Individual - This is a separate individual, which combines a unique complex of innate qualities and acquired properties. From the position of sociology, the individual is a characteristic of a person, as a separate representative of a biological species of people. The individual is a single individual of Homo sapiens representatives. That is, it is a separate human being that combines social and biological in itself and is determined by a unique set of genetically programmed qualities and an individual socially acquired complex of traits, characteristics, and properties.

Concept of individual

The individual is the carrier of the biological component in man. People as individuals represent a complex of natural genetically dependent qualities, the formation of which is realized in the period of ontogenesis, the result of which is the biological maturity of people. It follows that in the concept of the individual is expressed the species identity of the person. Thus, each person is born an individual. However, after birth, the child acquires a new social parameter - he becomes a person.

In psychology, the first concept, which begins the study of personality, is considered an individual. Literally, this concept can be understood as an indivisible particle of a whole. A person as an individual is studied not only from the point of view of a single representative of a family of people, but also as a member of a certain social group. Such a characteristic of a person is the most simple and abstract, speaking only about the fact that he is separated from others. This remoteness is not its essential characteristic, since “individuals” are separated from each other and in this understanding all individuals in the Universe.

So, the individual is a single representative of the human race, the specific carrier of all social characteristics and psychophysical features of humanity. The general characteristics of the individual are as follows:

- in the integrity of the psychophysical organization of the body;

- in stability relative to the surrounding reality;

- in activity.

Otherwise, this concept can be defined by the phrase “specific person”. Man as an individual exists from birth to death. The individual is the initial (initial) state of a person in his ontogenetic development and phylogenetic formation.

An individual as a product of phylogenetic formation and ontogenetic development in specific external circumstances, however, is not at all a simple copy of such circumstances. It is precisely the product of the formation of life, interaction with environmental conditions, and not conditions taken by themselves.

In psychology, the concept of "individual" is used in a rather broad sense, which leads to the distinction between the characteristics of a person as an individual and his features as a person. It is their clear distinction, therefore, that lies at its basis in the delimitation of such concepts as the individual and the personality, and is a necessary prerequisite for the psychological analysis of the personality.

Social individual

Unlike young animals, the individual is almost devoid of congenital adaptation instincts. Therefore, for survival and further development, he needs to communicate with his own kind. After all, only in society a child will be able to translate into reality its innate potential, to become a person. Regardless of the society in which an individual is born, he will not be able to do without the care and learning of adults. For full development, the child needs a long time so that he can absorb all the elements and details that he will need in his independent life as an adult member of society. Therefore, a child from the very first days of life must have the opportunity to communicate with adults.

The individual and society are inseparable. Without society, the individual will never become a person; without individuals, society will simply not exist. In the initial period of life, interaction with society consists in primary mimic reactions, sign language, with the help of which the baby informs adults of its needs and manifests its satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The responses of the adult members of the social group also become clear to him from facial expressions, various gestures and intonations.

As a child grows up and learns to learn to speak, body language and facial expressions gradually relegate to the background plan, but never during the whole adult life of an individual does he completely lose its significance, transforming into the most important tool of non-verbal communication, which sometimes expresses feelings no less, and sometimes and more than familiar words. This is due to the fact that gestures, facial expressions and postures are less controlled by consciousness than speech, and therefore possess, in some cases, even more informative, telling the society what the individual wanted to hide.

So, it is safe to say that social qualities (for example, communication) should be formed only in the process of interaction with society in general and communication with other people in particular. Any communication, verbal or non-verbal, is a necessary component of a person’s becoming socialized. The social qualities of the individual are his abilities for social activity and the process of socialization. The earlier the process of socialization begins, the easier it will be.

There are various forms of learning through which the individual is socialized, but they must always be used in combination. One of the methods that adults deliberately use to teach a child to socially correct and approved behavior is to learn to reinforce. Consolidation is implemented by using the directional method of rewards and punishments in order to demonstrate to the child which behavior will be desired and approved, and which will be negative. In this way, the child is taught to comply with the basic requirements of hygiene, etiquette, etc.

Some elements of an individual's everyday behavior can become quite habitual, which leads to the formation of strong associative connections - the so-called conditioned reflexes. One of the channels of socialization is the formation of conditioned reflexes. Such a reflex, for example, can be washing your hands before eating. The next method of socialization is learning through observation.

