Psychology and Psychiatry

Means of communication

Means of communication - These are the methods of coding, transformation and decryption of information transmitted during the communication interaction. Communicative means are divided into two large blocks: speech and non-speech blocks, i.e. verbal and non-verbal communication. Speech is a process of exploitation of a language for the purpose of communication interactions of individuals. Language is a sign system, the main function of which is to ensure communication of people, thinking, a method of expressing the individual self-consciousness. Speech as a method of verbal communication is a parallel source of information and a method of influencing communication partners.

Language as a means of communication

The means of communication include, first of all, language, intonation of speech and emotional expressiveness, facial expressions and gestures, postures.

Language as a means of communication between individuals is closely interconnected with society, its culture and individuals who live and work in it, and at the same time use the language in a diverse and extensive way.

Communication or communication refers to the transmission from one individual to another of any information with a different purpose. Communication is a consequence of the communicative interaction of two or more persons in specific circumstances and in the presence of a universal means of communication.

The main means of human communication is language. The purpose of a language to be a communication mechanism is called its communicative function. Interacting with each other, individuals transmit their own thoughts, worldviews, emotions and emotional disturbances, influence one another in a certain direction towards each other, achieve a common understanding. With the help of language, subjects of interpersonal interaction understand each other. It enables them to organize collective work in all areas of human activity. Language is the force that determines the existence, development of individuals and society as a whole. And the communicative function is the leading social function of the language. However, it is not its only function. Its specialized functions include cognitive, expressive, nominative and accumulative.

The ability to express information, transmit it and influence the interlocutor is called the expressive function of the language. This function is considered as a unity of expression and translation of data, feelings and emotional experiences, the will of the speaker.

The cognitive function is interrelated with the presence in the linguistic signs of human consciousness. Language is a kind of tool of consciousness, reflecting the results of the cognitive activity of the individual. Linguistic altercations about what is primary, mental activity or language, probably will never stop. The only true proposition is the statement that language has an inseparable connection with thinking, since humanity not only expresses its own thoughts in words, but thoughts are formulated in the form of words - the person thinks in words. The cognitive function of the psyche is designed to capture the effects of mental activity and their use in communication. This feature contributes to the knowledge of the world and its verbalization.

The person thinks with the help of categories, and in the course of cognition, she discovers and names new phenomena and concepts for herself, which is the nominative function of language. It has a close connection with the cognitive, since all that has been learned must necessarily have its own name. She also has a connection with the ability of linguistic signs to give signs to things. It is this ability that allows an individual to create a world of symbols. However, in the modern world there are many things that do not have names.

Accumulative function has a close relationship with the collection and preservation of information. After all, it is not a secret to anyone that the language exists much longer than people and people. A vivid example of this is the dead languages ​​that have survived their speakers. Language, regardless of whether it exists today or not, keeps the memory of generations and the centuries-old history of mankind. Indeed, even with the loss of oral speech, you can master the ancient writings and make certain conclusions about the past life of the nation.

The language is also sound and written. The leading form of the language is its sound component. Unwritten languages ​​can also exist. When there is only a written fixation, and there is no voicing, then the language becomes dead.

Non-verbal communication

The means of communication of people, as mentioned above, are verbal, i.e. associated with the human speech apparatus, and non-verbal (nonverbal). In situations of language deficiency (for example, the absence of universal language means), interpersonal interaction can occur through non-personal means. After all, through their humanity communicates from time immemorial.

Non-verbal means of communication appeared much earlier than language systems. That is why they are sometimes called natural, that is, given to humanity from nature, and not to people invented.

Non-verbal means of communication are: facial expressions, postures, various gestures, the style of movement of subjects, etc. They replace and complement speech, convey the emotional mood of the partners in communication. The main part of such communications becomes the human body, which has a wide range of means and methods for the transmission of information and contains all the categories of self-expression of the individual. Psychologists argue that the correct interpretation of non-verbal signals is the main condition for the effectiveness of communication.

Knowledge of a non-verbal "language" helps not only to better recognize and understand a partner, but also to anticipate what impression the heard information will make on him, even before the moment of its dubbing.

Mimicry is derived from the Greek word mimikos, which means imitating. Facial movement is called facial muscle movement. The main element of facial expression is a mimic code, which is a special combination of elements and components of the face. Such elements and parts include: the position of the lips and eyebrows, the shape and brightness of the eyes that convey emotional states, etc. Psychologists have identified six main codes of facial expression and a lot of nuances of transition from one code to another. The main mimic codes include: suffering, anger, fear, contempt, surprise, joy.

