Addiction - This is a disease that is characterized by an increase in symptoms, directly related to the use of narcotic drugs. Simply put, drug addiction is the habit of using various drugs, sedatives, hallucinogenic drugs and other psychoactive substances. This dependence leads to disastrous consequences, both for the addict himself and for society as a whole.
Drug addiction can occur due to a number of reasons, for example, the influence of peers, getting rid of boredom, solving any problems, etc. Today, the problem of drug addiction is quite acute. This is due to the fact that drugs primarily affect the personality of an individual, have a negative effect on interpersonal relationships and affect the inner world of the individual, his world perception, and then his physical body.
Causes of Addiction
Among the causes of addiction are usually distinguished three groups: psychological, social and physiological.
The first group includes:
- family problems;
- ordinary curiosity or boredom;
- craving for creative and intellectual success;
- protest against the foundations of society or its family;
- lack of internal discipline;
- lack of a sense of responsibility for their actions and actions;
- the absence or deformation of moral qualities;
- some internal conflicts;
- dissatisfaction with oneself or self-doubt;
- the uncertainty of their future;
- fears, insecurity, anxiety;
- imitation of peers, significant people or idols;
- a tribute to fashion, increasing popularity in the peer group;
- lack of education;
- lack of other interests.
The reasons for drug addiction in the family include a lack or, conversely, an excess of love, excessive custody, suppression of the child’s “I”, tyranny in the family, or assault. The main cause of addiction in the adolescent environment is the lack of spiritual warmth, mutual understanding in the family. Parents always give away work, they pay off children with toys, children are sorely lacking in parental attention, care, love, and the child’s psyche suffers from it. If, in the future, parents do not change their attitude towards raising children, the consequence will be juvenile addiction, alcoholism, vagrancy, deviant behavior, depressive states, and even suicidal attempts.
As a result of the inadequate upbringing of the child, when he does not know about the dangers of drugs and alcohol, about what the use of narcotic drugs leads to, the child may try drugs.
Quite a frequent reason for taking drugs is a simple curiosity about the sensations that can be obtained from taking these drugs. Such curiosity may arise under the influence of extraneous suggestion or independently. Everyone who takes drugs initially thinks that there will be nothing from one time. They just try it once.
People striving for creative expression, for success in the intellectual sphere, usually take drugs in order to get an opportunity to expand their area of consciousness, as it were, to make new discoveries, in order to conduct experiments on themselves.
People who rebel and do not want to obey the laws and principles adopted in society often also take narcotic drugs. Juvenile addiction can often occur due to youthful maximalism.
The second group of causes include:
- the crisis of moral values in today's society;
- cultural trends of the West;
- lack of censorship in the media, the prevalence of immorality;
- The lack of a system of organizations to ensure the leisure of children and sports sections in the public domain;
- lack of an effective model of promoting healthy lifestyle.
A lot of research has been done on the presence of the physiological causes of drug addiction. Scientists have proven that the individual’s emotional balance and mood depend on neurotransmitter metabolism in the brain. Excessive or, conversely, insufficient production of neurotransmitters leads to the formation of anxiety, fears and depressions. A person subconsciously tries to get rid of conditions that bring discomfort by taking narcotic drugs. In this case, the drugs replace the missing neurotransmitters, which gives the individual a sense of comfort and peace of mind.
Symptoms of addiction
Symptoms of drug addiction are divided into two large groups: indirect signs and specific signs of abuse of narcotic drugs. Indirectly include:
- manner of dress - clothes with long sleeves, regardless of the circumstances and weather;
- the pupils are unnaturally wide or narrow, regardless of the lighting;
- absent glance;
- quite often untidy appearance, hair, prone to dryness, swelling on the hands;
- fissure, dark-colored teeth;
- often slouching posture;
- incomprehensible speech;
- awkward and inhibited movements, while the smell of alcohol from the mouth is absent;
- irritability, rudeness and inadequacy in communication;
- Often, after the arrival of such "guests" in the house things disappear.
To make a conclusion about the use of drugs by a person is easier for his close people, since they quite often see him and live under one roof.
The specific signs of drug abuse can manifest themselves in different ways depending on the drugs the individual takes. For example, it is possible to assume the use of certain types of drugs on the basis of intoxication, and some - only on signs of abstinence.
Signs of intoxication with cannabis derivatives in most cases depend on the amount of drug taken. Often the use of small and medium doses is characterized by dry mouth, hyperemia of the skin of the face, dilated pupils, redness of the sclera of the eyes and lips.
