and become the past is preserved. However, such a past is recreated at certain moments of the present.
A prerequisite for the emergence of the phenomenon of anticipatory reflection is the preservation of past experience in memory. So, for example, tracking visual or auditory signals shows that anticipation is a necessary condition for performing an action, if for some reason the subject is not able to foresee changes in the traceable signals, in such cases disruption of such activity occurs.
The concept of anticipation combines the manifestations of psychic abilities for anticipatory reflection. Those. in a broad sense, anticipation is the ability to act and make various decisions with a specific space-time lead over future expected events.
The following functions of anticipation are distinguished: regulatory, cognitive and communicative. The regulatory function is manifested in the limitation of the levels of freedom of the system according to the time-spatial structure of the environment. According to the alleged changes in the circumstances of the external environment, there is a preparatory preparation, the outcome of the actions and the construction of its program. This determines the nature and direction of behavior in a situation that has developed. But the regulation of activity cannot take place without building a model of the desired future or an acceptor of the outcome of actions, making it possible to compare the acquired results of actions with the parameters of the required result. This aspect of regulation is guaranteed by the process of anticipation, since the outcome is a future event in relation to the act. The results of anticipation are included in the decision as necessary and essential components. Therefore, the role of the anticipation process in the regulation of the individual's activity and behavior is very important.
Lomov believed that "anticipatory reflection" can act in the forms of foresight (extrapolation, prediction, anticipation) and goal-setting. It is the goal-setting that determines forward reflection, which is included in the activity of the individual. And the goal acts as an advance reflection of the future outcome of such an activity. Those. anticipation is counted as a leading reflection of the real course of various circumstances, taken without reference to the individual. That is, the individual acts as an observer.
According to Fadeev, anticipation in activity captures such aspects of the development of situations: probable options, transformation of conditions, probable options for the construction of executive actions, variations in the assessment of likely outcomes, probable options for adjusting the model of circumstances and the program of executive actions.
Anticipation takes part in the selection of information in the processes of memorization and perception. Lomov believed that the process of memorization is not a mechanical record of what affects a person at a certain moment, but because of the need for it involves the selection of perceived information. Leading role in the process of sampling information for the process of remembering have plans and predictions, built by the individual in the process of his behavior.
Forecasting is included in almost all cognitive processes, so anticipation is considered a "through" mental process.
Gelllerstein designated manifestations of anticipation processes in anticipating the actions of other individuals, which is based on conscious (or not always conscious) knowledge of the emotions of logic and the activity arising from them.
There is also an anticipating imagination. It underlies such an important and necessary ability of the individual - the ability to predict future events, the results of actions. Such imagination is internally inextricably linked with the composition of each individual activity. In conditions when stimulation by one of the interchangeable mechanisms is insufficient, activation of the imagination occurs. From the previously accumulated information is an infinite number of new combinations. The generator of such combinations can be the active zones of our subconscious. But such generators will not be erratic, but will have a thematic focus on the current moment of perception. An event that is imagined has a physical effect. For example, in the imagination of severe physical exertion, the heart may begin to beat more subtly.
Anticipation is directly related to personal properties. A direct relationship will be the relationship of prognostic competence with personal characteristics that ensure the success of adaptation processes (sociability, balance). And the connection of such competence with personal qualities that are responsible for the instability of the sphere of the psyche (depression, neuroticity, aggressiveness, lability) will be reversed. Thus, undeveloped mechanisms of anticipation may indicate probable disturbances in the systems of mental adaptability of the individual. In mentally ill people or in neurotic, such mechanisms will be violated.
The mechanism of memory can set in motion the mechanisms of anticipation - prediction and foresight. What is important is not just the capturing of information and not the volume in itself, the organization of memory. The method of anticipation itself significantly depends on the method of organizing information in memory.
The relationship of anticipation and memory lies in the influence of memory on the processes of anticipation. The individual in the process of performing any activity moves, figuratively speaking, along the time axis. In the process of such a movement, material about the present event is recorded in memory. However, at the same time, depending on the activity produced, the material that was stored there is extracted from the memory. Those. in each fragment of the current moment the old material is taken out of the memory. Then it is checked, it can be corrected, converted (depending on the new information received at the moment) and combined with the new material and again stored in the memory, only the updated version.
Memorization involves the process of sampling the information received. The sample may be dependent on the goal setting and plans that the individual builds at a particular moment in the processes of activity, cognition and communication. In the act of targeting and planning activities formed the criteria for sampling the material to be memorized (both arbitrary and involuntary). The selected event is a common memory system, enriching it, however, along with this, the process of memorization is focused on future events.
Anticipation has a significant impact on the processes of reproduction, i.e. extracting stored material from it. And what exactly needs to be learned from the memory at a particular moment of the present depends not so much on the moment itself, but on its attitude towards the anticipated future (anticipated).
To study the process of memorization using the method of anticipation (anticipatory reproduction of the series). It is based on the presentation (by hearing or visually) at a certain pace to the subjects of a set of stimuli (for example, numbers) and instructed to remember the entire set of incentives so that each previous element of the chain would give them an idea of the next. The intervals between the presented elements of the chain should be no more than three seconds. The task of the subject is to correctly repeat the following elements upon presentation of the previous ones.
The method of anticipation is based on the fact that every element of the chain presented is a signal for the subsequent stimulus. Anticipation methods use criteria such as the time and number of repetitions necessary for the correct anticipation of absolutely all elements of the chain; with separate repetitions, the number of error-free anticipations; the nature and number of improper anticipations in individual repetitions; building a learning schedule for all the elements of the chain.
There are several mechanisms of anticipation: sensorimotor; perceptual, level of representations, verbal-logical, sub-sensory.