An additional important source of data on the mood and intentions of the interlocutor is the subject's body, its dynamics or static state. Pose translated from French means body position. It means a more or less stable spatial position of a person. Today, there are more than a thousand of such provisions, the satisfactory or unacceptability of which depends on nationality, gender, age group, cultural characteristics and religious preferences of people. The basic semantic essence of the pose as a means of communication is in the expression of openness or closeness, readiness for communication or unavailability for it.

Gestures are divided into rhythmic, emotional, indicative and inventive. With the rhythm of speech associated respectively rhythmic gestures. They distinguish logical stress, acceleration or deceleration of the pace, the place of intervals, that is, all that the individual usually conveys using intonation. For example, it may be: beating a musical beat with a foot, shaking the body or head, etc.
A variety of shades of feelings convey emotional gestures. Most of them are fixed in persistent combinations - idioms. For example: slapping yourself on your own forehead means unexpected guessing or recall.

For the selection of objects from a number of similar, specifying their location, order, are indicative gestures. Often, speech without the use of an indicating gesture becomes completely incomprehensible. There are certain types of phrases that involve the use of pointing gestures. For example, please give me this book. It is possible to indicate not only with the help of hands and fingers, but also by looking, nodding the head, turning the body. Indicative hands are multi-valued, i.e. under different conditions, similar gestures acquire completely different meanings. For example, pointing fingers on the wrist, where the watch is usually worn, can mean the question of how much time is left before the end of the lecture, seminar, couple, etc. either a hint that there is not much time left or you need to hurry.

When there is not enough time or it is not possible to quickly express your own thoughts, you can depict an object, phenomenon or action with the help of graphic gestures. They enhance the impact on the interlocutor, while giving him a clearer and clearer idea of ​​the topic of conversation or the subject of speech.

Typical situations of communication are served by symbolic gestures. For example, you can greet a colleague with a nod of your head or a wave of your hand. Each of the symbolic gestures is chosen in accordance with the situation and depends on gender, age category, social role and status, level of culture of the communicator.

The kinetic means of communication are the subject's re-movement style and gait. Psychological research demonstrates that an emotional state can influence an individual’s gait, as a result of which, without approaching the interlocutor, it is possible to assess the potential effectiveness of communication.

The non-verbal means of communication also include prosodic and extra-linguistic means. Prosodica translated from Greek means stress or chorus. That is, the prosodica is responsible for the rhythmic-intonation characteristics of speech, such as: the volume and pitch of the voice tone, the force of the stress and the timbre of the voice. Individual prosodic features in the individual laid by nature, but much can be corrected with the help of systematic work. Extralinguistic means of communication are closely interconnected with the prosody. These include: intervals, sighs, coughing, laughing, crying, etc. Prosodic and extra-linguistic non-verbal means of communication regulate speech flows. They complement and at the same time save language communication, replace and foreshadow speech, demonstrate emotional states.

Dynamic body touches, in the form of clapping on the back, shoulder, knee, handshakes, kisses, are called tacic means of communication. The choice of one form of takesic means is determined by many factors, such as: nationality, gender, age, degree of acquaintance, social status.

Proxemic means of communication consist in the distance that the interlocutors use among themselves. Anthropologist E. Hall introduced the main areas of comfort interpersonal interaction. Their distance depends on the degree of proximity of individuals to each other.

The intimate distance is intended for communication of close people and relatives and makes an interval from a contact to 45 cm.

Personal distance is intended for communication with familiar subjects and ranges from 45 cm to 1.20 m.

Social distance is intended for official communication and communication with strangers and ranges from 1.20 to 4 m.

The public distance is intended for communication with the audience and ranges from 4 m to 7.5 m.

Violation of the established boundaries in certain conditions of communication can cause confusion, misunderstanding, and even lead to a conflict situation.

Verbal communication

The means of communication include, primarily, speech as a source of information, a method of influencing the interlocutor, communication through words, information exchange.

Verbal means of communication are the interaction of the parties through words, and are realized with the help of sign systems. The core of such systems is language. Languages ​​as sign systems are the best means of expressing human thought activity and a means of communication. Language finds its own embodiment in speech. Thus, the language is present in individuals stably in a state of possibility. The concept of "speech" is used in several meanings. The first meaning consists in the presentation of speech as one of the types of the communicative interaction of the personality. Those. in this sense, speech is a specific activity of an individual, which is expressed orally or in writing. Also, speech refers to the results of activities that depend on the circumstances and tasks of communications. For example, business or official speech.

