Aggression - this is an attack, motivated by destructive behavior, which contradicts all norms of human coexistence and damages objects from an attack, causing moral and physical damage to people, causing psychological discomfort. From the position of psychiatry, aggression in a person is ranked as a method of psychological protection from a traumatic and unfavorable situation. It can also be a way of psychological discharge, as well as self-assertion.
Aggression damages not only the individual, the animal, but also the inanimate object. Aggressive behavior in a person is considered in section: physical - verbal, direct - indirect, active - passive, benign - malignant.
Causes of aggression
Aggressive behavior in humans can be caused by a variety of reasons.
The main causes of aggression in humans:
- abuse of alcohol, as well as narcotic drugs, which undermine the nervous system, which provokes the development of an aggressive inadequate response to minor situations;
- problems of a personal nature, lack of privacy (lack of a life partner, loneliness, intimate problems causing depression, and later turning into an aggressive state and manifested at every mention of the problem);
- mental injuries received in childhood (neurosis received in childhood due to poor parental attitudes);
- Strict upbringing provokes a manifestation of aggressiveness towards children in the future;
- fascination with watching quest games and thrillers;
- overwork, refusal to rest.
Aggressive behavior is observed in a number of mental and nervous disorders. This condition is observed in patients with epilepsy, schizophrenia, as a result of injuries and with organic brain lesions, meningitis, encephalitis, psychosomatic disorders, neurasthenia, epileptoid psychopathy.
The causes of aggression are subjective factors (customs, revenge, historical memory, extremism, fanaticism of some religious movements, the image of a strong person, introduced through the media, and even the psychological individual traits of politicians).
There is an erroneous opinion that aggressive behavior is more characteristic of people with mental illness. There is evidence that only 12% of people who committed aggressive acts and were sent for forensic psychiatric examination, revealed mental illness. In half of the cases, aggressive behavior was a manifestation of psychosis, while the rest had inadequate aggressive reactions. In fact, in all cases there is a hypertrophied reaction to the circumstances.
Observation of adolescents showed that television reinforces the aggressive state through criminal programs, which further enhances the effect. Sociologists, in particular Carolyn Wood Sheriff, refute the widespread view that sports competitions act as an ersatz war without bloodshed. Long-term observations of teenagers in the summer camp showed that sports competitions not only do not reduce mutual aggressiveness, but only strengthen it. An interesting fact was discovered on the removal of aggressiveness in adolescents. Joint work in the camp not only united teenagers, but also helped relieve mutual aggressive tensions.
Types of aggression
A. Bass and A. Darki identified these types of aggression in humans:
- physical, when direct force is used to inflict physical and moral damage to the enemy;
- irritation manifests itself in readiness for negative feelings; indirect aggression is characterized by a roundabout way and is directed to another person;
- negativism is an oppositional manner in behavior, marked by passive resistance to active struggle directed against established laws and customs;
- verbal aggression is expressed in negative feelings through such a form as screeching, shouting, through verbal answers (threats, curses);
- resentment, hatred, envy of others for invented and valid action;
- suspicion is an attitude towards individuals ranging from caution to distrust, reduced to the conviction that other individuals are planning, and then do harm;
- the feeling of guilt refers to the conviction of the subject that he is a bad person, an evil person, often such people have remorse.
E. Bass proposed a classification based on the multi-axis principle. This conceptual frame consists of three axes: verbal - physical, passive - active; indirect - direct.
G.E. Breslav supplemented this classification, considering that an individual manifests several types of aggressiveness at the same time, which are constantly changing and turning into each other.
By focus distinguish the following types of aggression:
- Heteroagression, which is aimed at others; these are murders, beatings, rape, profanity, threats, insults;
- auto-aggression, which is aimed at itself, is self-destruction (suicide), psychosomatic diseases, self-destructive behavior;
For the reason of manifestation, such species are distinguished:
- reactive, which represents the response to an external stimulus (conflict, quarrel);
- spontaneous, which manifests itself without obvious reasons, often under the influence of internal impulses (unprovoked aggressive behavior caused by mental illness and the accumulation of negative emotions).
