Frustration is a mental state characterized by such manifestations as failure, deception, vain expectation, frustration. Frustration arises because of the perceived or real impossibility of satisfying needs or when the desires do not match up with the available opportunities. This phenomenon is attributed to traumatic emotional states.

According to Brown and Farber, this condition is the result of conditions under which an expected reaction is slowed down or warned. Lawson, interpreting this position, notes that frustration is a conflict of two tendencies: the goal is reaction. Waterhouse and Childe, in contrast to Farber and Brown, called the frustration a hindrance by studying its effect on the body.

Frustration in psychology is a person's condition, which is expressed in characteristic experiences, as well as behavior, caused by the insuperable objective difficulties that have arisen before achieving the goal or the task.

Some scientists attribute this manifestation to the rank of natural phenomena that are forced to occur in the life of a person.

Mayer notes that human behavior is expressed by two potentials. The first is the repertoire of behavior, which is determined by the conditions of development, heredity, and life experience. The second potential is the selection or electoral processes and mechanisms, which are divided into frustrations arising from the manifestation and acting during a motivated activity.

Causes of Frustration

This condition is caused by the following reasons: stress, minor failures, reducing self-esteem and bringing disappointment. The presence of a frustrator, namely, obstacles, also serves as the causes of this state. These are deprivations that can be internal (lack of knowledge) and external (no money). These are external (financial collapse, loss of a close) and internal (loss of health, working capacity) losses. These are internal conflicts (the struggle of two motives) and external (social or with other people). These are obstacles in the form of external barriers (norms, rules, restrictions, laws) and internal barriers (honesty, conscience). The frequency of unmet need also provokes this condition in humans and is the main cause. Much depends on the person himself, namely how he reacts to failure.

Consequences of frustration: the replacement of the real world with the world of fantasy and illusion, inexplicable aggression, complexes and general regress of personality. The danger from this emotional state lies in the fact that under its influence a person is changing for the worse. For example, a person wants to get some post, and give it to another. The collapse of plans provokes disappointment in oneself, undermines confidence in one’s professional abilities and ability to communicate with people. A person has fears and doubts, which result in an unmotivated and unwanted change in the type of activity. The victim is fenced off from the world, turns into aggressive, while experiencing distrust of people. Often, the individual collapses normal social ties.

Frustration imposes an imprint on the person, bearing both constructive (intensification of efforts) and destructive nature (depression, rejection of claims).

Forms of Frustration

Forms include aggression, substitution, displacement, rationalization, regression, depression, fixation (behavior stereotype), and intensification of efforts.

Failure leads to aggressive behavior. Replacement is when an unmet need is replaced by another. The shift is expressed in the shift from one goal to another. For example, a breakdown on loved ones due to resentment at the head. Rationalization is expressed in the search for positive moments in failure. Regression is manifested in a return to primitive forms of behavior. Depression is marked by an oppressed, depressed mood. Fixation is manifested in the increased activity of forbidden behavior. Intensification of efforts is marked by the mobilization of resources to achieve goals.

Signs of frustration

Psychology under this phenomenon understands the tense, unpleasant state, provoked by imaginary or insurmountable difficulties that impede the achievement of the goal, as well as the satisfaction of needs.

In a state of frustration, a person feels a sense of hopelessness and inability to dissociate himself from what is happening, it is difficult for him not to pay attention to what is happening, he has a strong desire to get out of frustration, but he does not know how to do it.

The state of frustration provoke different situations. These may be comments from other people that the person considers exaggerated and unfair. For example, it may be the refusal of your friend, to whom you asked for help, or the situation when the bus went out from under your nose, large bills for services rendered (auto repair, treatment, etc.) came. These similar situations can easily spoil the mood. But for psychology, frustration is more than just a nuisance that is usually quickly forgotten.

The person in frustration experiences the despair, disappointment, alarm, irritability. At the same time, the efficiency of activity is significantly reduced. In the absence of the desired result, the individual continues to struggle, even if he does not know what to do for this. Personality resists, both externally and internally. Resistance can be active and passive, and in situations a person manifests himself as an infantile or mature personality.

A person with adaptive behavior (able to obey as well as adapt to the social environment) continues to increase motivation, as well as increases activity to achieve the goal.

The nonconstructive behavior inherent in the infantile personality reveals itself in aggression towards itself, outside or in avoiding a decision for a person in a complex situation.

Frustration needs

A. Maslow in his work notes that the satisfaction of needs provokes the development of this state. The following facts serve as the basis for such an assertion: after satisfying the low level needs of an individual, higher level needs arise in the consciousness. Until high needs have arisen in consciousness, they are not a source of frustration.

A person who is concerned about pressing problems (food, etc.) is not able to reflect on high matters. A person will not study in such a state new sciences, fight for equal rights in society, he will not be bothered by the situation in the country or city, since he is concerned about the current affairs. After complete or partial satisfaction of pressing problems, the individual is able to rise to high levels of motivational life, which means that he will be affected by global problems (social, personal, intellectual) and he will become a civilized person.

