Psychology and Psychiatry

Resocialization

Resocialization is a repeated (secondary) socialization that occurs during the whole life of an individual. Secondary socialization is carried out by changing the settings of the subject, his goals, rules, values ​​and norms. Resocialization is quite deep and leads to global changes in life behavior.

The need for secondary socialization may arise as a result of a long-term illness or a fundamental change in the cultural environment, a change of residence. Resocialization is a peculiar rehabilitation process, with the help of which a mature personality restores connections that were previously interrupted by it or strengthens old ones.

Personality re-socialization

For harmonious re-socialization, the family of the individual is first responsible, then the school and study groups, then the various organizations of social purpose. In the role of preventive structures are the law enforcement agencies.

Resocialization means transformations in which a mature person adopts behavior that is very different from that adopted earlier. It occurs throughout the life of the individual and is associated with modifications of its orientations, morality and values, norms and rules. This is a kind of replacement by a person of some patterns of life behavior with new skills and abilities that meet the conditions that have changed as a result of technological and social transformations. Modification of values ​​that have become inadequate according to the new prescription of the society in which it lives. For example, all former prisoners undergo this process, which consists in implanting the individual into the existing system of ideas and values. The process of re-socialization is carried out by emigrants who, due to the relocation, get into a completely new environment for them. They pass through disaccustoming from their usual traditions, rules, roles, norms and values, which is compensated by the acquisition of new experience.

The personality traits of individuals, which are formed in the process of their vital activity, are not indisputable. Resocialization can cover a variety of activities. A kind of secondary socialization is psychotherapy. With its help, people try to understand and deal with their problems, conflicts, and change their normal behavior.

The process of resocialization occurs in various spheres of life and at its different stages. Officials at the state level deal with the problem of re-socialization; a certain set of measures is being developed. There are such concepts as the re-socialization of the homeless, social re-socialization, the re-socialization of the disabled, adolescents, former prisoners.

Resocialization of the homeless is a set of measures that are aimed at eliminating homelessness, providing homeless housing, organizing appropriate conditions for the exercise of human rights and freedoms (for example, the right to work).

Social re-socialization may be associated with the restoration of previously convicted in their capacity and status, i.e. their revival as subjects of society. The basis of this re-socialization is a change in the attitude of society towards them at all levels, from officials to the family.

The re-socialization of persons with disabilities consists in their preparation for life in society, assistance in the transformation of the norms and rules of behavior that were previously common to them, and their active involvement in the life of society.

Resocialization in psychology

In psychology, the process of re-socialization of personality is inextricably linked with the process of desocialization and may be its consequence.

Resocialization in psychology is a kind of “dismantling” or destruction of the antisocial negative attitudes and values ​​acquired earlier by an individual in the process of de-socialization or socialization, and the introduction of new positive value attitudes to individuals, which are accepted in society and evaluated by them as positive.

Younger people are more prone to resocialization than older adults. The essence of the process of re-socialization is the restoration and development of subjects previously lost useful relationships with society, the elimination of asocial roles and consolidation of positive examples of behavior, as well as social value attitudes.

The problems of secondary socialization are associated with the correction of offenders, with the inclusion in the natural process of life of the convicted, long-term ill persons, drug addicts and alcoholics, people who have experienced stress during various accidents and disasters, fighting.

In the process of formation and development, a person goes through some life cycles that are inextricably linked with changing social roles. For example, going to college, getting married, having children, going to work, etc. In the process of transition from one life cycle to another, one has to retrain. This process falls into two stages: desocialization and resocialization. In the first stage, there is a loss of social values, attitudes, norms, which are previously customary for an individual, due to the influence of external conditions. It is usually accompanied by a departure from their social groups or society as a whole. Then comes the stage of secondary socialization, i.e. learning already new attitudes, values, rules. This process occurs throughout the life of the individual. So, these two stages are parties to the same process - socialization.

So, resocialization is a change from a previously socialized personality. In this process, there is an individual analysis and assessment of the external conditions of society, circumstances, events, self-education, etc.