The individual learns how to behave in society, observing the behavior of adults and trying to imitate them. Many children's games are based on imitating the behavior of adults. Role social interaction of individuals is also learning. The adherent of this concept, J. Mead, believes that the mastery of social norms and rules of behavior occurs in the course of interactions with other people and with the help of various games, especially role-playing (for example, games with mothers and daughters). Those. learning takes place through interaction. By participating in role-playing games, the child embodies the results of his own observations and his initial experience of social interaction (visiting the doctor, etc.).

Socialization of the individual occurs through the influence of various agents of socialization. The most important and the first such agent in the process of social formation of the individual is the family. After all, it is the first and closest "social environment" of the individual. The family’s functions regarding the child include taking care of their health and protection. The family also satisfies all the immediate needs of the individual. It is the family that initially introduces the individual to the rules of behavior in society, teaches communication with other people. In the family, he first becomes acquainted with the stereotypes of sexual roles and passes sexual identification. It is the family that develops the primary values ​​of the individual. However, at the same time, the family is an institution that can do the most harm to the process of socialization of the individual. For example, the low social status of parents, their alcoholism, conflicts in the family, social exclusion or incompleteness of the family, various deviations in the behavior of adults - all this can lead to irreparable consequences, to impose an indelible imprint on the child’s world view, his character and social behavior.

The school is the next social agent after the family. It is an emotionally neutral environment, which is fundamentally different from family. In school, the baby is treated as one of many and in accordance with its real characteristics. In schools, children learn practically what success or failure means. They learn to overcome difficulties or get used to giving up in front of them. It is the school that forms the self-esteem of the individual, which, more often than not, remains with him for the whole adult life.

Another important agent of socialization is the environment of peers. In adolescence, the influence of parents and teachers on children weakens, along with their peer influence. All the lack of success in school, lack of attention to parents compensates for the respect of peers. It is in the midst of his peers that the child learns to resolve conflict issues, to communicate as equals. And in school and family, all communication is built on a hierarchy. Relations in a peer group allow an individual to better understand himself, his strengths and weaknesses.

The needs of the individual are also better understood through group interaction. The social environment of peers makes its own adjustments to the value ideas imparted in the family. Also, interaction with peers allows the child to identify with others and, at the same time, stand out among them.

Since different social groups interact in the social environment: family, school, peers - the individual faces some contradictions. For example, the family of the individual appreciates mutual aid, and the spirit of rivalry dominates at school. Therefore, the individual has to feel the impact of different people. He is trying to fit into different environments. As an individual matures and develops intellectually, he learns to see such contradictions and to analyze them. The result is that the child creates his own set of values. Formed values ​​of the individual allow you to more accurately determine your own personality, designate a plan of life and become an initiative member of society. The process of forming such values ​​can be a source of significant social change.

Also among the agents of socialization need to highlight the media. In the process of its development, the individual and society continuously interact, which causes the successful socialization of the individual.

Individual behavior

Behavior is a special form of activity of the human body, which develops the environment. In this aspect, the behavior was considered by I. Pavlov. It was he who introduced the term. With the help of this term, it became possible to display the sphere of relations of a separate interacting individual with the environment in which he exists and interacts.

The behavior of the individual is the reaction of the individual to any changes in external or internal conditions. It can be conscious and unconscious. Human behavior develops and is implemented in society. It is associated with goal-setting and speech regulation. The behavior of an individual always reflects the process of his integration into society (socialization).

Any behavior has its own reasons. It is determined by the events preceding it and causing a certain form of manifestation. Behavior is always purposeful.

The goals of the individual are based on his unmet needs. Those. Any behavior is characterized by a goal that he seeks to achieve. Goals perform motivating, controlling and organizational functions and are the most important control mechanism. To achieve them, a number of specific actions are performed. Behavior is also always motivated. Whatever the behavior, causing or aloof, it always has a motive, which determines the momentary form of its manifestation.

In the process of technical progress in modern science, another term appeared - virtual behavior. This kind of behavior combines theatricality and naturalness. Theatricality is due to the illusion of natural behavior.

The behavior of the individual has the following characteristics:

- level of activity (initiative and energy);

- emotional expressiveness (the nature and intensity of the manifested affects);

- pace or dynamism;

- stability, which consists in the constancy of manifestations in different situations and at different times;

- awareness, based on an understanding of their behavior;

- arbitrariness (self control);

- flexibility, i.e. changes in behavioral reactions in response to transformation of the environment.

