Child self-esteem - This is the attitude of the child to himself, his subjective capabilities, abilities, character traits, actions and personal qualities. Almost all life achievements, academic success and interpersonal interaction depend on its adequacy. It originates in infancy and in the future shows a significant impact on the adult life of children, their behavior, attitude towards themselves and the events surrounding the society. The primary task of parents, along with the education, training and care for the baby, is the formation of adequate self-esteem and proper self-esteem.
The individual becomes a person due to the presence of a number of conditions. Self-esteem is considered one of the most significant of them. It develops in the child the need to respond not only to the level of the surrounding society, but also the degree of subjective personal evaluations. Adequately formed self-esteem of a child of senior preschool age is not just knowledge of oneself, and not the sum of individual qualities, but a deterministic attitude toward oneself, which involves the comprehension of the personality as some kind of stable object.
Self-esteem is the central link in the chain of arbitrary self-regulation, which determines the direction and degree of personality activity, its relation to the environment, society, and itself. It is a rather complex psychological phenomenon.
Self-esteem is involved in many relationships and relationships with mental neoplasms of the individual. It is an important determinant of all activities and communications. The ability to assess oneself originates from early childhood, and its further formation and improvement is carried out throughout the subject’s life.
Adequate self-esteem allows you to save the immutability of the individual, regardless of changes in conditions and circumstances, while ensuring the ability to remain yourself. Today, the impact of a preschool child’s self-esteem on his actions and interpersonal contacts is becoming increasingly obvious.
Senior preschool age is characterized by a period of awareness of the child himself, his own motivation and needs in the environment of human relationships. That is why it is quite important in this period to lay the foundation for the formation of adequate self-esteem, which in the future will allow the child to correctly assess himself, really represent his capabilities and strengths, independently determine goals, objectives and directions.
At preschool age, the baby begins to realize the fact of its existence. The formation of true self-esteem begins with a realistic assessment by children of their own skills, the results of activities and certain knowledge. During this period, children can less objectively assess the quality of their personality. They tend to overestimate themselves due to the fact that significant adults mostly positively evaluate them. It is on the assessment of an adult individual that the child's evaluation of himself largely depends. Low estimation has a negative impact. And overstatements distort children's judgments about their own potential in the direction of exaggeration. However, along with this, positive assessments play positive roles in the activity.
Therefore, the correctness of the preschooler's ideas of his own actions largely depends on the estimated impact of significant adult individuals. At the same time, a fully formed vision of oneself allows the child to be more critical of the assessments of the surrounding society.
The personal inner attitude of preschool children to other people is determined by the awareness of the personal “I”, their actions, behavior and interest in the world of adults. At this age, the baby learns to separate his personality from the assessment of others. Comprehension by preschoolers of the limits of their own capabilities occurs not only through communication with adults or peers, but also personal practical skills. Small individuals with an overestimated or underestimated self-assessment are more vulnerable and sensitive to the value judgments of adults, as a result of which they are quite easily influenced.
Peer interaction plays a significant role in developing an adequate idea of children about themselves. The ability to see oneself with the help of peer eyes develops through the exchange of estimated influences between them, and at the same time a certain attitude to other children appears. The ability of a preschooler to analyze the consequences of his activities is directly proportional to his ability to analyze the results of other children. It is in communication interaction that the ability to evaluate another individual is developed, which stimulates the formation of self-esteem.
Preschoolers rich experience of personal activity helps to assess the critical impact of peers. Among children there is a value system that determines their mutual evaluations.
Preschool children assess themselves a little harder than their peers. For a peer, he is more demanding and therefore evaluates him much more objectively. The preschooler's self-esteem is quite emotional, as a result, often positive. Negative self-esteem is very rare.
Self-esteem in a child of preschool age is often inadequate (mostly overpriced). This is due to the fact that it is difficult for a child to separate personal abilities from his personality as a whole. Kids can not admit that they are doing something worse than others, because for them it will mean a recognition that they themselves are worse than others.
