Psychology and Psychiatry

Child self-esteem

Child self-esteem - This is the attitude of the child to himself, his subjective capabilities, abilities, character traits, actions and personal qualities. Almost all life achievements, academic success and interpersonal interaction depend on its adequacy. It originates in infancy and in the future shows a significant impact on the adult life of children, their behavior, attitude towards themselves and the events surrounding the society. The primary task of parents, along with the education, training and care for the baby, is the formation of adequate self-esteem and proper self-esteem.

Self-esteem in preschool children

The individual becomes a person due to the presence of a number of conditions. Self-esteem is considered one of the most significant of them. It develops in the child the need to respond not only to the level of the surrounding society, but also the degree of subjective personal evaluations. Adequately formed self-esteem of a child of senior preschool age is not just knowledge of oneself, and not the sum of individual qualities, but a deterministic attitude toward oneself, which involves the comprehension of the personality as some kind of stable object.

Self-esteem is the central link in the chain of arbitrary self-regulation, which determines the direction and degree of personality activity, its relation to the environment, society, and itself. It is a rather complex psychological phenomenon.

Self-esteem is involved in many relationships and relationships with mental neoplasms of the individual. It is an important determinant of all activities and communications. The ability to assess oneself originates from early childhood, and its further formation and improvement is carried out throughout the subject’s life.

Adequate self-esteem allows you to save the immutability of the individual, regardless of changes in conditions and circumstances, while ensuring the ability to remain yourself. Today, the impact of a preschool child’s self-esteem on his actions and interpersonal contacts is becoming increasingly obvious.

Senior preschool age is characterized by a period of awareness of the child himself, his own motivation and needs in the environment of human relationships. That is why it is quite important in this period to lay the foundation for the formation of adequate self-esteem, which in the future will allow the child to correctly assess himself, really represent his capabilities and strengths, independently determine goals, objectives and directions.

At preschool age, the baby begins to realize the fact of its existence. The formation of true self-esteem begins with a realistic assessment by children of their own skills, the results of activities and certain knowledge. During this period, children can less objectively assess the quality of their personality. They tend to overestimate themselves due to the fact that significant adults mostly positively evaluate them. It is on the assessment of an adult individual that the child's evaluation of himself largely depends. Low estimation has a negative impact. And overstatements distort children's judgments about their own potential in the direction of exaggeration. However, along with this, positive assessments play positive roles in the activity.

Therefore, the correctness of the preschooler's ideas of his own actions largely depends on the estimated impact of significant adult individuals. At the same time, a fully formed vision of oneself allows the child to be more critical of the assessments of the surrounding society.

The personal inner attitude of preschool children to other people is determined by the awareness of the personal “I”, their actions, behavior and interest in the world of adults. At this age, the baby learns to separate his personality from the assessment of others. Comprehension by preschoolers of the limits of their own capabilities occurs not only through communication with adults or peers, but also personal practical skills. Small individuals with an overestimated or underestimated self-assessment are more vulnerable and sensitive to the value judgments of adults, as a result of which they are quite easily influenced.

Peer interaction plays a significant role in developing an adequate idea of ​​children about themselves. The ability to see oneself with the help of peer eyes develops through the exchange of estimated influences between them, and at the same time a certain attitude to other children appears. The ability of a preschooler to analyze the consequences of his activities is directly proportional to his ability to analyze the results of other children. It is in communication interaction that the ability to evaluate another individual is developed, which stimulates the formation of self-esteem.

Preschoolers rich experience of personal activity helps to assess the critical impact of peers. Among children there is a value system that determines their mutual evaluations.

Preschool children assess themselves a little harder than their peers. For a peer, he is more demanding and therefore evaluates him much more objectively. The preschooler's self-esteem is quite emotional, as a result, often positive. Negative self-esteem is very rare.

Self-esteem in a child of preschool age is often inadequate (mostly overpriced). This is due to the fact that it is difficult for a child to separate personal abilities from his personality as a whole. Kids can not admit that they are doing something worse than others, because for them it will mean a recognition that they themselves are worse than others.

Over time, the self-esteem of a child of preschool age changes in the direction of adequacy, and more fully reflect its potential. At first, it manifests itself in productive activities or in games with specific rules, in which you can clearly demonstrate and compare your own achievements with the results of other children. Based on real support, for example, on their own drawings, it is easier for preschoolers to properly evaluate themselves. Gameplay is a kind of social relations school that simulates the behavior of preschoolers. It is in the game processes that the main neoplasms of this period are formed.