Purposeful allocate these types:
- instrumental aggression, which is accomplished to achieve a result (athlete, striving for victory; dentist, treating a bad tooth; baby, requiring the purchase of a toy);
- target or motivational aggression in a person, which acts as a planned action, the aim of which is to cause damage or harm to an object (a teenager, after being hurt, beats a classmate).
According to openness of manifestations, the following types are distinguished:
- direct aggression, which directly targets an object with its focus, causing anxiety, irritation, arousal (the use of physical force, the use of open rudeness, death threats);
- indirect aggression, which is directed at objects that do not directly cause excitement and irritation, however, these objects are more convenient for getting out of the aggressive state, because they are available, and the manifestation of aggressive behavior towards these objects is safe (the father doesn’t want to the whole family).
In the form of manifestation note the following types:
- verbal aggression in a person is expressed in verbal form;
- expressive aggression in a person is expressed by non-verbal means: facial expressions, gestures, voice intonation (at these moments, the person waves his fist, makes a threatening grimace, threatens with a finger);
- physical, which include the direct use of force.
Approaches to aggression
Psychologists, sociologists, philosophers distinguish different approaches to aggression.
The normative approach is the definition of aggression, which emphasizes its inconsistency and the wrongfulness of social norms.
O. Martynova defines aggression as destructive, purposeful behavior, contrary to the rules and norms of coexistence of people in society.
Criminal aggression is also defined within the framework of the normative approach, which means behavior aimed at causing intentional moral and physical harm to a living being. As a result, the actions of the aggressor are considered as a contradiction with the norms of criminal law.
The deep psychological approach marks the instinctive nature of this state. In this case, the aggressive state is an inherent and innate property of any person. Vivid representatives of the deep-psychological approach are ethological (Z. Freud, C. Jung, K. Lorenz, Morris, etc.) and the psychoanalytic school.
The target approach consists in manifestation of an aggressive state from the point of view of its functionality and the behavior itself is considered as a tool for successful evolution, domination, self-affirmation, appropriation of vital resources, adaptation.
Cooroglou, Schwab see aggressive behavior as specifically oriented behavior, which is aimed at eliminating everything and overcoming what threatens the mental and physical integrity of the organism.
H. Kaufma refers aggression to a means that allows individuals to get a share of resources, which ensures success in terms of natural selection.
E. Fromm considers malignant aggression as a tool of domination, expressing the individual's desire to dominate living beings.
Aggression in a person is often an instrument of mental self-regulation. Approaches that emphasize the consequences of aggression give a description of its results.
Wilson refers aggression to physical action, as well as the threat from one individual, reducing the freedom and genetic adaptability of another individual.
Matsumoto notes that aggression is an act or behavior that hurts another person mentally or physically.
A. Bass gives this definition of aggression - a reaction in which another individual receives painful stimuli. Aggression is a phenomenon that manifests itself in specific behavior, as well as in a specific action - the threat, the damage to others.
Zilman gives a similar definition and believes that aggression is an attempt or physical or bodily harm.
Trifonov E. V. understands by aggression manifestation in the actions and feelings of the individual hostility - antagonism, hatred, hostility, hostility.
Yu. Shcherbina attributes verbal aggression to offensive communication, as well as verbal expressions of negative emotions, intentions, feelings.
Multidimensional approaches consist of the above approaches, as well as their combinations.
For example, aggression, according to Semenyuk and Yenikolopov, is destructive, purposeful offensive behavior that violates the rules and norms of coexistence of people in society, and also damages the objects of attack (inanimate and animated), causing physical damage to people and causing them to experience the state fear, mental discomfort, tension, depression.
Undifferentiated approaches reflect private psychological theories and do not explain the very essence of this state, defining it in a narrow theoretical framework.
Behaviorism (D. Dollard, L. Berkowitz, S. Fischbach) gives such a definition of aggression - a drive manifested in a natural reflex of a person or a consequence of frustration, or a form of response to mental and physical discomfort.
Representatives of cognitive theories attribute the aggressive state to the result of learning (A. Bandura). Other researchers (L. Bender) note that aggression is an approach to or removal from an object, or an internal force that enables an individual to withstand external forces (F. Allan).