Over time, the self-esteem of a child of preschool age changes in the direction of adequacy, and more fully reflect its potential. At first, it manifests itself in productive activities or in games with specific rules, in which you can clearly demonstrate and compare your own achievements with the results of other children. Based on real support, for example, on their own drawings, it is easier for preschoolers to properly evaluate themselves. Gameplay is a kind of social relations school that simulates the behavior of preschoolers. It is in the game processes that the main neoplasms of this period are formed.
Summing up, it should be concluded that for the development of adequate self-esteem of preschool children is important activity in which the child is involved and the assessment of his achievements and success by significant adults and peers.
Self-assessment of a child of primary school age
Self-esteem is the most important personal education, which has a significant impact on all areas of the subject’s vital activity and is an important balancer of activity that contributes to self-development. The degree of pretensions, the relationship of the subject with the surrounding individuals and his activity depend directly on the characteristics of self-esteem.
To feel happy, to develop the ability to better adapt and overcome difficulties, the kid needs to have a positive vision of himself and adequate self-esteem.
Since self-esteem is laid in early childhood, and continues to be formed in school, it is well amenable to influence and correction in this period. That is why parents, teachers and other adults who work with children of primary school age need to know and take into account all the patterns, the characteristic features of self-esteem education, and besides, the ways of developing normal (adequate) self-esteem and a positive "I" concept in whole
In the primary school period, an increasing role for the development of a child is acquired by its communication interaction with peers. During the interaction of children with peers, not only cognitive-objective activity is carried out more effectively, but also core skills of interpersonal interaction and moral and ethical behavior are developed. Aspiration to peers, craving for communication with them makes the team one-year-old for the student incredibly valuable and attractive. They greatly value the opportunity to be in the children's team. It is on the quality of communication with peers that the direction of its development depends. It follows that interpersonal interaction in a team is considered one of the most important factors developing a personality and generating adequate self-esteem. However, do not forget about the contribution of parental proper encouragement and competent praise to the formation of normal self-esteem in a child.
The school group, which has an unfavorable position in the system of interpersonal relations of the class, has similar characteristics. Children in such groups have problems in communicating with their peers, are characterized by intimacy, which can be expressed in pugnacity, excessive temper, variability, rudeness, capriciousness, or in isolation. Often these kids are distinguished by a tendency to rooting, conceit, greed, carelessness and sloppiness.
Children who are popular with peers are characterized by a set of similarities. They have a balanced character, are sociable, are distinguished by initiative, activity and a rich imagination. Most of these kids are pretty good at learning.
In the course of the educational process, children gradually increase their criticality, pretentiousness and exactingness towards themselves. A child in the first grade predominantly positively assesses his own learning activities, while he connects failures and failures with objective reasons and circumstances. Children of the second, and especially of the third class, are more critical of their own personalities, and at the same time they make not only good behavior, but also bad actions, not only success, but also learning failures as the subject of evaluation.
During the primary school years, the value of grades for children changes significantly, and they are directly proportional to the motivation of the doctrine, to the demands that they make to themselves. The attitude of children to the perception of their achievements and successes is increasingly associated with the need to have more equitable ideas about their own personality. It follows that the role of school grades is not only that they should influence the cognitive activity of the child. The teacher, assessing the knowledge of younger students, in fact, at the same time evaluates the child’s personality, his potential and place among others. Therefore, it is in this way that the assessments are perceived by the babies. Focusing on the teacher's marks, the children themselves divide their classmates into excellent students, medium and weak students, diligent or not so, responsible or not quite, disciplined or not.
The main direction in the formation of self-esteem is the gradual allocation of certain qualities by children from certain activities and behaviors, their generalization and understanding, first as characteristic features of behavior, and then as relatively permanent personality traits.
Children do not appear in this world already with a certain attitude towards themselves. Their self-esteem, as well as other personality traits, is formed in the course of education, in which the main role is played by the family and the school.