Psychology and ethics of business communication It is one of the parts of the complex of psychological sciences, since it relies on the principles and main categories developed by general psychology. Its relevance is caused by the main function of the modern leader: the resolution of psychological problems in the team in the process of communication, both with colleagues and with subordinates, superiors. Currently, universities have introduced academic discipline "Psychology and ethics of business communication", which is applied in nature. Its purpose is to promote the formation of relevant moral and psychological qualities as important conditions in daily activities, as well as human behavior.
Psychology and ethics of business communication is taken into account between enterprises, in the relationship between the social environment and the enterprise, within the same enterprise - between subordinates and the head, between people of the same status. There is a specificity between the parties of different types of business communication. Their task is to formulate the principles of business communication, which correspond to all types of business communication, but do not contradict the moral principles of general behavior of people. At the same time, they are a reliable tool in coordinating the activities of individuals involved in business communication.
The principle of ethics of business communication is in I. Kant's imperative: “act in such a way that the maximum of your will has the force of the principle of universal legislation”. Regarding the psychology and ethics of business communication, this principle is formulated as follows: business communication is based on the maximum of the individual's will, which should be compatible with the moral values of other individuals involved in communication, and included the coordination of the interests of all parties involved.
Therefore, the psychology and ethics of business communication include coordination, and if possible also the harmonization of interests. Of course, if it happens with the use of ethical means, as well as in the name of justified moral goals. Often it is not easy to make the right ethical choice, as well as to make an individual decision. Freedom of choice is provided by market relations, but at the same time they also increase options for decisions and give rise to complexes of moral dilemmas that await business people everywhere in the process of their communication and activity.
The problematic nature and difficulty in choosing a moral position regarding communication is to clarify that there is no absolute truth in morality, as well as a supreme judge among individuals. When it comes to ethical blunders of others, one should not turn "moral flies" into "moral elephants." And when it comes to your own blunders, you should do the opposite. In morality, you must praise others and make claims only to yourself. After all, the moral attitude of those around us directly depends on us. When it comes to approving moral norms, first of all, the main imperative of behavior is “start with yourself”.
It should be noted that the main rule in the psychology and ethics of business communication is always to treat people the way you would like to be treated.
The negative form of the wording of Confucius - do not do to others what you do not wish for yourself. This rule in psychology is also applicable to business communication, but with respect to certain types: (head-subordinate) - “top-down”; (subordinate manager) - “bottom-up”, (employee-employee) - horizontally ”needs to be specified.
Psychology and ethics of business communication “top-down” includes the golden rule of ethics, which says: “treat your subordinate as you would like the head to treat you”. The success and art of business communication are determined by the principles and ethical standards that are used by the head regarding his subordinates. Principles and norms include acceptable ethical (in service) behavior. These norms relate, first of all, to the basis on which orders are made in the management process, as well as how the service discipline, which defines business communication, is expressed.
The lack of compliance with the psychology and ethics of business communication between subordinates and the leader leads to discomfort in the team, as well as moral insecurity. Since the attitude of the head to his subordinates directly affects the nature of business communication and is often responsible for the moral and psychological climate in the team.
Psychology and ethics of business communication form moral standards, as well as patterns of behavior. In order for an organization to rally and endow with moral high standards of communication, it is important to familiarize the team with the goals of the organization. An individual will feel psychologically and morally comfortable when his identification with the team is realized. At the same time, each person wants to remain an individual, wants to be respected as he is. If difficulties or problems arise that are associated with irresponsibility, the manager should find out their reasons.