People are inherently doomed to desire exactly what they don’t have, and for this reason they don’t even have an idea that their efforts, often aimed at achieving the desired goal, are meaningless. From this it turns out that the manifestation of frustration is inevitable, since a person is doomed to a constant feeling of dissatisfaction.

Love frustration

Breaking relationships can lead to the emergence of love frustration, which can increase the love for the opposite sex. Some psychologists say that this condition is a frequent phenomenon, others consider it rare.

Love frustration appears after the absence of the desired result expected from the object of passion or after parting with your loved one. It manifests itself in inappropriate behavior, aggression, anxiety, despair, and depression. Many are interested in the question: does such love exist, allowing people to remain independent of each other? Such love exists, but in the lives of strong and spirit-mature people. It should be taken for granted that all relationships contain minor elements of dependence. It depends on you personally whether you complete the whole life of another person.

Love frustration does not come if we are reaching for a partner from our strength, and not from our weakness.

Deprivation and Frustration

Often these two states are confused, although they are different. Frustration comes because of unmet desires, as well as failures in achieving goals.

Deprivation is due to the lack of opportunity or the very subject necessary for satisfaction. However, researchers of the frustration and deprivation theory of neurosis claim that these two phenomena have a common mechanism.

Deprivation leads to frustration, in turn frustration leads to aggression, and aggression provokes anxiety, which leads to the appearance of defensive reactions.

The problem of frustration serves as a theoretical discussion, and is also the subject of experimental research that is conducted on people and animals.

Frustration is seen in the context of endurance to the difficulties of life, as well as reactions to these difficulties.

I.P. Pavlov repeatedly noted the influence of the difficulties of life on the unfavorable state of the brain. Excessive life difficulties can lead a person, then to depression, then to excitement. Scientists divide the difficulties into insurmountable (cancer) and surmountable, requiring tremendous effort.

For researchers, the frustrations of interest are the difficulties associated with insurmountable obstacles, obstacles, barriers that hinder the satisfaction of needs, the solution of a problem, the achievement of a goal. However, unsurmountable difficulties should not be reduced to barriers blocking the intended action. It may be necessary in your case to show firmness of character.

Frustration aggression

As already noted, frustration provokes aggression, hostility. The state of aggression can manifest itself in direct attack or in the desire to attack, hostility. Aggression is characterized by pugnacity, rudeness, or has the form of a hidden state (ill will, bitterness). In a state of aggression in the first place goes the loss of self-control, unjustified actions, anger. A special place is given to aggression directed against oneself, which is expressed in self-flagellation, self-accusation, often in a rude attitude towards oneself.

John Dollar believes that aggression is not only emotions that arise in the human body, but more of a reaction to frustration: overcoming obstacles that prevent you from satisfying needs, achieving pleasure, as well as emotional balance. According to his theory, aggression is a consequence of frustration.

Frustration - aggression is always based on such concepts as aggression, frustration, inhibition, substitution.

Aggression is manifested in the intention to harm another individual with his actions.

Frustration appears when an obstacle to the implementation of a conditioned reaction occurs. In this case, the magnitude of this manifestation directly depends on the number of attempts, the strength of motivation, the significance of the obstacles, after which it occurs.

Braking is the ability to limit or minimize actions due to expected negative consequences.

Substitution is expressed in the desire to participate in aggressive actions that are directed against another person, but not against the source.

Thus, the theory of frustration and aggression in a rephrased form sounds like this: frustration always provokes aggression in any form, and aggression is the result of frustration. It is believed that frustration causes aggression directly. Frustrated individuals do not always resort to physical or verbal attacks on others. Often they show their range of reactions to frustration, ranging from despondency and submission to active prerequisites to overcome obstacles.

For example, an applicant sent documents to higher education institutions, but they were not accepted. He would rather be discouraged than enraged and angry. Many empirical studies confirm that frustration does not always lead to aggression. Most likely, this state causes aggression in those individuals who are accustomed to react to aversive stimuli (unpleasant) with aggressive behavior. Taking into account all these considerations, Miller was one of the first to formulate a theory of frustration - aggression.

The phenomenon of frustration generates different behaviors, and aggression is one of them. Tempting and strong by its definition frustration does not always provoke aggression. Detailed consideration of the problem leaves no doubt that aggression is the result of various factors. Aggression can occur in the absence of frustrating moments. For example, the actions of a hired killer who kills people without knowing them before. His victims simply could not frustrate him. The aggressive actions of such a person are more explained by the receipt of rewards for the killings than by the frustration moments. Or consider the actions of the pilot who bombed the position of the enemy, while killing civilians. In this case, aggressive actions are not caused by frustration, but by orders of the command.

Exit frustration

How to find a way out of frustration without becoming an aggressive or reticent person? Everyone has personal ways to have a good time, which makes them feel like a complete and happy person.

Be sure to analyze why your failure occurred, identify the main reason. Work on the shortcomings.

If necessary, seek help from specialists who will help you understand the causes of the problem.