Psychology and Psychiatry


Aggressiveness - This is a stable characteristic of the subject, which reflects his tendency to behavior, the purpose of which is to cause harm to the world or an expression of anger, anger directed at external objects. Psychologists say that aggressiveness was not inherent in mankind from the very beginning, and kids learn a model of aggressive behavior from the first days of their lives.

Aggression from the Latin language means to attack and characterizes the personality trait, preferring to use violent methods in achieving their goals.

Causes of aggressiveness

Personal characteristics affecting the development of human aggressiveness are as follows:

- tendency to impulsiveness;

- thoughtfulness, distraction;

- emotional susceptibility, as well as a sense of vulnerability, dissatisfaction, discomfort;

- hostile attribution, which refers to the assessment, as well as the interpretation of intentions, actions as aggressive.

Aggressiveness in humans is observed in a number of nervous and mental disorders.

Causes of human aggressiveness are: various kinds of conflicts, intimate problems, alcohol abuse, psychotropic drugs, narcotic drugs, lack of privacy, personal problems, loneliness, mental trauma, strict education, thriller screenings, overwork, and refusal to rest.

The term "aggressive" in relation to athletes began to be used as a characteristic, which means perseverance in overcoming obstacles, as well as being active in achieving goals.

Signs of aggressiveness

Aggression is expressed in such terms as conflict, dominance, lack of social cooperation.

Signs of a person’s aggressiveness manifest themselves in the painful way of perceiving one’s self with other people.

Signs of aggressiveness in children are their physical actions: slamming doors, trying to beat people around, tearing, biting, spoiling things in anger, and breaking dishes.

Types of aggressive reactions questionnaire Bass-Darki:

- physical aggression, marked by the use of physical force against other persons;

- indirect aggression, characterized by directed in a roundabout way to other persons or not directed at anyone;

- irritation, marked by a willingness to show negative feelings with little excitement (rudeness, irascibility);

- negativism, marked by oppositional behavior (from passive resistance to active struggle);

- offense, marked by envy, as well as hatred of others for fictional and real actions;

- suspicion, which is characterized by distrust, caution about people who allegedly plan and cause harm;

- guilt, expressed in the subject's possible conviction that he is a bad person, who commits bad deeds, and therefore has remorse of conscience;

- verbal aggression, which is expressed in negative feelings (scream, cry, threats, curses).

Male Aggression

Passive aggressiveness in men is marked by postponement and indecision before making important decisions. Such men are not responsible, extremely dismissive of the time and do not fulfill promises. This type is looking for any pretexts for a quarrel with relatives, while keeping a distance and not allowing for personal space. The cause is the fear of addiction, so the man, trying to cope with fear himself, tries to control and command others. Such a man does not admit his mistakes, but only accuses the circumstances surrounding him, demanding to find the perpetrators.

The reason for this behavior is the social and family atmosphere, where they keep silent about their desires and needs, considering this to be a manifestation of egoism. At a subconscious level, such upbringing instills the idea that wanting something for yourself is wrong and inadmissible in principle.

Passive aggressiveness in men is corrected only by a calm, gentle attitude and gradual pushing towards the desired behavior.

Aggressiveness in men differs in its attitudes from female aggressiveness. Men often resort to an open form of aggressiveness. They are not worried about anxiety, guilt, it is important for them to achieve their goal, so aggressiveness acts as a peculiar model of behavior.

Increased aggressiveness in men is marked by a lack of culture of behavior, a demonstration of confidence, their strength, and also independence.

Aggressiveness associated with sexual arousal is an attack or a series of violent acts between sexual partners. Aggressiveness is in contrast to the love-erotic relationship. Individuals are experiencing erotic pleasure from sexual aggressiveness (masochism, sadism, sadomasochism).

Psychological concepts provide such an explanation for the emergence of sexual aggressiveness: it arises as a result of experienced frustration, that is, deceived expectations in obtaining satisfaction. This does not apply only to intimate desires or needs. Aggressiveness due to the compensatory nature. For example, the repetition or continuation of the experienced violence, or the test of violence that is practiced in other areas.

Research in this area confirms that sexual abuse and the beating of women by men often occur among those strata where the woman is subjected to discrimination and oppression, is in a dependent position. At the same time, the majority of clients among prostitutes who are fond of sadomasochism are men from the highest strata, who thus realize staged aggression.

