Today, the resocialization of convicts is a priority task that should be addressed at the level of state structures. This process consists in the purposeful return of prisoners to life in society and in the acquisition by them of the necessary capabilities (abilities) and abilities for life in society, observing accepted norms and legislation. After all, a convict who has not undergone the process of re-socialization is dangerous for society. Therefore, ideally, the activities of correctional institutions should be aimed at resolving two main problems: the execution of the punishment itself and the re-socialization of the convicted subject. Those. on the formation of the convicted set of qualities that are necessary for adaptive behavior in society.
The problem of resocialization of convicted individuals is solved by correctional psychology. It is aimed at studying the psychological stereotypes of the re-socialization of subjects: the revival of disturbed social properties and personal qualities that are necessary for full-fledged life in society.
Correctional psychology studies and solves such tasks as problems of the effectiveness of punishment, the dynamics of personality changes in the course of punishment, the formation of behavioral potentials in any prison conditions, the compliance of current legislation with the goals and objectives of correctional institutions, etc.
The resocialization of convicts is the mandatory restoration of impaired personality traits, social orientation, which are necessary for full-fledged life in society. It is connected, first of all, with the value reorientation of convicts, the formation of mechanisms of positive social goal-setting, the compulsory working off of subjects with reliable stereotypes of positive social behavior.
The main task of the re-socialization of convicts is the creation of conditions for the formation of the socio-adaptive behavior of the individual. Correctional psychology studies the characteristics and patterns of the secondary re-socialization of the personality of convicts, the negative and positive factors of isolation circumstances affecting the individual.
The main obstacle to the re-socialization of the convicted person is the barrier of his ethical, moral, moral self-analysis.
Convicted persons are people isolated from society who are in conditions of limited communication, due to which they have a significantly increased craving for perception of living human communication. Therefore, there is a beneficial effect on the identity of the criminal presence of a cleric in the places of punishment.
The main purpose of punishment for the offense and imprisonment of convicts is their resocialization. However, such a goal is not perceived by convicts themselves, because the future of his life lies in punishment - imprisonment.
Analyzing the current state of correctional institutions and legal regulation, we can conclude that correctional institutions do not fulfill their main goal - re-socialization. At best, they perform the task of leaving convicts physiologically and psychologically healthy in order to somehow exist in the future without causing harm to others. Often, persons in prison are released not resocialized, which pushes them to commit a repeat offense. Since they are already adapted to life in custody, they cannot get used to the norms adopted at liberty (in society).
So, the resocialization of liberated persons should consist in adaptation at will to the accepted value and moral attitudes in society, in returning to the so-called normal society. This is the essence of correctional institutions. The main areas of their activities should be:
- diagnosis of the personality characteristics of each prisoner;
- identification of certain anomalies of socialization and self-regulation;
- development of a long-term individual program for the correction of personal qualities of convicts;
- mandatory implementation of activities for relaxation of personality accentuation, psychopathy;
- restoration of destroyed social ties;
- the formation of a positive sphere of goal setting;
- restoration of positive social values; humanization;
- the use of techniques to promote social adaptive behavior.
Resocialization of children
The process of socialization is characterized by infinity, and this process has greater intensity in childhood and adolescence. While the process of secondary resocialization begins to possess greater intensity at an older age.
There are certain differences between the processes of re-socialization in childhood and in more adulthood. Firstly, the secondary socialization of adults consists in changing their external manifestation of behavior, the secondary child socialization lies in the adjustment of values. Secondly - adults can assess standards, but children can only assimilate them. Adulthood is characterized by the understanding that in addition to white and black there are many more shades. Children, however, must assimilate what they are told by parents, teachers and others. They must obey their elders and unconditionally fulfill their requirements and established rules. While adult individuals will adapt to the requirements of superiors and various social roles.
The re-socialization of adolescents consists in an organized pedagogical and social process of reviving their social status, unformed or previously lost social skills, skills, value and moral orientations, experience of communication, behavior, interaction and livelihoods.
The process of secondary socialization in adolescents is based on the re-adaptation and revival of the adaptive potential of children to already existing rules, norms, specific social circumstances and conditions. Children in the process of re-socialization are in dire need of participation, attention, assistance, support from significant people and adults who are their close environment.
Resocialization of adolescents According to E. Giddens - this is a certain type of personality change, in which a fairly mature child adopts a behavior that is different from the previous one. An extreme manifestation of it can be a kind of transformation, when the individual has completely switched from one "world" to another.
Important in the process of secondary socialization of children is education in schools. The process of re-socialization should be built in them, mainly taking into account the individuality of adolescents, the circumstances of their upbringing, which contributed to the formation of their value orientations and possible asocial manifestations. The most important principle in the process of re-socialization of adolescents is to rely on their positive qualities.
Also, the development of future vital principles, aspirations, which are primarily associated with his professional orientation, with the preference and development of the future specialty, is essential in preventive and educational activities. Unadapted (maladapted) adolescents, in the future, are characterized not only by abnormal (bad) behavior, but also by academic failure in all school subjects. Such children are prone to frustration, lack of confidence in their abilities. They do not see themselves in the future and, as it were, “live for one day”, momentary desires, pleasures and entertainment. This may further lead to serious prerequisites for the desocialization and criminalization of the personality of the minor adolescent.
Процессы ресоциализации подростков должны включать в себя восстановительную функцию, т.е. restoration of positive relationships and qualities, a compensating function, which consists in forming children's aspirations to compensate for deficiencies in other types of activities, their strengthening (for example, in the field they are fond of), a stimulating function, which should be aimed at strengthening and activating positive useful public activities of pupils carried out through approval or condemnation, i.e. partial emotional attitude to the personality of children and their actions.
The ultimate goal of re-socialization is the achievement of such a level and quality of cultural identity, which is necessary for a non-conflict and full-fledged life activity in society.