In a state of narcotic intoxication, people are quite mobile and dynamic, they constantly laugh, tend to make decisions thoughtlessly and easily. The speech of such people is often quick, wordy, hasty and fuzzy. Cannabis and its derivatives are often called "group drugs". This is due to the fact that the addict’s cheerful or unhappy mood is exaggeratingly repeating the mood of the people around him. If everyone around is laughing, then he will laugh, and if sad, then he will cry. This is associated with the occurrence of panic in the group of adolescents who smoke the grass, in the case when something seems dangerous to one. A very characteristic sign of cannabis derivative intoxication is increased appetite. At the end of cannabis exposure, a person can easily eat, for example, one half of a borscht pan or a whole loaf of bread. Often by the end of intoxication hemp appears drowsiness.
Features of addiction are observed when consuming a large dose - the face may be pale, the lips are dry, and the pupil is narrowed. At the same time, a person is rather sluggish, slowed down, immersed in himself, his tongue becomes obscure. Questions can be answered with a pause, often out of place, in monosyllables. From such a person can feel the distinct smell of hemp. The movements are rather clumsy and sweeping due to the fact that there is a disorder in spatial orientation. Often, in such a state, a person seeks for solitude so that no one interferes with him and does not bother with conversations or requests. With a serious overdose of cannabis drugs, acute psychosis is possible.
Signs of opiate use:
- drowsiness at the wrong time. If you leave a stupefied person alone, then he will begin to fall asleep in any position, while occasionally waking up. And if you call him, he instantly joins the conversation, as if he did not sleep;
- speech is characterized by slowness, length of words. A man intoxicated with opiates begins to chat about a topic that has long been discussed and already forgotten. He tells the same thing several times. However, at the same time, it can be witty, lively and easy to talk to;
- good nature, appeasability, flexibility and courtesy;
- Distraction or thoughtfulness;
- while falling asleep, a drug addict can forget, for example, about a cigarette burning in his hand, drop it or burn it;
- the desire for solitude, and sometimes, on the contrary, obsession and intrusiveness;
- the pupil is narrowed and does not expand in the dark, so they see poorly in the dark;
- the skin is characterized by paleness, dryness, they are warm to the touch;
- Lower pain sensitivity threshold.
The state of opiate addiction usually does not last more than 8-12 hours, in rare cases only 4-5 hours. The next period after the stage of intoxication begins withdrawal or in the common people - "breaking".
Such "breaking" is characterized by anxiety, tension, irritability for no apparent reason, nervousness. Such a person is in dire need of drugs, so he is impatient.
Beginners addicts who do not have a severe form of physical dependence, can tolerate periods of "breaking", as they say "on their feet." Relatives may think that the person simply became ill, as the withdrawal pattern in mild form is similar in clinical manifestations to acute respiratory diseases or indigestion.
Abstinence begins with lethargy, apathy, a sharp expansion of the pupils, mild malaise, excessive sweating, chills, and low mood. People suffering from withdrawal symptoms include heaters and wrap themselves up in warm clothes, even if the room is not cold. They are tormented by a runny nose, and sometimes constant sneezing, nausea, sometimes accompanied by vomiting, pain in the abdomen, and often frequent loose stools.
At the stage of abstinence syndrome, drug addicts hardly sleep at night. They cannot lie still. It becomes easier for them, usually for 4-5 days. To transfer such a state can only those who have briefly abused drugs. And also people (in some cases) who are supported and cared for by relatives. That is why addicts do not stand up and take a new dose.
Signs of psychostimulants:
- excessive vivacity;
- swiftness in actions and decisions;
- impetuousness and sharpness of movements;
- restlessness (inability to sit in one place even for 20 seconds);
- quick speech and skipping from one topic to another;
- variability of intentions;
- dilated pupils;
- dry skin;
- rapid pulse;
- high blood pressure.
After a period of recovery, when the effect of the drugs begins to weaken, the person becomes sluggish, irritable, and his reactions slow. The mood is usually lowered, along with this, drug addicts are characterized by anxiety, wariness. They experience fright with loud noises.
The features of drug addiction in those who take such drugs for a long time are: frightening hallucinations and delusions of persecution may appear. For people who abuse ephedrine, the language can often be smooth, slightly puffy and bright crimson.
Signs of taking hallucinogens: delirium; doing absurd things, listening to nonexistent voices, looking at pictures on the wallpaper. Signs of taking these drugs are not very noticeable, as people usually take them when there is no likelihood that someone will see them in this state. Also, physical abstinence is not very noticeable in people taking hallucinogens.
Signs of taking sedative-hypnotic drugs do not differ from alcohol intoxication. At reception of small doses the intoxication picture is not so noticeable.