Summing up, it should be concluded that for the development of adequate self-esteem of preschool children is important activity in which the child is involved and the assessment of his achievements and success by significant adults and peers.

Self-assessment of a child of primary school age

Self-esteem is the most important personal education, which has a significant impact on all areas of the subject’s vital activity and is an important balancer of activity that contributes to self-development. The degree of pretensions, the relationship of the subject with the surrounding individuals and his activity depend directly on the characteristics of self-esteem.

To feel happy, to develop the ability to better adapt and overcome difficulties, the kid needs to have a positive vision of himself and adequate self-esteem.

Since self-esteem is laid in early childhood, and continues to be formed in school, it is well amenable to influence and correction in this period. That is why parents, teachers and other adults who work with children of primary school age need to know and take into account all the patterns, the characteristic features of self-esteem education, and besides, the ways of developing normal (adequate) self-esteem and a positive "I" concept in whole

In the primary school period, an increasing role for the development of a child is acquired by its communication interaction with peers. During the interaction of children with peers, not only cognitive-objective activity is carried out more effectively, but also core skills of interpersonal interaction and moral and ethical behavior are developed. Aspiration to peers, craving for communication with them makes the team one-year-old for the student incredibly valuable and attractive. They greatly value the opportunity to be in the children's team. It is on the quality of communication with peers that the direction of its development depends. It follows that interpersonal interaction in a team is considered one of the most important factors developing a personality and generating adequate self-esteem. However, do not forget about the contribution of parental proper encouragement and competent praise to the formation of normal self-esteem in a child.

The school group, which has an unfavorable position in the system of interpersonal relations of the class, has similar characteristics. Children in such groups have problems in communicating with their peers, are characterized by intimacy, which can be expressed in pugnacity, excessive temper, variability, rudeness, capriciousness, or in isolation. Often these kids are distinguished by a tendency to rooting, conceit, greed, carelessness and sloppiness.

Children who are popular with peers are characterized by a set of similarities. They have a balanced character, are sociable, are distinguished by initiative, activity and a rich imagination. Most of these kids are pretty good at learning.

In the course of the educational process, children gradually increase their criticality, pretentiousness and exactingness towards themselves. A child in the first grade predominantly positively assesses his own learning activities, while he connects failures and failures with objective reasons and circumstances. Children of the second, and especially of the third class, are more critical of their own personalities, and at the same time they make not only good behavior, but also bad actions, not only success, but also learning failures as the subject of evaluation.

During the primary school years, the value of grades for children changes significantly, and they are directly proportional to the motivation of the doctrine, to the demands that they make to themselves. The attitude of children to the perception of their achievements and successes is increasingly associated with the need to have more equitable ideas about their own personality. It follows that the role of school grades is not only that they should influence the cognitive activity of the child. The teacher, assessing the knowledge of younger students, in fact, at the same time evaluates the child’s personality, his potential and place among others. Therefore, it is in this way that the assessments are perceived by the babies. Focusing on the teacher's marks, the children themselves divide their classmates into excellent students, medium and weak students, diligent or not so, responsible or not quite, disciplined or not.

The main direction in the formation of self-esteem is the gradual allocation of certain qualities by children from certain activities and behaviors, their generalization and understanding, first as characteristic features of behavior, and then as relatively permanent personality traits.

Children do not appear in this world already with a certain attitude towards themselves. Their self-esteem, as well as other personality traits, is formed in the course of education, in which the main role is played by the family and the school.

Self-esteem in children and adolescents

For absolutely all people, self-esteem is the most important criterion that allows an individual to develop properly. And in puberty, its importance increases even more. If an adolescent has adequate self-esteem, his chances of success increase. What are the criteria for adequacy? If a teenager is able to assess his own potential objectively, if he is able to realize what position he occupies in the peer group and in society as a whole. Unfortunately, not all parents realize the importance of self-esteem and its level for personal growth, development, and further success of children. Therefore, they are not trying to understand how to properly raise a child so that his self-esteem is adequate.

In the very early childhood self-esteem of the baby is at the proper level. However, gradually growing up, he begins to understand that for his parents the most important being, and the world he considers created for himself. From here and there is an overestimated self-esteem. Before the child reaches school age, self-esteem is more or less adequate, as he is confronted with the reality of the environment and begins to realize that he is not the only one in the universe and understands that he also loves other children. Only when children reach middle school age does a need arise for correcting and developing adequate self-esteem for them, since for some it may simply go off the scale up, and for others it may go down.

In early childhood, the development of a child's self-esteem was mainly influenced by parents, educators, and teachers. In older school age, peers are coming to the fore. In this period, good grades play a secondary role, and personal qualities, such as sociability, ability to express one's point of view or defend one's position, ability to make friends, etc., become more important.

