Means of communication - These are the methods of coding, transformation and decryption of information transmitted during the communication interaction. Communicative means are divided into two large blocks: speech and non-speech blocks, i.e. verbal and non-verbal communication. Speech is a process of exploitation of a language for the purpose of communication interactions of individuals. Language is a sign system, the main function of which is to ensure communication of people, thinking, a method of expressing the individual self-consciousness. Speech as a method of verbal communication is a parallel source of information and a method of influencing communication partners.
Means of communication
The means of communication include, first of all, language, intonation of speech and emotional expressiveness, facial expressions and gestures, postures.
Language as a means of communication between individuals is closely interconnected with society, its culture and individuals who live and work in it, and at the same time use the language in a diverse and extensive way.
Communication or communication refers to the transmission from one individual to another of any information with a different purpose. Communication is a consequence of the communicative interaction of two or more persons in specific circumstances and in the presence of a universal means of communication.
The main means of human communication is language. The purpose of a language to be a communication mechanism is called its communicative function. Interacting with each other, individuals transmit their own thoughts, worldviews, emotions and emotional disturbances, influence one another in a certain direction towards each other, achieve a common understanding. With the help of language, subjects of interpersonal interaction understand each other. It enables them to organize collective work in all areas of human activity. Language is the force that determines the existence, development of individuals and society as a whole. And the communicative function is the leading social function of the language. However, it is not its only function. Its specialized functions include cognitive, expressive, nominative and accumulative.
The ability to express information, transmit it and influence the interlocutor is called the expressive function of the language. This function is considered as a unity of expression and translation of data, feelings and emotional experiences, the will of the speaker.
The cognitive function is interrelated with the presence in the linguistic signs of human consciousness. Language is a kind of tool of consciousness, reflecting the results of the cognitive activity of the individual. Linguistic altercations about what is primary, mental activity or language, probably will never stop. The only true proposition is the statement that language has an inseparable connection with thinking, since humanity not only expresses its own thoughts in words, but thoughts are formulated in the form of words - the person thinks in words. The cognitive function of the psyche is designed to capture the effects of mental activity and their use in communication. This feature contributes to the knowledge of the world and its verbalization.
The person thinks with the help of categories, and in the course of cognition, she discovers and names new phenomena and concepts for herself, which is the nominative function of language. It has a close connection with the cognitive, since all that has been learned must necessarily have its own name. She also has a connection with the ability of linguistic signs to give signs to things. It is this ability that allows an individual to create a world of symbols. However, in the modern world there are many things that do not have names.
Accumulative function has a close relationship with the collection and preservation of information. After all, it is not a secret to anyone that the language exists much longer than people and people. A vivid example of this is the dead languages that have survived their speakers. Language, regardless of whether it exists today or not, keeps the memory of generations and the centuries-old history of mankind. Indeed, even with the loss of oral speech, you can master the ancient writings and make certain conclusions about the past life of the nation.
The language is also sound and written. The leading form of the language is its sound component. Unwritten languages can also exist. When there is only a written fixation, and there is no voicing, then the language becomes dead.
The means of communication of people, as mentioned above, are verbal, i.e. associated with the human speech apparatus, and non-verbal (nonverbal). In situations of language deficiency (for example, the absence of universal language means), interpersonal interaction can occur through non-personal means. After all, through their humanity communicates from time immemorial.
Non-verbal means of communication appeared much earlier than language systems. That is why they are sometimes called natural, that is, given to humanity from nature, and not to people invented.
Non-verbal means of communication are: facial expressions, postures, various gestures, the style of movement of subjects, etc. They replace and complement speech, convey the emotional mood of the partners in communication. The main part of such communications becomes the human body, which has a wide range of means and methods for the transmission of information and contains all the categories of self-expression of the individual. Psychologists argue that the correct interpretation of non-verbal signals is the main condition for the effectiveness of communication.
Knowledge of a non-verbal "language" helps not only to better recognize and understand a partner, but also to anticipate what impression the heard information will make on him, even before the moment of its dubbing.
