The process of socialization is the introduction of the child into society. This process is characterized by complexity, multi-factoriality, multidirectionality and poor prediction in the end. The process of socialization can last a lifetime. It is not necessary to deny the impact of the innate qualities of the body on personal properties. After all, there is a formation of personality only as far as the inclusion of a person into the surrounding society.
One of the prerequisites for the formation of personality is the interaction with other subjects, transmitting the accumulated knowledge and life experience. This is accomplished not by simply mastering social relations, but as the result of a complex interaction of social (external) and psychophysical (internal) inclinations of development. And it represents the cohesion of socio-typical traits and individually significant qualities. It follows from this that the personality is socially conditioned, it develops only in the process of life activity, in the change of children's attitude towards the surrounding reality. From this we can conclude that the degree of socialization of an individual is determined by the multitude of components that, in combination, add up the general structure of the influence of society on a single individual. And the presence of certain defects in each of these components leads to the formation in the personality of social and psychological qualities that can lead a person in specific circumstances to conflict situations with society.
Under the influence of the socio-psychological conditions of the environment and in the presence of internal factors, the child appears maladaptation, manifested in the form of abnormal - deviant behavior. Social maladjustment of adolescents is born with violations of normal socialization and is characterized by the deformation of the reference and value orientations of adolescents, a decrease in the significance of the reference character and alienation, primarily from the impact of teachers in school.
Depending on the degree of alienation and the depth of the resulting deformations of value and reference orientations, there are two phases of social disadaptation. The first phase consists of pedagogical neglect and is characterized by alienation from school and the loss of reference importance in school, while maintaining a fairly high reference in the family. The second phase is more dangerous and is characterized by alienation from both the school and the family. Lost connection with the main institutions of socialization. There is an assimilation of distorted value-normative ideas and the first criminal experience appears in youth groups. The result will be not only a lag in school, poor academic performance, but also increasing psychological discomfort experienced by adolescents at school. This pushes adolescents to search for a new, non-school communication environment, another peer reference group, which subsequently begins to play a leading role in the socialization of adolescents.
Factors of social disadaptation of adolescents: crowding out of a situation of growth and personal development, disregard of the personal desire for self-realization, self-affirmation in a socially acceptable way. The consequence of maladjustment will be psychological isolation in the communicative sphere with the loss of a sense of belonging to its culture, transition to attitudes and values that dominate the microenvironment.
Unmet needs can lead to increased social activity. And she, in turn, can result in social creativity and this will be a positive deviation, or manifest in anti-social activities. If she does not find a way out, she can rush to search for a way out in the addiction to alcohol or drugs. In the most unfavorable development - a suicidal attempt.
The prevailing social, economic instability, critical state of health care and education systems not only does not contribute to comfortable socialization of the individual, but also exacerbates adolescent maladjustment processes associated with problems in family education, which lead to even greater anomalies in adolescent behavioral responses. Therefore, more and more the process of socialization of adolescents is becoming negative. The situation is aggravated by the spiritual pressure of the criminal world and their values, rather than civil institutions. The destruction of the basic institutions of socialization leads to an increase in juvenile delinquency.
Also, the following social contradictions affect the sharp increase in the number of maladjusted adolescents: indifference in secondary school to smoking, the lack of an effective method of dealing with absenteeism, which today have practically become the norm of school behavior along with the continuing reduction of educational and preventive work in government organizations and leisure facilities and raising children; replenishment of juvenile groups of criminals at the expense of adolescents who dropped out of school and are lagging behind in their studies, along with a decrease in the social interrelations of the family with teachers. This facilitates the establishment of contacts between adolescents and juvenile gangs, where unlawful and deviant behavior develops freely and is encouraged; crisis phenomena in society, which contribute to the growth of anomalies in the socialization of adolescents, along with a weakening of the educational influence on adolescents of public groups, which should exercise education and public control over the actions of minors.
Consequently, the growth of maladaptation, deviant behavior, juvenile delinquency - is the result of the global social exclusion of children and youth from society. And this is a consequence of the violation of directly the processes of socialization, which began to be uncontrollable, spontaneous.
Signs of social maladjustment of adolescents associated with such an institution of socialization as a school:
The first sign is school failure, which includes: chronic school failure, repetition, insufficiency and fragmentaryness of the learned general educational information, i.e. lack of knowledge and skills in learning.
The next sign is a systematic violation of an emotionally colored personal attitude to learning in general, and some subjects in particular, to teachers, life perspectives associated with learning. Поведение может быть равнодушно-безучастным, пассивно-негативным, демонстративно-пренебрежительным и др.
Третий признак - регулярно повторяющиеся аномалии поведения в процессе школьного обучения и в школьной среде. For example, passive-refusal behavior, lack of contact, complete abandonment of school, sustained behavior with discipline violation, characterized by oppositional defiant actions and including active and demonstrative opposition of his personality to other students, teachers, disregard for the rules adopted in school, vandalism in school .
Correction of social maladjustment
In childhood, the main directions of correction of social maladjustment of an individual should be: development of communication skills, harmonization of interpersonal communication in the family and in peer groups, correction of some personality traits that prevent communication or transformation of the manifestations of properties so that they cannot negatively affect communication sphere, the adjustment of children's self-esteem to bring it closer to normal.
Currently, trainings are especially popular in the correction of social maladjustment: psychotechnical games aimed at the development of various functions of the psyche, which are associated with transformations in consciousness, and role-based socio-psychological training.
This training is aimed at resolving the internal contradictions of the subject in terms of developing certain skills to perform specific social functions (the formation and consolidation of the necessary social and cultural norms). Training takes place in the form of a game.
Socio-psychological training is a specific psychological impact, which is based on active methods of working in groups. It is characterized by the intensity of the preparation of the individual for a more full and active life. The essence of the training is specially organized training for the purpose of self-improvement of the personality of the individual. It is aimed at solving such tasks as: mastering social and pedagogical knowledge, forming the abilities of knowing oneself and others, enhancing ideas about one’s importance, forming various abilities, skills, and abilities.
Training is a complex of consecutive classes with one group. Tasks and exercises are selected for each group individually.