Interactionism considers this state as a consequence of incompatibility of goals, objective conflict of interests of individuals, and also social groups (M. Sheriff, D. Campbell).
Such definitions give general formulations and often incomprehensibly explain the very concept of this state. Despite the huge number of approaches, none have provided a complete, as well as an exhaustive definition.
Forms of aggression
Erich Fromm singled out such forms of aggression: play, reactive, archaic thirst for blood, malignant (compensatory).
Under the game aggression, he understood the demonstration of skills, his dexterity, but not for the purpose of destruction, which is not motivated by destructiveness and hatred.
Reactive aggression is a defense of freedom, life, dignity, someone else's or own property (jealousy, envy, frustration of desires and needs, revenge, a shock to faith, disappointment in life, love).
Malignant (compensatory) aggression is manifested in destructiveness and cruelty, violence, which serves an impotent person as a substitute for productive life: necrophilia, sadism, boredom, chronic depression.
Personal characteristics and qualities that contribute to the development of aggressiveness: the tendency to impulsiveness; emotional susceptibility, manifested in a tendency to experience feelings of dissatisfaction, discomfort and vulnerability; absent-mindedness (emotional aggressiveness) and thoughtfulness (instrumental aggressiveness); hostile attribution, which refers to the interpretation of such an incentive as hostility.
Manifestation of aggression
In everyday life, the manifestation of aggression in a person is expressed in different terms. Aggression in a person can be benign, by which we understand the following personality traits: courage, perseverance, ambition, courage, bravery, and can be malignant, which includes the following traits - rudeness, violence, cruelty. A special kind of acts as destructive aggression in humans or evil.
Researcher Fromm noted in his work the existence of two types of manifestations of an aggressive state. The first type is peculiar to man, as well as animals, and implies a genetic impulse to escape or attack when life threatens, depending on the situation.
This defensive aggression is important for survival. It is inherent attenuation when approaching a clear danger. The second type is destructive aggression, which is often absent in animals and is observed only in humans. She has no genetic installations, she does not imply a specific goal and has no connection with the biological basis of survival.
Destructive aggression in a person is associated with emotions, feelings, passions, which is reflected in character.
There is such a thing as a manifestation of pseudo-aggression. It is characterized by unintended aggressive behavior, for example, an accidental injury of a person, or playfulness, manifested in agility training, as well as quickness of reaction.
Defensive aggression is characteristic of all living beings, representing a biological adaptation. There is a program in the brain of an animal that mobilizes all impulses when life threatens.
The manifestation of aggression occurs in case of restriction of sex, access to food, living space, with the threat to offspring and the goal of this aggression is the preservation of life. The individual also genetically laid this feature, however, it is not as pronounced as in animals, which is primarily due to moral and religious worldviews and upbringing.
There is no specific protection against the very manifestations of aggressive behavior. This state does not appear on its own, but after receiving an impulse, it is able to go against the first person that comes across.
Often, strong people provoke weak ones into aggressive behavior, which then break down on weaker ones, experiencing sadistic satisfaction.
Aggression is also able to return to the one who provoked it. Sometimes the manifestation of aggressive behavior occurs against a stranger. To prevent it, it is important to understand the reasons that provoked it.
Aggression accumulates in the individual and awaits entry into resonance with the external factor, drawing all the power to this factor. For this reason, it makes no sense to avoid personal aggression, because sooner or later it will still spill out on any person.
The manifestation of aggression in men - it all looks like a punch on the table with all the ensuing consequences.
The manifestation of aggression in women is discontent, endless complaints, "sawing", gossip, and conclusions that are not logic. This is such a kind of aggression.
The manifestation of aggression is a demonstration of dissatisfaction. As an example, unfulfilled dreams, expectations, dissatisfaction with the marital relationship. Often the person himself does not realize his dissatisfaction and does not notice his aggressive state. Hidden dissatisfaction is manifested in indirect aggression. It can be petty nagging, as a specific person, and the whole family.
This type of aggression represents a symbolic form with the infliction of psychological harm and the transition to vocal data (change of tone, cry), as well as verbal components of speech (insults, invective).