Since the process of secondary socialization goes on throughout life, it can be argued that it begins from an early age in the family. However, this process will not be too pronounced in childhood, since children do not have abrupt changes of roles. In most cases, the process of re-socialization in children occurs quite harmoniously in those cases, if they do not grow up in disadvantaged families, the parents are not going to divorce.

Usually, re-socialization coincides with the period of acquisition of education and is determined by the level of education and training of teachers, the quality of the methods used for teaching, the circumstances affecting the learning process. The main focus of resocialization is personal intellectualization. It is also aimed at performing a number of latent functions, for example, at developing skills of functioning in circumstances of a legitimate organization.

Family re-socialization

Family is an important condition for the process of re-socialization. Full socialization of children should originate from the family. The family should help the child to adequately assimilate the requirements of society and their laws, to develop and form certain communication and interaction skills that will meet accepted standards in a particular society. Dysfunctional families are characterized by the inability to inculcate the skills of normal behavior in the family, which, in turn, leads to the inability of children to build their correct family model.

In addition to the influence of the family, other social institutions, such as kindergartens, schools and the street, also affect the child in the process of vital activity. However, the family remains the most important factor in the process of harmonious re-socialization of the individual. Repeated socialization in the family takes place as a result of the process of upbringing and social education.

From the style and methods of education, which are used by parents, directly depend on the processes of socialization, re-socialization and de-socialization of the personality of individuals. For example, a child raised by American parents will be strikingly different from children raised by Japanese parents.

The main factors affecting the secondary socialization of children in the family are the influence of parents (their expectations, personality traits, parenting patterns, etc.), the quality of the children themselves (cognitive abilities and personal characteristics), family relationships, which include the relationship between spouses , attitudes towards children, social and professional contacts of parents. The disciplinary methods of upbringing used and his style reflect the belief system of parents and their personal qualities.

The most important in the process of secondary socialization of the child in the family are the ideas of the father and mother about his motivations and behavior, the beliefs of the parents and their social purposefulness.

The main reasons for the violation of the re-socialization of children in the family are the constant violation by parents of the ethics of family relationships, lack of trust, care, attention, respect, protection and support. However, the most important and most significant cause of violations of re-socialization is the incompatibility of moral qualities and moral attitudes of parents, inconsistency of their opinions about duty, honor, morality, duties, etc. Often this inconsistency can conflict if the spouses have diametrically opposed views on the value system and moral qualities.

The influence of elder brothers and sisters, grandparents, and friends of parents is also important in the processes of the re-socialization of the individual.

Resocialization of convicts

Today, the resocialization of convicts is a priority task that should be addressed at the level of state structures. This process consists in the purposeful return of prisoners to life in society and in the acquisition by them of the necessary capabilities (abilities) and abilities for life in society, observing accepted norms and legislation. After all, a convict who has not undergone the process of re-socialization is dangerous for society. Therefore, ideally, the activities of correctional institutions should be aimed at resolving two main problems: the execution of the punishment itself and the re-socialization of the convicted subject. Those. on the formation of the convicted set of qualities that are necessary for adaptive behavior in society.

The problem of resocialization of convicted individuals is solved by correctional psychology. It is aimed at studying the psychological stereotypes of the re-socialization of subjects: the revival of disturbed social properties and personal qualities that are necessary for full-fledged life in society.

Correctional psychology studies and solves such tasks as problems of the effectiveness of punishment, the dynamics of personality changes in the course of punishment, the formation of behavioral potentials in any prison conditions, the compliance of current legislation with the goals and objectives of correctional institutions, etc.

The resocialization of convicts is the mandatory restoration of impaired personality traits, social orientation, which are necessary for full-fledged life in society. It is connected, first of all, with the value reorientation of convicts, the formation of mechanisms of positive social goal-setting, the compulsory working off of subjects with reliable stereotypes of positive social behavior.

The main task of the re-socialization of convicts is the creation of conditions for the formation of the socio-adaptive behavior of the individual. Correctional psychology studies the characteristics and patterns of the secondary re-socialization of the personality of convicts, the negative and positive factors of isolation circumstances affecting the individual.

The main obstacle to the re-socialization of the convicted person is the barrier of his ethical, moral, moral self-analysis.