Mimicry is derived from the Greek word mimikos, which means imitating. Facial movement is called facial muscle movement. The main element of facial expression is a mimic code, which is a special combination of elements and components of the face. Such elements and parts include: the position of the lips and eyebrows, the shape and brightness of the eyes that convey emotional states, etc. Psychologists have identified six main codes of facial expression and a lot of nuances of transition from one code to another. The main mimic codes include: suffering, anger, fear, contempt, surprise, joy.
An additional important source of data on the mood and intentions of the interlocutor is the subject's body, its dynamics or static state. Pose translated from French means body position. It means a more or less stable spatial position of a person. Today, there are more than a thousand of such provisions, the satisfactory or unacceptability of which depends on nationality, gender, age group, cultural characteristics and religious preferences of people. The basic semantic essence of the pose as a means of communication is in the expression of openness or closeness, readiness for communication or unavailability for it.
Gestures are divided into rhythmic, emotional, indicative and inventive. With the rhythm of speech associated respectively rhythmic gestures. They distinguish logical stress, acceleration or deceleration of the pace, the place of intervals, that is, all that the individual usually conveys using intonation. For example, it may be: beating a musical beat with a foot, shaking the body or head, etc.
A variety of shades of feelings convey emotional gestures. Most of them are fixed in persistent combinations - idioms. For example: slapping yourself on your own forehead means unexpected guessing or recall.
For the selection of objects from a number of similar, specifying their location, order, are indicative gestures. Often, speech without the use of an indicating gesture becomes completely incomprehensible. There are certain types of phrases that involve the use of pointing gestures. For example, please give me this book. It is possible to indicate not only with the help of hands and fingers, but also by looking, nodding the head, turning the body. Indicative hands are multi-valued, i.e. under different conditions, similar gestures acquire completely different meanings. For example, pointing fingers on the wrist, where the watch is usually worn, can mean the question of how much time is left before the end of the lecture, seminar, couple, etc. either a hint that there is not much time left or you need to hurry.
When there is not enough time or it is not possible to quickly express your own thoughts, you can depict an object, phenomenon or action with the help of graphic gestures. They enhance the impact on the interlocutor, while giving him a clearer and clearer idea of the topic of conversation or the subject of speech.
Typical situations of communication are served by symbolic gestures. For example, you can greet a colleague with a nod of your head or a wave of your hand. Each of the symbolic gestures is chosen in accordance with the situation and depends on gender, age category, social role and status, level of culture of the communicator.
The kinetic means of communication are the subject's re-movement style and gait. Psychological research demonstrates that an emotional state can influence an individual’s gait, as a result of which, without approaching the interlocutor, it is possible to assess the potential effectiveness of communication.
The non-verbal means of communication also include prosodic and extra-linguistic means. Prosodica translated from Greek means stress or chorus. That is, the prosodica is responsible for the rhythmic-intonation characteristics of speech, such as: the volume and pitch of the voice tone, the force of the stress and the timbre of the voice. Individual prosodic features in the individual laid by nature, but much can be corrected with the help of systematic work. Extralinguistic means of communication are closely interconnected with the prosody. These include: intervals, sighs, coughing, laughing, crying, etc. Prosodic and extra-linguistic non-verbal means of communication regulate speech flows. They complement and at the same time save language communication, replace and foreshadow speech, demonstrate emotional states.
Dynamic body touches, in the form of clapping on the back, shoulder, knee, handshakes, kisses, are called tacic means of communication. The choice of one form of takesic means is determined by many factors, such as: nationality, gender, age, degree of acquaintance, social status.
Proxemic means of communication consist in the distance that the interlocutors use among themselves. Anthropologist E. Hall introduced the main areas of comfort interpersonal interaction. Their distance depends on the degree of proximity of individuals to each other.
The intimate distance is intended for communication of close people and relatives and makes an interval from a contact to 45 cm.
Personal distance is intended for communication with familiar subjects and ranges from 45 cm to 1.20 m.
Social distance is intended for official communication and communication with strangers and ranges from 1.20 to 4 m.
The public distance is intended for communication with the audience and ranges from 4 m to 7.5 m.
Violation of the established boundaries in certain conditions of communication can cause confusion, misunderstanding, and even lead to a conflict situation.