E. Bass proposed a classification based on the multi-axis principle. Its frame consists of three axes: verbal - physical, passive - active, indirect - direct. E. Bass distinguishes the following types of verbal aggression: verbal - active - direct, verbal - active - indirect, verbal - passive - direct, and also verbal - passive - indirect.
G.E. Breslav supplemented this classification, since the individual often exhibits several types of aggressive behavior, which are constantly changing and turning into each other.
Verbal-active-straight is a verbal humiliation, an insult to another person.
Вербальная-активная-непрямая - это распространение сплетен, злостной клеветы о другой личности.
Вербальная-пассивная-прямая - это личный отказ в общении с другим человеком, игнорирование вопросов.
Verbal-passive-indirect - it is marked by the refusal to give verbal certain explanations or explanations in defense of the person being criticized undeservedly.
It remains a controversial question as to whether verbal aggression in a person can be expressed through silence, as well as a refusal to speak. These actions are more reminiscent of the description of psychological aggression, in rare cases used as a synonym for verbal.
The Yudovsky scale (OASCL) includes in the description the following forms of this state: angry speech, loud noise, insults, threats of physical violence, use of obscene expressions. It is noted that loud noise, as well as angry speech, is a consequence of aggressive intentions of the person and situational irritability.
Verbal aggression in a person can be hidden and open.
Open verbal aggression in a person is expressed by the intention to inflict communicative damage to the addressee and is manifested in degrading forms (shouts, curses). Such behavior often turns into physical aggression, in which the aggressor invades the addressee’s personal space.
Hidden verbal aggression is a derogatory and systematic pressure on the addressee, but without the open manifestation of hostile emotions. Some researchers believe that verbal aggression in a person is an imitation of genuine aggression. Others note that verbal aggression in a person is only an illusion of the discharge of hostility, which leads to the accumulation of destructive impulses.
One of the ways of manifestation of negative emotions is speech aggression, it is verbal or verbal.
Speech aggression or rudeness in relation to the interlocutor is manifested in the use of offensive, harsh words, in negative evaluations of the interlocutor, derisive intonations, obscene curses, increased loudness of voice, unpleasant hints, rough irony.
The subject’s verbal aggression is provoked by annoying or disturbing remarks of the interlocutor (excessive fraud, talkativeness, display of ill-will, unpleasant comment, indiscriminate accusation).
Negative emotion can lead to speech aggression in a person both immediately and later. Aggressive speech behavior can also be provoked by past impressions of the interlocutor when he evoked a negative emotion.
Speech aggression can also be triggered by the social status of the interlocutor or belonging to the category of persons to whom they feel and experience a negative attitude. More rarely, speech aggression is due to other reasons: disruption of the negative, mental characteristics of the subject, low level of education.
Eliminating the opportunity, as well as avoiding the emergence of speech aggression, contributes to the establishment and success of communication, but does not solve all the issues and difficulties in communicating to achieve mutual understanding, agreement and agreement. In some cases, rudeness is effective to achieve the desired result in communication, but this cannot be a universal rule.
As a clearing of speech aggression, you can use the following phrase: "You allow yourself too much!" and stop talking. Remember that the best remedy for anger is to delay it.
Aggression of adolescents
Teen aggression is a deliberate act that causes or intends to cause damage to another individual, a group of people, as well as an animal. Intraspecific aggression of adolescents includes causing damage to a group of people or another person.
The concept of adolescent aggression includes aggressive behavior, which is expressed in an interaction, during which one adolescent (aggressor) deliberately harms (the victim) another adolescent.
Adolescent aggression can include any form of behavior aimed at harming or insulting a living creature, as well as clearly malicious behavior that involves actions by which an aggressor deliberately causes damage to his victim. Aggression is expressed in aggressiveness, which is referred to as a genetic predisposition, and to the influence of the environment.
An aggressor is an individual who deliberately causes harm to another person, who can scoff, fight, spoil things.
A victim is a person who deliberately harms the aggressor.