At this age, adults should help the adolescent correctly interpret his desires, feelings, emotions, focus on the positive traits of character and get rid of the negative qualities of the individual. Therefore, it is not correct to select only academic performance.

In children of secondary school age, self-esteem can be characterized by polarity, which is expressed in extremes. So, for example, in a class-leading child, self-esteem will be too high, and in an outsider child, it will be quite low.

For the formation of an adequate self-esteem or correction of an already overstated or undervalued, parents need to provide assistance and support to the child. They must trust their children and treat them fairly. Ensure that double standards are not traced in the upbringing. Teen requires the respect of parents. Adults are advised to avoid total control over the child, but at the same time, there should be a sincere interest in his hobbies. You also need to respect the opinion and position of your child.

The level of aspirations and the self-esteem of high school seniors are the result of relationships with peers. If a teenager is a leader in character or, on the contrary, an outsider, then he should not expect adequate self-esteem. Class favorites have the ability to transform their own shortcomings and mistakes into advantages, thereby setting an example for other children. This raises them to a considerable height, but it will have to fall sooner or later, which will be very painful for a teenager. Therefore, you need to try to convey to the child that a little healthy self-criticism does not hurt him. Parents should be clearly aware that undeserved or excessive praise leads directly to the appearance of narcissism.

Low self-esteem in a child can be formed due to the influence of family education, peers, unrequited love, excessive self-criticism, dissatisfaction with oneself, or dissatisfaction with appearance. Very often, these children are prone to leaving home or have thoughts of suicide. Therefore, such a teenager is vital to the increased attention, respect and love of loved ones. In situations where his behavior deserves criticism, sometimes it is recommended that parents refrain from it. And, on the contrary, it is necessary to focus attention on all his positive qualities and good deeds. A teenager with low self-esteem should know that he deserves approval, praise and respect.

Diagnosis of children's self-esteem

The means by which modern psychodiagnosis reveals the level of self-esteem and self-awareness of children are divided into formalized and poorly formalized techniques. The first methods include tests, various questionnaires, projective techniques, psycho-physiological methods. For formalized diagnostic methods, objectification of the research process is characteristic (exact following of instructions, strictly established methods of presenting material for diagnosis, non-intervention of a psychologist in the activities of a diagnosed person, etc.). Also, this method is characterized by standardization, i.e. the definition of the monotony of the processing of research results, reliability and validity. Formalized techniques allow you to create a diagnostic portrait of the person as soon as possible. The results of such techniques are designed in accordance with the specialized requirements, which allows quantitative and qualitative comparison of subjects with each other.

To the less formalized methods include observation, conversation, analysis of the products of activity. Такие методики дают очень важные сведения об исследуемом процессе или явлении, особенно тем, которые практически не поддаются объективизации. Следует отметить, что эти методики довольно трудоемки, а результативность их обусловлена профессионализмом диагноста.Therefore, poorly formalized diagnostic techniques should be used in conjunction with formalized techniques.

In children of preschool age, one can reveal the level of self-esteem using a variety of games. For example, the game "Name" allows you to get information about the self-esteem of the child. It lies in the fact that the kid is offered to invent a new name for himself that he would like to have or, to choose from, to leave his own. If the child chooses a new name, you should ask him why he would like to change his name. Quite often, the refusal of the baby on his own behalf indicates that he is not satisfied with himself and wants to become better. At the end of the game you need to offer the child to simulate any actions with a proper name. For example, say it more gently or angrily.

Quite common is the method of diagnosis of self-esteem, developed by Dembo-Rubinstein and modified by A. Prikhozhan. It is based on direct assessment by students of certain personal qualities, for example, health, character traits, various abilities, etc. Investigated children are invited to mark with certain signs the degree of development of certain qualities on vertical lines and the desired level of development of similar ones. The first scale will show the level of self-esteem that children have at the moment, and the second - the level of their claims.

One of the most popular methods for studying children's self-esteem is the “Ladder” test, which can be carried out in individual and group form. There are several variations of this technique. For example, the test "The Ladder" in the interpretation of S. Jacobson and V. Schur includes seven steps and separate figures in the shape of a boy and a girl, cut from thick paper or cardboard. This variation of the test is aimed not only at diagnosing the degree of child's self-esteem, but also at finding personal claims. A modification of the methodology developed by J. Kolomenskaya and M. Lisina consists of an image of a ladder on a sheet of paper, only it consists of six steps. The child must determine his own place on this ladder and assume the place where others define it.