Aggressiveness in women

Women use psychological implicit aggression, they worry about the resistance that the victim can render. Aggressiveness in women is noted during outbursts of anger to relieve nervous and mental stress.

Increased aggressiveness is observed in older women and is explained by the manifestations of dementia in the absence of other negative traits of character and reasons for such behavior. Increased aggressiveness in women is characterized by a change in character traits in a negative direction.

Aggressiveness in women is provoked by such factors:

- hormonal, congenital insufficiency, provoked by pathology in early development;

- negative emotional experiences from childhood (abuse, sexual abuse);

- mental pathology (schizophrenia);

- hostile relationship with the mother, as well as children's mental trauma.

Aggression in children

Causes of children's aggressiveness: condemnation and rejection by adults; destructive emotions of the inner world, which the child is not able to cope on their own. A lack of understanding and ignorance of the causes of aggressiveness in children leads to an open hostility in adults.

How to remove aggressiveness in children?

When working with aggressive children, the teacher, the psychologist should be sensitive to internal problems. Aggression in children is removed by positive attention from the adult to the inner world of the baby.

Only positive attention and acceptance of an aggressive personality by a psychologist, educator, parent, otherwise the whole correctional work will be reduced to zero and the child will most likely lose confidence in the psychologist and show resistance in future work.

Everyone working with this category of children is important to take into account the non-judgmental position. This means not to make evaluative remarks of this type: “one should not behave this way”, “it is not good to say so”. These comments will only push children away from you and will not facilitate contact.

Correction of aggressiveness in preschool children

Children's aggressiveness is eliminated by the following principles and remedial work:

- establishing contact with the child;

- Bezotsenochny perception of the individual, as well as his acceptance in general;

- respect for the personality of the baby;

- positive attitude to the inner world.

I would like to note the direction of correctional work with the aggressiveness of children:

- training in skills of control, and also management of own anger;

- lowering the level of personal anxiety;

- the development of empathy, the formation of awareness of their own emotions, as well as the feelings of other people;

- development of positive self-esteem.

Exercises to reduce aggressiveness:

1. Acquaintance. "Show your name."

Children call their name and invented movement accompany him.

2. Game "Magic balls".

The goal: the removal of emotional stress.

Children are in a circle (sit, stand). An adult asks them to close their eyes and make a “boat” out of the palms. The psychologist puts a colored ball in all the hands of all the children, and then asks to warm it or roll it, give it a part of affection, warmth, breathing on it. Next, you are invited to open your eyes and look at the ball, talking about the feelings that arose during the exercise.

3. The game "Good ghosts."

Objective: to teach to throw out the accumulated anger in an acceptable form.

The leader offers to play the role of good ghosts, which are a bit hooligans and slightly frighten each other. At the command of the leader, the children bend their arms in the elbows, with their fingers outstretched, and utter the sound of "y" or any other sound in a loud, terrible voice.

4. We draw mood.

Purpose: the expression of his mood in the picture.

Discussion of the drawings includes guessing where the mood is.

5. Game: “The dragon bites its tail.”

Purpose: to relieve tension, neurotic states, fears.

Cheerful music sounds, the children stand behind each other, holding each other tightly by the shoulders.

The first baby is the dragon head, and the last is the dragon tail. The first baby "dragon head" tries to catch the "tail", and he in turn dodges it.

6. Game: "My good parrot."

Objective: to develop a sense of epiphany, as well as the ability to work together in a group.

Children are in a circle. The psychologist says: a parrot flew in to visit and wants to play with the children. We need to think about what needs to be done in order for the parrot to like us at a party, and he will definitely fly to them again. The psychologist gives the children a parrot a toy, offering to stroke, talk affectionately, to caress.

7. Game: “Blots”.

Purpose: removal of aggressiveness, fears, development of imagination.

Prepare white sheets of paper, gouache. Children take on the brush the paint of the color that they want to paint a blot. On a white sheet of paper, the children throw out their color and fold the sheet in half, but so that the blot makes an imprint on the second half of the sheet.

Sheet unfold and try to understand what or who is like a blob. If desired, you can finish the blot.

8. Relaxation "On the Cloud".

The goal: the removal of emotional, physical stress.

9. Exercise "I - a blade of grass."

Objective: To teach children to express their feelings.

Children imagine themselves as a blade of grass flying in the wind.