Convicted persons are people isolated from society who are in conditions of limited communication, due to which they have a significantly increased craving for perception of living human communication. Therefore, there is a beneficial effect on the identity of the criminal presence of a cleric in the places of punishment.

The main purpose of punishment for the offense and imprisonment of convicts is their resocialization. However, such a goal is not perceived by convicts themselves, because the future of his life lies in punishment - imprisonment.

Analyzing the current state of correctional institutions and legal regulation, we can conclude that correctional institutions do not fulfill their main goal - re-socialization. At best, they perform the task of leaving convicts physiologically and psychologically healthy in order to somehow exist in the future without causing harm to others. Often, persons in prison are released not resocialized, which pushes them to commit a repeat offense. Since they are already adapted to life in custody, they cannot get used to the norms adopted at liberty (in society).

So, the resocialization of liberated persons should consist in adaptation at will to the accepted value and moral attitudes in society, in returning to the so-called normal society. This is the essence of correctional institutions. The main areas of their activities should be:

  • diagnosis of the personality characteristics of each prisoner;
  • identification of certain anomalies of socialization and self-regulation;
  • development of a long-term individual program for the correction of personal qualities of convicts;
  • mandatory implementation of activities for relaxation of personality accentuation, psychopathy;
  • restoration of destroyed social ties;
  • the formation of a positive sphere of goal setting;
  • restoration of positive social values; humanization;
  • the use of techniques to promote social adaptive behavior.

Resocialization of children

The process of socialization is characterized by infinity, and this process has greater intensity in childhood and adolescence. While the process of secondary resocialization begins to possess greater intensity at an older age.

There are certain differences between the processes of re-socialization in childhood and in more adulthood. Firstly, the secondary socialization of adults consists in changing their external manifestation of behavior, the secondary child socialization lies in the adjustment of values. Secondly - adults can assess standards, but children can only assimilate them. Adulthood is characterized by the understanding that in addition to white and black there are many more shades. Children, however, must assimilate what they are told by parents, teachers and others. They must obey their elders and unconditionally fulfill their requirements and established rules. While adult individuals will adapt to the requirements of superiors and various social roles.

The re-socialization of adolescents consists in an organized pedagogical and social process of reviving their social status, unformed or previously lost social skills, skills, value and moral orientations, experience of communication, behavior, interaction and livelihoods.

The process of secondary socialization in adolescents is based on the re-adaptation and revival of the adaptive potential of children to already existing rules, norms, specific social circumstances and conditions. Children in the process of re-socialization are in dire need of participation, attention, assistance, support from significant people and adults who are their close environment.

Resocialization of adolescents According to E. Giddens - this is a certain type of personality change, in which a fairly mature child adopts a behavior that is different from the previous one. An extreme manifestation of it can be a kind of transformation, when the individual has completely switched from one "world" to another.

Important in the process of secondary socialization of children is education in schools. The process of re-socialization should be built in them, mainly taking into account the individuality of adolescents, the circumstances of their upbringing, which contributed to the formation of their value orientations and possible asocial manifestations. The most important principle in the process of re-socialization of adolescents is to rely on their positive qualities.

Also, the development of future vital principles, aspirations, which are primarily associated with his professional orientation, with the preference and development of the future specialty, is essential in preventive and educational activities. Unadapted (maladapted) adolescents, in the future, are characterized not only by abnormal (bad) behavior, but also by academic failure in all school subjects. Such children are prone to frustration, lack of confidence in their abilities. They do not see themselves in the future and, as it were, “live for one day”, momentary desires, pleasures and entertainment. This may further lead to serious prerequisites for the desocialization and criminalization of the personality of the minor adolescent.

Процессы ресоциализации подростков должны включать в себя восстановительную функцию, т.е. restoration of positive relationships and qualities, a compensating function, which consists in forming children's aspirations to compensate for deficiencies in other types of activities, their strengthening (for example, in the field they are fond of), a stimulating function, which should be aimed at strengthening and activating positive useful public activities of pupils carried out through approval or condemnation, i.e. partial emotional attitude to the personality of children and their actions.

The ultimate goal of re-socialization is the achievement of such a level and quality of cultural identity, which is necessary for a non-conflict and full-fledged life activity in society.