Features of addiction in the use of large doses of the following: intoxication accompanied by a decrease in the finer points of perception of the environment; oppression of mental abilities, loss of moral values and guidelines. This is manifested in licentious behavior, lack of elementary politeness, tact, haste and lightheadedness in making decisions.
In contrast to the intoxication of most narcotic drugs, when using hypnotic drugs, drug addicts are often aggressive and pugnacious. Pupils are mainly dilated. The skin is often pale, the pulse is speeded up. Coordination of movements is disturbed, they become sweeping, redundant, awkward. Attention of intoxicated people is unstable, they are rapidly switching from one topic of conversation to another. Speech becomes slurred, excessively loud, the tongue becomes obscure. This state is called the phase of excitation. After two to four hours, the next phase begins, which is characterized by lethargy, drowsiness, after which the person falls asleep. Their sleep is characterized by a short duration, usually from two to four hours, often reminiscent of an alcoholic's sleep. After sleep, a person wakes up with a headache, a feeling of weakness and indisposition. The mood is usually lowered, they are sullen and irritable. After some time, they begin to run in search of a new dose of alcohol or sleeping drugs.
The withdrawal syndrome in subjects who are addicted to hypnotic drugs is rather severe: the patient feels very weak, becomes covered with cold sweat, he becomes sick, suffers a big shiver, is dizzy, develops marked anxiety and persistent insomnia.
Drug addiction and alcoholism
The problem of drug addiction and alcoholism stands before humanity for a long time, but today it has reached incredible proportions.
Drug addiction is a disease characterized by an insuperable burden to narcotic drugs that can cause euphoria in small doses, and narcotic sleep in large doses. The concept of "addiction" is etymologically related to the term "drug", which in translation from Greek means soporific. However, today the concept of "narcotic substance" or "narcotic" is used in relation to poisons and substances capable of causing euphoria, a stimulating effect, a hypnotic effect or an analgesic effect on their use.
In addition, often in different sources devoted to the problems of drug addiction, there is a theory, which consists in the fact that a narcotic drug is a substance that meets three criteria. The first criterion (medical) is based on the fact that a narcotic substance must necessarily have a specific (for example, hallucinogenic, sedative, stimulating, etc.) effect on the central nervous system. The second (social) - the use of a substance for non-medical purposes is of enormous scale, and the consequences of this are of tremendous social significance. The third (legal) - according to the law, such a substance is recognized as narcotic.
Those. the drug is a kind of poisonous substance for the human brain. Poisons that adversely affect the brain do not cause negative emotions and pain in the subject. This is due to the fact that there are no pain receptors in the human brain. This effect hides the main force, which is so attractive and at the same time destructive for human health, a craving for euphoria.
Alcoholism is a disease that is caused by the systematic use of alcoholic beverages, characterized by a burden to them, leading to mental disorders, physical health. Alcoholism destroys the social relations of the individual who suffers from this disease.
Alcoholism must be distinguished from drunkenness. The first concept is a disease, and the second is the excessive use of alcohol, antisocial behavior. Drunkenness leads to alcoholism, but is not a disease. Alcoholism is characterized by certain symptoms that distinguish it from “domestic” drinking. Alcoholism entails chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, deep damage to the liver, modification of blood vessels and capillaries, especially the brain, which leads to damage to the peripheral and central nervous system, and much more. The consequence of brain damage will be a precarious gait, weakening of the psyche and mental disorders, a decrease in morality, the disappearance of moral values and landmarks.
Drug and substance abuse
A narcotic drug is a substance that, when used once, is capable of causing a tempting mental state (euphoria), and if it is used regularly, it is dependent on it. Drug addiction is a disease that is caused by regular use of drugs included in the list of drugs. It manifests mental, more rarely physical dependence on such means.
Toxic substances may also have the above properties, but the social danger of excessive use of them is not so high. That is why they are not officially recognized as drugs. Substance abuse is a disease that manifests mental, less often physical (as well as drug use) dependence on a substance that is not on the official list of narcotic drugs.
With the duration of the disease in people who use drugs, there are a number of deviations. Sick people are prone to suicide when they are under the influence of drugs. Среди таких людей наблюдается большая смертность, которая обусловлена отравлениями наркотическими средствами, несчастными случаями.
There are common medical consequences of taking drugs for all drug addicts: complications of a somatic and neuralgic nature, serious personality degradation, the absence of any value and moral guidelines, the absence of a goal in life, apart from finding a new dose, a reduction in average life expectancy, early aging and old age.