The audience is a group of witnesses, students who do not initiate aggressive actions, however, watching the aggressor and his actions, do not take the side of the victim, rarely indirectly or directly help the aggressor.
Researcher Lagerspets, conducting research among children 8–15 years old, found that boys resort to aggressive behavior when they get angry, kicked, chased, teased, teased, and girls boycotted the offender, gossip behind their backs, defiantly offended.
Increased aggression of adolescents at the age of 9–15 is manifested on the street, at school, at home in relation to people nearby. This is expressed in physical aggressive behavior, in verbal expression (coarse expressions, words), a slight degree of aggressiveness is expressed in relation to inanimate objects, as well as in a latent form - auto-aggression directed against itself.
The problem of adolescent aggression is associated with puberty and the transition to the stage of adulthood. Children are often unprepared for changes in the usual way of life, they are afraid of independent living, they are afraid of future uncertainty, they are not ready for responsibility, they are overcome by psycho-emotional changes.
A significant impact on children has a family, the media. Parents cannot influence the puberty factor itself, but they can minimize the manifestations of aggressiveness in adolescents and limit the viewing of criminal programs. In no case can adults show negative emotions and provoke aggression at the moments of their aggressiveness. This can only aggravate the situation. A teenager may withdraw into himself, will start aggression against himself, which will lead to the formation of an aggressive personality, the development of deviant behavior.
Growing up is a difficult stage in the life of every teenager. The child wants independence, but is often afraid of it and is not ready for it. A teenager because of this, there are contradictions in which he is not able to understand himself. At such moments, the main thing is not to move away from children, to show tolerance, not to criticize, to talk only on an equal footing, to try to calm, to understand, to feel the problem.
Aggression of adolescents is manifested in the following types:
- hyperactive - motor-disinhibited teenager who is brought up in a family in an atmosphere of permissiveness of the “idol” type. For behavior correction, it is necessary to build a system of restrictions, applying game situations with mandatory rules;
- exhausted and touchy teenager, which is characterized by hypersensitivity, irritability, touchiness, vulnerability. Correction of behavior includes the discharge of mental stress (whack something, a noisy game);
- oppositional defiant teenager, showing rudeness towards familiar people, parents who are not role models. The teenager transfers his mood, problems to these people. Behavior correction involves solving problems in collaboration;
- aggressively fearful teenager who is hostile, suspicious. The correction includes working with fears, modeling a dangerous situation with the child, overcoming it;
- aggressively insensitive child, for whom emotional responsiveness, sympathy, empathy are not peculiar. The correction includes the stimulation of humane feelings, the development of children's responsibility for their actions.
Aggression of adolescents has the following reasons: learning difficulties, upbringing deficiencies, peculiarities of maturation of the nervous system, lack of cohesion in the family, lack of closeness between the child and parents, negative nature of the relationship between sisters and brothers, style of family leadership. Children from families where there is discord, alienation, coldness, are most prone to aggressiveness. Communication with peers and imitation of older students also contributes to the development of this state.
Some psychologists believe that adolescent aggressiveness, perhaps, suppress as a child, but there are nuances. In childhood, the social circle is limited only to parents who independently correct aggressive behavior, while in adolescence the social circle becomes wider. This circle is expanding at the expense of other teenagers with whom the child communicates on an equal footing, which is not at home. Hence the problems in families. A peer company considers him an independent, separate and unique person, where his opinion is considered, and the teenager’s home is attributed to an unreasonable child and is not considered an opinion.
How to respond to aggression? To extinguish aggression, parents should try to understand their child, to accept his position, listen to and help without criticism if possible.
It is important to eliminate aggression from the family, where it is the norm between adults. Even when a child is growing up, parents act as role models. The parents of troublemakers in the future, the child grows up the same, even if adults do not clearly express aggression in adolescents. The sensation of aggressiveness occurs on a sensual level. It is possible that a teenager grows quiet and downtrodden, but the consequences of family aggression will be such: a violent aggressive tyrant will grow. To prevent such an outcome, it is necessary to consult a psychologist on the correction of aggressive behavior.