Low self-esteem in a child

Low self-esteem in a child prevents him from establishing social contacts with his peers and classmates. It prevents the successful acquisition of new skills. After all, if the baby did something unsuccessfully several times, he will no longer try, as he will be sure that he will fail. Adolescents with low self-esteem tend to believe that they are not needed by anyone, as a result of which they can make suicidal attempts.

Most often, the formation of low self-esteem in children is mainly influenced by improper family education.

The main reasons contributing to lower self-esteem in children include:

  • unattractive appearance;
  • external defects of appearance;
  • lack of mental abilities;
  • improper parenting;
  • disrespect of older children in the family;
  • failures or failures in life, which the baby takes to heart;
  • financial problems, due to which the baby lives in worse conditions, in comparison with classmates;
  • a disease due to which the baby may consider itself flawed;
  • changing of the living place;
  • dysfunctional or incomplete family;
  • aggression in the family.

Often, low self-esteem can be recognized by children according to the phrases they often mention, for example, “I won’t succeed”. To identify problems with self-esteem in the child should pay close attention to how he behaves when interacting with his peers.

Identifying the problem of low self-esteem can help psychological tests, which are based on the presentation of the child himself. For example, you can ask your kid to draw himself. Auto-drawing can tell a lot about the child and his experiences. Too dark colors and a nondescript little man are considered a sign that there are some reasons for concern. To confirm the assumption or refute it, ask the child to draw all the members of your family and yourself. If he portrays himself disproportionately small compared to other members, the child clearly suffers from low self-esteem.

Inflated self-esteem in a child

Self-esteem of children begins to develop from early childhood. Its formation is influenced, first of all, by parents, caregivers and surrounding children. At preschool age, you can already understand what kind of self-esteem a child has, based on his actions and deeds.

Self-esteem is considered a component of self-awareness and includes, at the same time with the self-image, an individual's assessment of his own physical qualities, abilities, moral qualities and actions.

High self-esteem is inadequately over-estimated by the baby itself. Such children always strive to be first in everything, they demand that all the attention of adults belong to them, they consider themselves to be much better than others, often this opinion can be in no way supported.

High self-esteem can cause a low assessment of his actions peers, and low self-esteem - poor psychological stability.

Not only close people and the surrounding society can influence the self-esteem, but also the character of the child, the characteristics of his personality.

Children who have high self-esteem, are characterized by comparative limitations in mastering the types of activities and a high focus on communication interaction, and, often, it is insignificant.

If the child is overly aggressive, then this indicates extreme self-esteem. This means that it can be either very low or too high.

From about 8 years of age, babies begin to assess their success in various fields on their own. The most significant factors for them are school success, appearance, physical abilities, social acceptance and behavior. Along with this, school success and behavior is most important for parents, and the other three factors are for peers.

Parental support and acceptance of the child, his aspirations and hobbies to the greatest extent affect the formation of an adequate level of overall self-esteem, and school success and a number of other factors are only important for self-esteem abilities.

How to increase the self-esteem of the child

Absolutely all parents dream that their children will independently develop adequate self-esteem. However, they forget that 90% of the formation of adequate self-esteem at preschool age depends precisely on their behavior and model of educational influence. At the same time, not all parents are able to assess themselves adequately.

If you are concerned about how to raise self-esteem in a child, then first of all you should pay attention to your behavior towards the child. Do you often praise him and praise at all, how and for what, how do you criticize. Remember - and you can praise and scold a child only for his actions, actions, achievements, and not for his appearance and personality traits. If you have noticed the first signs of low self-esteem in your child, then do not neglect the praise. Praise him for even the tiniest victories, achievements, and the right actions. Often the actions that the child considers correct will not always seem so to you. Therefore, try to understand the logic of the motivation of the child’s deed. Remember that the more often the baby will achieve success in the small, the faster he will believe in himself and go to great things. You just try to clearly convey the information that there are simple things that are conquered without much difficulty, and complex, for which you need to put more effort into victory. If a child fails, show him your faith in him and instill in him the confidence that everything will work out with further attempts.

How to raise self-esteem in a child? Do not interfere with the child to take the initiative and praise when he takes the first steps in a new activity. Try to always support it during any failures. If he doesn’t do something, then help, but don’t do all the work for him. Set only feasible tasks for the child. It is not necessary to make a borsch at the age of five to make a baby, but at the age of 13, trusting a child to just pour juice from the bag is not enough.

Remember that all your words, deeds and educational moments affect the formation of the personality and the formation of self-esteem, on which the individual’s further success in adulthood and the effectiveness of building interpersonal relationships depend.