Drug addiction is dangerous with high social "infection". It spreads quite quickly especially among young people. This feature is common to addiction and substance abuse. Also addiction to narcotic substances leads to pronounced criminal behavior. This is primarily due to personal transformations, moral and psychological degradation.
Inhalant abuse (toxic substances inhaled by the subject for immersion into the state of euphoria) even once a week can lead to a number of complications. After 8-10 months of inhalation of inhalants, toxic damage to the liver and the death of its cells ensue, leading to chronic liver failure, impaired blood clotting, decreased immunity, edema, and ultimately to cirrhosis.
After 12-16 months of inhalation of inhalants, brain cells die, and encephalopathy occurs, which leads to mental retardation, often to dementia, sudden outbursts of incontinence, irascibility, aggression, irritability.
In the first months of addiction to toxicomania, breathing is impaired, inflammation of the lungs occurs, which can lead to pneumosclerosis.
On the harmful effects on the body and toxicity, no narcotic is comparable with inhalants. However, inhalants are not as addictive as drugs.
In order to help subjects cope with drug addiction, dedication, great endurance, great patience and love are required from close people.
Treatment and rehabilitation of drug addiction can take more than one year. Most of the relatives lack patience, understanding, and love for such a long period. Therefore, basically, drug addicts are left alone with their problem, which further immerses them in dependence.
The most important thing in addiction treatment is not to start a disease. After all, the sooner treatment is started, the easier it is to defeat a painful addiction, to eliminate the harmful effects on the body of drugs. After a certain amount of time, irreversible changes occur in the body, in such cases a return to a normal full life is extremely difficult or almost impossible. It is very important not to waste time.
Often, drug treatment is practiced anonymously. Forced addiction treatment is also quite often practiced. In the treatment of drug addiction, the main difficulty is that it is rather difficult, and sometimes practically impossible, for an addict to form an attitude to get rid of drug addiction.
Drug treatment is anonymous or compulsory drug treatment - these are fairly difficult tasks that have their own specific difficulties. Any treatment has its own nuances, features. How successful a therapy will be depends on the type of drug itself, the stage of the disease, and the psychological characteristics of the patient’s personality.
The course of drug treatment and the timing is precisely why it can be different. Today, well-known narcologists have developed basic principles for the treatment of the disease.
Getting rid of drug addiction is carried out when all principles are strictly followed. The basic principle is voluntariness. Today, the patient's voluntary consent to treatment is considered one of the main and most important factors in the success of drug treatment. The next principle is individuality, which is to take into account in each case the specific weight of drug and non-drug therapies, due to the different correlation of socio-psychological and biological factors in the formation of the disease. The third principle is complexity. It is also considered one of the main principles of successful therapy, which combines different methods and methods of treatment at each stage.
Where are people treated for drug addiction? It is believed that for people suffering from drug addiction, outpatient treatment is preferable, but in some cases they need inpatient treatment. Only by finding the patient in the hospital is it possible to observe the main rule of the effectiveness of treatment - abstaining from drug use.
How to cure drug addiction?
Typically, therapy involves two main phases. The first is the initiation of withdrawal symptoms, and the second is the prevention of relapses.
Effective drug treatment and the best reviews of people were noted when anti-drug activities were carried out clearly in three stages. The first stage is detoxification, fortifying, stimulating therapy in conjunction with the cessation of drug use. The second stage involves active anti-drug therapy, and the third - supportive therapy.
At the first stage, severe manifestations of acute narcotic intoxication, abstinence and convulsive syndromes are stopped with the help of intensive therapy methods. Such cupping therapy must necessarily include additional manipulations in order to reduce or relieve pain, which is expressed in arousal, persistent insomnia, and bouts of mood disorders.
Help with addiction includes fortifying and symptomatic therapy. Quite important in the treatment of drug addicts is the rehabilitation of patients with drug addiction.
Reviews about the treatment of drug addiction such that it depends on the rehabilitation, whether the person will return to destructive addiction or not.
Consequences of addiction
The consequences of addiction include:
- destruction of liver cells, which are responsible for the neutralization and elimination of toxins from the human body. A huge amount of harmful substances that an addict injects into his body every day causes the liver to work for wear, which leads to structural deformations of organ tissues and their degeneration. Hepatitis, cancer and cirrhosis of the liver are the true companions of drug addicts;
- Since the body has to cope with a significant amount of toxins, it prematurely wears out and grows old. This is reflected not only in the state of the internal organs and their work, but also, naturally, on the appearance of drug addicts. Quite often, a young thirty-year old lover of euphoria looks almost like an old man due to regular poisoning of his body with narcotic substances. The skin acquires a completely unhealthy appearance and an earthy hue, flabbiness and deep wrinkles appear. Vital organs come to a deplorable state; the hormonal background of the addicted person is also extremely affected. Reproductive function is incompatible with drug addiction. Therefore, even very young individuals face problems in the intimate sphere and conception, with impotence.