Speech differs from language in that it has concreteness, originality, relevance, activity, it unfolds in time, is carried out in space. Also, speech, unlike the language system, is much less conservative, but more dynamic and mobile. It reflects the experience of the speaker, is determined by the context and conditions, variable, and can also be spontaneous and disordered.

Each phrase in the course of communication plays a particular role - making contact, attracting interest and attention, broadcasting messages, etc. The particular roles of certain phrases can be combined into general ones, which are called speech functions.

The source of data for verbal communications is an individual who utters or writes information. A channel of information is the voice apparatus of the individual who transmits the message. The code in cases of verbal communication is speech. At the same time, coding is the transformation of information into units of a language, and decoding is the opposite process of understanding and comprehending replicas. The choice of code in the translation of verbal communication, above all, happens automatically. Basically, this code is the native language of the speaking subject. However, along with this, the code can also be perceived as a means of encrypting information.

The next most important nuance of the verbal communication pattern under consideration is distortion and interference. Distortions can occur due to linguistic, extralinguistic and acoustic-pronunciation reasons or the graphic appearance of information when written. Linguistic distortions are associated with a lack of clarity of statements, incorrect syntax, excessive complexity of the message, etc.

The extra-linguistic disturbances are due to the "baggage" of the recipient's knowledge Also, many psychologists say that the protective mechanisms of the psyche of the individual choose such information that will correspond to the inclinations of the individual, and will not perceive the information that contradicts the point of view and views of the person. In order to provide noise immunity information, any message should be a bit redundant. Redundancy of information is called complete or partial repetition of information, which is accompanied by the receipt of new messages and is intended to control and correct human notions. It is believed that redundancy in communications should be at least 50% and not more than 95% of the "baggage" of knowledge in the area under discussion.

An important feature of verbal communications is the value, by which is meant new information obtained from the implementation of informativeness, which is contained in the linguistic sign. Novelty and surprise determine the value of a meaningful message.

Dialogue and monologue communications are distinguished, depending on the direction of the speech flow in communication. Dialogue is a form of speech that contains the exchange of phrases and is characterized by dependence on speech conditions, due to previous cues, a small degree of organization.

In verbal communication, a special position is occupied by the individual finding and encouraging the potential of a partner. The ability to speak beautifully and benevolently has an attractive force and forms the circumstances for the formation of relationships with subjects based on mutual disposition, which is necessary for a psychologically favorable climate in social groups.

Speech as a means of communication

The main function of the speech of the individual lies in providing thinking. Speech is a kind of instrument of mental activity. It is a historically established form of communicative interactions through language constructs. The word is the main structural unit of language systems. The word as a concept encompasses much more information, data, than in itself carries an elementary combination of sounds.

The process of forming thoughts with the help of words and their comprehension, inevitably causes a deformation of the semantic load of the message. However, individuals still understand each other. Осмысление неизменно поддается корректировке, так как средства общения людей - это не просто трансляция информации, знаний, сообщений посредством вербальных и невербальных инструментов, а обмен данными, который предполагает обратную связь.

Реплики без ориентирования на партнера по коммуникации носят форму монолога. When monologue broadcast messages, the amount of loss of information content can reach from 50% to 80% of the amount of the original information. Psychologists claim that dialogue is the most effective form of communication. He assumes free and fluent possession of speech, the ability to distinguish sincere and honest answers from untruthful and evasive ones, sensitivity to non-speech signals.

The basis of dialogic communications is the ability and ability to ask questions to oneself and the rest of the subjects of the communication process. Compared with monologue communication, dialogic communications are considered more effective. After all, it will be much more effective to transform your own ideas into questions, and to test them in an interview with colleagues and colleagues. Using questions allows you to understand whether the speaker’s ideas are supported or not. The very fact of the question shows the desire to take part in communication interactions, ensuring their further direction and deepening.

Any interaction is unthinkable without following the rules of verbal etiquette, which is associated with the forms and style of speech, vocabulary.

Broadcast messages can have a variety of forms. Information can be transmitted in the form of conversation, conversation, lecture, or even a dispute.

Speech as a means of communication is the main, peculiar only to people way of communication. It is mainly divided into the inner - the mental conversation of the individual with himself, by means of which the motivation of his behavior is understood, and the outer, ie directed to the interlocutor. Internal speech is the foundation of external speech. The transformation of the essence of inner speech is externally connected with the appearance of the difficulty of speaking out loud. Outwardly directed speech is oral and written.