Individual personality individuality

The individual is a living being that belongs to the human species. Personality is a social being that is included in social interactions, participating in social development and fulfilling a specific social role. The term identity is intended to emphasize the unique image of a person. This is how a person’s image is different from others. However, with all the versatility of the concept of individuality, it is still, to a greater extent, denotes the spiritual qualities of the individual.

The individual and the person are not identical concepts, in turn, the person and individuality form integrity, but not identity. In terms of "individuality" and "personality" are different dimensions of the spiritual nature of man. Personality is often described as strong, independent, thereby highlighting its activity essence in the eyes of others. And individuality, as - bright, creative.

The term "personality" is delimited from the terms "individual" and "individuality". This is due to the fact that the personality develops under the influence of social relationships, culture, environment. Its formation is also due to biological factors. Personality as a socio-psychological phenomenon involves a specific hierarchical structure.

Personality is an object and product of social relationships, feels social influences, and refracts them, transforming. It acts as a set of internal conditions through which external influences of society are modified. Such internal conditions are a combination of hereditary and biological qualities and social factors. Therefore, personality is a product and an object of social interaction, and an active subject of activity, communication, self-knowledge and consciousness. Personality formation is dependent on activity, on the degree of its activity. Therefore, it manifests itself in activity.

The role of biological factors in the formation of personality is quite large, but the influence of social factors cannot be neglected. There are certain personality traits that are particularly influenced by social factors. After all, a person can not be born, a person can only become.

Individual and group

A group is a relatively isolated set of individuals who are in fairly stable interaction, and also carry out joint actions over a long period of time. A group is also a collection of individuals who share certain social characteristics. Teamwork in a group is based on a specific common interest or is related to the achievement of a specific common goal. It is characterized by group potential, which allows it to interact with the environment and adapt to transformations that occur in the environment.

The characteristic features of the group are in each member's identification of himself, as well as his actions with the team as a whole. Therefore, in external circumstances, each speaks on behalf of the group. Another feature is the interaction within the group, which has the character of direct contacts, observation of each other's actions, etc. In any group, along with the formal division of roles, an informal division of roles will usually occur, which is usually recognized by the group.

There are two types of groups: informal and formal. Regardless of the type of group, it will have a significant impact on all members.

The interaction of the individual and the group will always be dual in nature. On the one hand, the individual with his actions helps to solve group problems. On the other hand, the group has a huge impact on the individual, helping her to meet her specific needs, for example, the need for security, respect, etc.

Психологами было замечено, что в коллективах с позитивным климатом и активной внутригрупповой жизнью, индивиды имеют хорошее здоровье и моральные ценности, они лучше предохранены от внешних влияний, работают активнее и действеннее, чем индивиды, которые находятся в обособленном состоянии, или же в группах с негативным климатом, которые поражены неразрешимыми конфликтными ситуациями и нестабильностью. The group serves for protection, support, for training and ability to solve problems, and the required norms of behavior in the group.

Development of the individual

Development is personal, biological and mental. Biological development is the formation of anatomical and physiological structures. Mental - the natural transformation of the processes of the psyche. Mental development is expressed in qualitative and quantitative transformations. Personal - the formation of the individual in the processes of socialization and education.

The development of the individual leads to modifications of the personality traits, to the emergence of new qualities, which psychologists call new growths. Personality transformations from one age to another take place in the following directions: mental, physiological, and social development. The development of physiological is the formation of musculoskeletal mass and other body systems. Mental development consists in the development of cognitive processes, such as thinking, perception. Social development consists in the formation of morality, moral values, the assimilation of social roles, etc.

Development occurs in the integrity of the social and biological in man. Also, through the transition of quantitative transformations into qualitative reorganizations of the mental, physical and spiritual qualities of a person. Development is characterized by unevenness - each organ and organ system develops at its own pace. It occurs more intensely in childhood and puberty, it slows down in adulthood.

The development is due to internal and external factors. The influence of the environment and family education are external factors of development. The inclinations and inclinations, the sum total of the feelings and disturbances of the individual, arising under the influence of external conditions, are internal factors. The development and formation of the individual is considered the result of the interaction of external and internal factors.