The social consequences of drug addiction are as follows: female drug users give birth to newborns with severe developmental disabilities. In addition, children of drug addicts are born already in a state of breaking up; there is a marked moral and rapid social degradation of the individual. Such a person forgets about any norms and criteria of behavior, he absolutely doesn’t care about his own appearance, elementary politeness. Such people just go down and eke out a miserable existence. Drug addicts often behave inadequately, sometimes even aggressively. They stop going to work, do not take part in the life of their family.
The response of the society to drug addicts is isolation: dismissal from work, disintegration of the family, friends either turn away completely or try to reduce communication to a minimum (provided that they are not the same drug addicts); disorders of adequate perception of the world and reality. People, being in a state of narcotic dope, may commit an offense, overshoot the dosage of the drug in the direction of increase, which will lead to death, or even commit suicide. They are not aware of their own actions and can be dangerous; in the end, drugs completely eliminate a person as a person, leading him to psychosis, disability and dementia.
The main objectives of prevention should be: identification of the socio-psychological causes of the spread of drug addiction among adolescents; the creation of conditions that prevent the occurrence of child and adolescent drug addiction (creating places of leisure for children, athletic fields, sections, carrying out active promotion of healthy lifestyles, etc.); development of a system of pedagogical methods and social activities that are aimed at preventing and preventing drug addiction.
All modern youth today is a risk group. Individuals, characterized by slightly pronounced manifestations of any abnormal behavior, may periodically take psychoactive drugs, along with this having no pronounced symptoms of drug addiction, fall into the group of selective prevention. Her main task is behavior correction. Individuals characterized by drug abuse, but not yet having the status of drug addicts, fall into the group of symptomatic prevention, which is aimed at long-term socio-psychological work.
These areas of prevention refer to the concept of primary prevention.
General prevention is more extensive, as it covers the entire population of young people. It is aimed at confronting the most frequent causes of drug addiction, i.e. counteraction to macrosocial factors. For example, such reasons may include, first of all, drastic changes in the economic, socio-historical or political environment, which inevitably entail an increase in the level of deviant (deviating from the norms) behavior in society, including drug addiction.
Selective prophylaxis is targeted at young people who demonstrate any behavioral disturbances. Its main idea is that the introduction to narcotic drugs occurs mainly against the background of life or psychological problems that a teenager cannot cope with on his own. Behavioral disorders in this case are a kind of indicator. Therefore, the main purpose of selective prevention lies in the early identification of the vital or psychological problems of children until such problems lead them to drug addiction, and in the further implementation of measures for the social and psychological correction of their behavior.
There is also symptomatic prevention, which is aimed at individuals who already have experience in the use of narcotic substances, but so far do not have the status of patients with drug addiction.
Fight against addiction
The fight against drug addiction should be conducted in such a way as to completely eliminate absolutely all the prerequisites for its occurrence. The fight against drug addiction must necessarily be made from two sides. On the one hand - the strictest laws, and on the other - the work on prevention, prevention, prevention of drug addiction, which should be carried out, starting with the parent and school education and ending with the impact of specialized social institutions. Only in this case, the struggle will be successful.
Today, the fight against drug addiction is extremely necessary, because the spread of drugs is not only illegal, but also through existing drugs, which is very dangerous for society and leads to its death. The fight against drug addiction is a world war for survival at the present time, and not a struggle of individual countries. This is a nationwide problem. Since the main goal of such a struggle is to uphold the right of people to life.
The fight against drug abuse is dominant in the policy of the Russian Federation. Developed the basic legal measures to combat drug abuse. Also distinguished in the structure of the process of preventing the deformation of personality are three most important levels: criminogenic, pre-criminogenic, and precriminogenic.
The main directions of the fight against drug addiction include measures to coordinate jointly directed efforts of the health authorities, public education, internal affairs, and various public associations in terms of developing a desire for a healthy lifestyle among the population; focusing on educational work with children, primarily in the family, the development of parents, teachers, and doctors of skills for differentiating in age, gender, character traits in the fight against drug addiction; providing anti-drug education in children in training courses studied in schools, technical schools, colleges, institutes the creation of conditions for the leisure of children, initiation of physical training and sports; stable support and assistance from government bodies of various activities carried out by public associations to create drug-free zones in cities.