If the problem is ignorance, then endlessly reproaching a subordinate with weaknesses and weaknesses is not worth it. Better think about how to help him overcome them, relying on his strengths. When an employee does not fulfill your order, it is necessary for him to make it clear that you know this, otherwise he will decide that he has spent you. If the manager does not make the subordinate the corresponding remark, it means that he does not perform direct duties and therefore acts unethically. It is important to make a comment to the employee on all ethical standards. For this purpose, all the information on a specific case is collected and the correct form of communication is selected. First, give the employee the opportunity to explain the reason for the assignment that was not done; he may call unknown facts for you. Do all your comments one-on-one - it is very important to respect the dignity as well as the feelings of the subordinate. Criticize actions and actions, not the person’s identity. When appropriate, use the following technique: hide criticism between compliments. Always finish the conversation on a friendly note and take the time to show the person that you are not holding onto him. Do not advise subordinates in personal affairs. If the advice does not help - you will bear all the responsibility. Treat subordinates as all equal members of a team, not overgrown with favorites. Do not allow subordinates to notice that you do not own the situation. It is very important to maintain respect. Adhere to the principle of distributive justice: we give a reward for merits. Encourage the team, even if success is achieved by the leader. Strengthen subordinate self-esteem. Well done work deserves both material and moral encouragement. Praise your employees. Those privileges that you use should also apply to all members of the team. Trust your subordinates, recognizing your own mistakes, because the team members will still learn about them. Hiding mistakes is a manifestation of dishonesty and weakness. Protect your employees and be loyal to them, and they in turn will do the same in the future.
When choosing the correct form of disposal, consider the following factors:
- situation, as well as the time for nuances;
- the identity of the subordinate: a conscientious, skilled worker or one that you need to push.
Forms of disposition can make: request, order, "volunteer" question.
The order is often used in an emergency and relatively unscrupulous employees.
The request is used in an ordinary situation and if the relation “leader - subordinates” is based on goodwill and trust.
The question is applied if there is a need to discuss and also push the employee to do a better job or in order for him to take the initiative.
"Volunteer" is suitable for situations where there is no one willing to do the work, but it must be done. Frequently, a volunteer hopes that his initiative will be appreciated accordingly.
The psychology and ethics of bottom-up business communication include the following ethical rule: your attitude towards your supervisor should be as you would like your subordinates to treat you.
It is very important to know how to handle and to treat your supervisor. Using ethical standards, you can attract a leader to your side or make him your ally, and you can turn it against you, making you a foe.
Here are some ethical standards, as well as principles that are used in communicating with the leader. Try to help the leader to create a friendly atmosphere in the team, strengthen fair relations. Your manager needs this first. Do not impose a personal point of view on the leader, do not command them. Make comments and suggestions only politely and tactfully. If the team foresees or something has already happened, then this should be reported to the manager. In case of trouble, help should be made to ease the way out of this situation by proposing a solution. Do not speak with the boss only in a categorical tone, do not always say "yes" or "no." The subordinate subordinate creates the impression of being flattered, and the person who says no is an irritant. Be reliable and loyal, but do not be a sneak. Have your principles as well as character. A person who does not have a stable and solid principles does not cause trust. Do not ask for advice, help, suggestion "through the head" directly to the head of your leader. Exceptions are emergency.
Psychology and ethics of business communication "horizontally." The general principle of communication says: treat your colleague the way you would like to be treated. Principles of ethics of business communication:
- try to achieve a clear division of responsibility and rights in the performance of common work;
- do not demand special privileges or special treatment from another employee;
- answer for your work yourself, and do not blame the staff;
- discard gossip and prejudice;
- call your interlocutors by name and try to do this more often.
Be friendly, smile, use a variety of tools and techniques to show a good attitude to the other person. Do not forget: what you sow, you reap. Give those promises you can fulfill. Do not exaggerate business opportunities and their importance. Do not meddle in the soul of the staff. Do not ask at work about personal matters. Try not to listen to yourself, but to the other. Do not try to seem smarter, better, more interesting than you really are. Anyway, it will pop out. Send the impulses of your sympathy with a look, a word, a gesture and let the interlocutor understand that he is interested in you. Look and smile straight in the eyes. Treat employees as individuals who need to be respected on their own, and not as a means to achieve personal goals.