10. Game: “Two cockerels fell out”.

Goal: relieve muscle tension, emotional discharge.

Under the cheerful music kids move erratically and push their shoulders slightly.

11. Game: Centipede

Objective: to teach children to interact with peers, to promote the rallying of the children's team.

Children (5-8 people) stand up, holding their waist forward. The leading team sounds and the Centipede moves forward, then crouches, creeps between obstacles, jumps on one leg. The main task - not to break a single "chain", and save the "Centipede."

12. Board games together.

Objective: the development of attention, the ability to concentrate, the ability to interact without conflict.

13. Game: Kitty.

The goal: to establish a positive attitude, to remove the emotional, muscular tension.

Children are placed on the carpet. Calm music sounds, kids come up with a fairy tale about a cat and show how the cat basks in the sun, washes, tugs, scratches the mat with its claws.

14. Game: "Bucking".

Purpose: emotional discharge, as well as the removal of muscle tension.

The child is located on the carpet (lies on his back). Legs with free spread. Unhurriedly, he begins to kick and touch the floor with his whole foot. Legs rise high and alternate. For each kick with his foot, the baby says no, while increasing the intensity of the blow.

15. Game "Take control."

Purpose: to teach kids to restrain themselves.

Explain to kids that when they have unpleasant emotions: irritation, anger, desire to hit, then it is possible to “pull myself together” and stop their emotions. To do this, take a deep breath, and then exhale (several times). Then we straighten up, close our eyes and count to 10, smile, open our eyes.

16. The game "Fortress".

Purpose: the game allows children to show aggressive play in an adequate form. Of interest is the diagnosis: who will choose whom in the team.

Children at the request of the children are divided into two teams. Teams build a fortress for themselves (from the designer). On command, one team defends the fortress, while the other storms. Weapons - balls, inflatable balls, soft toys.

17. The game "Rvaklya".

Objective: to relieve tension and give the output of destructive energy.

The child is offered to crumple, tear, trample on the paper and do whatever it pleases with it, and then throw it in the basket.

18. The game "Zoo".

Purpose: helps relieve stress.

Children are offered to "turn" into animals at will. Initially, children sit on chairs - "cells". Each individual child represents the selected animal, while others try to guess who it shows. When everyone has "learned" everything, the chairs - the cells are released and the "beasts" - the children go out, jump, run, growl, scream.

19. Game: Velcro.

The goal: to relieve muscle tension, to unite the children's group.

All the kids move, jump, run around the room, and the two kids, holding hands, try to catch their peers, saying: "I am a sticky stick, I want to catch you." Who was caught, "Velcro" take the hand and attach it to their company. After all the babies become sticky, all the children dance in a circle with calm music.

20. Exercise "Cam".

The goal: to shift the aggression and exercise muscle relaxation.

In the course of the game, we give the child any small toy and ask him to firmly squeeze the cam.

Holding the cam clenched, and then opening it, on the palm we see a beautiful toy.

21. Game: “Compliments”.

Purpose: to help kids see personal positives, as well as to feel that they are accepted and other people appreciate them.

The game begins with these words: “I like you in me ...” The child says this phrase to all participants in the game, both adults and children. Other participants also say compliments to everyone else. After the game, you should discuss what the participants felt, what they found out about themselves, whether they liked to play and say compliments.

Aggressiveness treatment

How to deal with aggressiveness? Self-regulation helps to fight one’s own aggression. Effectively use the system of punishments and rewards when you personally play the role of an object, as well as a teacher. As a punishment to use the deprivation of certain goods, and you can encourage yourself favorite pleasure. Effective are actions to change the personal attitude to the situation.

How to reduce aggressiveness? When anger and the first signs of aggression - pause. Try to get out of this situation on your own or get distracted. Close your eyes, count to ten, mentally collect water in your mouth when talking to an annoying person. It is possible that this will save you from manifestations of unnecessary aggression.

There have always been things that you cannot change or remove from your life. You can get angry at them, but there is another approach: try to accept them and start to treat them calmly. It is very important to avoid chronic fatigue, since it is the basis of irritability and aggression. At the first sign of chronic fatigue - give yourself a break (take a day off, time off).

A person turns into evil and aggressive with chronic dissatisfaction with his life. To aggressiveness gone out of your life, you should make positive changes to it. Be attentive to yourself and try to live in your pleasure, as a contented person is more often balanced and calm than unhappy.