Prevention of aggression in adolescents includes: forming a certain range of interests, engaging in positive activities (music, reading, sports), engaging in socially recognized activities (sports, work, art, organizational), avoiding manifestations of power relative to adolescents, discussing problems together, listening to feelings of children, lack of criticism, reproaches.
Parents should always remain tolerant, loving, tender, communicate on an equal footing with teenagers and remember that if you move away from the child now, then it will be very difficult to get close.
Aggression in men
Male aggression strikingly differs from female one in its attitudes. Men resort mainly to the open form of aggression. They often experience much less anxiety, as well as guilt feelings during the period of aggressiveness. Aggression for them is a means of achieving their goals or a peculiar model of behavior.
Most of the scientists who studied the social behavior of people suggested that aggression in men is caused by genetic causes. Such behavior allowed from generation to generation to transfer their genes, to defeat rivals and find a partner to continue the race. Scientists Kenrick, Sadalla, Vershur as a result of research have found that women consider the leadership and domination of men as attractive qualities for themselves.
Increased aggression in men arises because of social as well as cultural factors, and more precisely in the absence of a culture of behavior and the need to demonstrate confidence, strength and independence.
Aggression of women
Women often use psychological implicit aggression, they are worried about how they can resist the victim. Women resort to aggression in outbursts of anger, to relieve mental and nervous tension. Women, as social creatures, have emotional sensitivity, friendliness and empathy and their aggressive behavior is not as pronounced as the male one.
Aggression in older women baffles loving relatives. Often this type of disorder is referred to as signs of dementia, if there are no obvious reasons for such behavior. Attacks of aggression in women are characterized by a change in character, an increase in negative traits.
Women's aggression is often triggered by the following factors:
- congenital hormonal insufficiency caused by the pathology of early development, which leads to mental disorders;
- emotional negative experiences of childhood (sexual abuse, abuse), victimization of intra-family aggression, as well as the pronounced role of the victim (husband);
- mental pathology (schizophrenia);
- hostile relations with the mother, children's mental trauma.
Aggression in the elderly
The most common disorder in older people is aggression. The reason is a narrowing of the circle of perception, as well as a false interpretation of the events of an elderly person who is gradually losing touch with society. This is caused by a decrease in memory for events. For example, stolen items or missing money. Such situations cause problems in family relationships. It is very difficult to convey to an elderly person with a memory impairment that there is a loss, since it was placed in another place.
The aggression in the elderly is manifested in emotional disturbances - selfishness, irritability, protest reactions to everything new, a tendency to conflicts, baseless insults and accusations.
The state of aggression is often caused by atrophic processes, vascular diseases of the brain (senile dementia). These changes are often ignored by relatives and others, writing off to the "bad character." Competent assessment of the condition and the correct selection of therapy allows to achieve good results in establishing peace in the family.
Family disagreements and strong aggression of the husband are the most discussed topics in consultations with psychologists. Conflicts, differences, which provoke mutual aggression among spouses are the following:
- uncoordinated, unfair division of labor in the family;
- a different understanding of rights as well as responsibilities;
- insufficient contribution of one family member to domestic work;
- chronic dissatisfaction of needs;
- deficiencies, defects of education, mismatch of the mental worlds.
All family conflicts arise for the following reasons:
- dissatisfaction with the intimate need of one of the spouses;
- dissatisfaction with the need for significance and value of their “I” (violation of self-esteem, dismissive, as well as disrespectful attitude, insults, resentment, incessant criticism);
- dissatisfaction with positive emotions (lack of tenderness, affection, care, understanding, attention, psychological alienation of the spouses);
- addiction to gambling, spirits of one of the spouses, as well as hobbies, leading to unreasonable cash waste;
- financial differences of spouses (issues of family maintenance, mutual budget, the contribution of each to the material support);
- dissatisfaction with the need for mutual support, mutual assistance, the need for cooperation and cooperation related to the division of labor, housekeeping, child care;
- dissatisfaction needs and interests in the conduct of leisure and recreation.
As you can see, there are many reasons for conflict, and each family can distinguish its own pain points from this list.
Sociological studies have found that men are most sensitive to household problems and difficulties of adaptation at the beginning of family life. If the husband has male problems, then often the whole