Game as a means of communication

The game from time immemorial was considered a universal means of learning, development and recreation. Playing as an unproductive activity of individuals brings emotional excitement, pleasure from the process of free expression of the physical and mental strengths of the individual.

A game is a kind of school of social relationships in which an individual comprehends the standards of social and cultural behavior.

Playing as a means of communication is considered a fundamental activity not only for kids, but also in older age. Only by taking into account the individual age characteristics of the personality, the game can acquire a slightly different direction. With its help, the development of communicative abilities, their projection on the imitatively created circumstances of the interaction existing in the real world, takes place.

Games not only contribute to the development and expression of their own communicative skills and abilities, but also help to correct emerging problem situations and communication difficulties. Understanding individuals of each other is one of the acute problems that arise throughout the entire period of a person’s life.

Playing as a means of communication allows a teenager to build a system of interpersonal relationships, personal interactions, to show their leadership qualities and abilities. It provides a solid foundation for the further development of children. The game is a simulation of future situations, conditions, circumstances with which individuals can meet in real life.

The ability of an individual to make independent, independent decisions, to defend his own position is developed with the help of the experience of obedience acquired in games and playing various social roles and situations. After all, the game is a continuous change of positions. The ability to properly behave in certain roles, forms an adequate self-esteem among individuals, the ability to recognize and perceive their real position in the system of communication interactions, which develops the flexibility of perceptions and communications, empathy, rapid switching from one activity to another. During the game, children, as it were, absorb the experience of the communicative interaction of more adult comrades.

The game as a means of communication is directed to develop its own point of view on various issues. It helps the child to reasonably bring the "justice" of his own position.

Development of communication tools

Verbal and non-verbal means of communication develop in several directions. Organs are formed that are special means of communication, for example, hands, lips - this is, first of all. In the process of ontogenetic development, development of expressive configurations of movements takes place, namely, all kinds of gestures, pantomimics, facial expressions, etc. - this is the second thing. Thirdly, the invention and application of sign systems, which are means of encrypting and transmitting messages, is taking place. Fourth, the development and improvement of technical tools for storing, transforming and transmitting information that is used in people’s communication interactions, namely broadcasting, printing, telephone, television, etc., is taking place.

The transformation of the essence, tasks and means of human communication is historical in nature, whereas the production of communication in animals is due to the natural course of the biological evolutionary process.

Already at 3 months, children discover the ability to communicate emotionally with individuals, and by one year their expression is so rich and pronounced that it allows them to quickly comprehend verbal communication tools and use sound speech.

The development of means of communication occurs as the formation of speech, which makes it possible to diversify the essence of messages broadcast and perceived during communication, and as a result of the progress of learning, the child begins to use various means of communicative relationships. As a result, the instrumental aspects of communication are enriched.

In the future, the formation of communication looks like a phased accumulation by the individual of a culture of communication interaction on the basis of reflection, inverse interconnection and self-regulation.

Means of business communication

Business communication is a complex and diversified process of establishing and further developing professional and business contacts between subjects, which are established as a result of the emerging needs of joint activities, and includes the exchange of information and experience.

Business communication today is considered the most widespread type of social communicative interaction. It starts with the appearance. Compliance with the image in the whole place and time is a kind of business card of the individual, a presentation of its success and professionalism.

Image as a means of business communication is the most important aspect of any professional communicative interactions between actors. Special requirements are imposed on it, which include the obligatory correspondence of the specifics of the activity, time and place of business communication. He must testify to the reliability, competence, and intelligence of the individual, leave only a favorable impression of the partner, and bring about respect and trust with the interlocutor.

When forming your own image, you need to take into account several types of qualities: natural, imparted by upbringing and education, acquired through life and professional experience. Natural qualities include the individual's sociability, empathicism, reflexivity, and eloquence. The grafted education and upbringing qualities include moral guidelines, psychological health, and a set of communication tools.

The image as a means of business communication is formed initially from trifles - various accessories, for example, a belt, phone, watches, manners and the ability to directly talk and actively listen to the interlocutor.

The logical-semantic component of business communications forms communication through verbal and non-verbal means that complement the conversation. It contains two interconnected processes: the production of messages by the interlocutor and their perception of information. Means of verbal communication is speech and its meaning. It consists of words and can be oral or written.

The means of non-verbal business communication include the same communication tools as with other types of interpersonal interaction, namely: facial expressions, gestures, visual contacts, pro-topic, para- and extra-linguistics.