Psychology and Psychiatry

Communication concept

Communication concept denotes a complex and multifaceted process of communication interaction of individuals, which is dependent on many circumstances. The effectiveness of communication is effective, ineffective or completely ineffective. Communication is of different types, forms and has specific methods and methods. Any type of communication is closely interconnected and is characterized by inseparability from others.

For the effectiveness of communications, one must observe three mandatory criteria. The first criterion of communicative interaction implies that at least two individuals must participate in communication. In other words, any communication interaction presupposes the presence of a subject transmitting information and an addressee. The second indispensable condition is the presence of a common subject or topic of conversation. The third condition is the need for a common (identical) language system, which is owned by two subjects of communication.

Concept and types of communication

The concept of communication in psychology refers to the form of activity that is realized between individuals who are equal partners in communication, leading to the emergence of mental interaction.

The concept of communication involves the exchange of messages, perception and understanding of the comrades in each other's conversation. Subjects of communication are people. Although communication is typical for all living beings, however, only at the level of the individual is the communication process conscious, related verbal and non-verbal acts. The entity transmitting the information is called the communicator, and receiving it is called the recipient.

In communicative interactions, one can single out a number of aspects: the essence, the task, the means. The essence of communication lies in the information that interpersonal contacts are transmitted from one living entity to another. Such information can transmit information about the emotional mood, about environmental conditions.

The task of communication must answer the question - for what purpose does the creature enter the process of communication? Such goals can be quite diverse and represent the tools to meet sociocultural, creative, cognitive, aesthetic, moral and other needs.

Communication tools are methods for encrypting, translating, transforming and decoding messages that are transmitted during communication interactions from one creation to another. Message encryption is the so-called data transfer reception. Information between individuals is transmitted through speech, the senses and other sign systems, written language, technical mechanisms for recording and storing data.

Communication interactions include such types of communication as therapeutic, interpersonal, direct and indirect, group and intergroup, mass, intimate and criminogenic, confidential and conflicting, business and personal, non-violent.

The concept of pedagogical communication

By pedagogical communication they mean a specific interpersonal relation between a teacher and a student, which mediates the assimilation of knowledge and the development of a person with the help of educational activities.

The concept of communication in psychology is depicted as mutually directed actions of subjects of pedagogical activity, implemented by significant tools, having a focus on significant transformations of qualities, states, actions, and personal and meaningful formations of partners. Communicative interaction is an inseparable element of pedagogical activity, since it is impossible to achieve the established goals of study and the educational process outside communication.

The core goal of pedagogical communication lies in the transmission of social competence and professional information, abilities, skills, and experience from a teacher to learning subjects. At the same time, it also consists in the exchange of personal semantic loads that are associated with the phenomena, objects, objects and the whole living environment as a whole.

In addition to the information function of pedagogical communications, others are distinguished, for example, contact, motivating and emotive.

The contact function involves the establishment of interconnections as a state of bilateral readiness to receive and transmit educational information, maintaining interconnectedness in the form of a constant, mutually directed orientation.

The incentive function lies in stimulating the activity of the student individual, which directs him to perform the necessary training activities.

The emotive function is displayed in the impetus in the student of the required emotional experiences - the so-called exchange of emotions, as well as in the change through him of personal experiences and moods.

The highest value of pedagogical communications is considered to be the individuality of the teacher, teacher, and students.

The concept of ethics of communication

In order to understand what the term “ethics of communication” implies, it is necessary to consider separately the basic concepts of “communication” and “ethics”.

Communicative interaction in the narrow sense is the interaction of individuals through verbal and non-verbal communication tools. And ethics is a discipline that studies morality and ethics. Therefore, the ethics of communication is a moral, moral and ethical analysis of the values ​​of communication, its features (virtues and vices), and techniques. Such an analysis permeates the whole diversity of communication phenomena. At the same time, the ethics of communication considers and evaluates the procedural side of communication, i.e. she considers the art of communication, based on moral and ethical experience and value-moral orientations.

Ethics of communication in the narrow sense is a combination of certain practical techniques, rules and norms (mostly moral) communication. It covers the study of communication problems, both from the point of view of the existing, and from a position of due.

The ethics of communicative interaction is intended not only to explore the processes of communication from the standpoint of concepts, but also to teach communication, to influence the true processes of communication through the creation of new normative elements. It is designed to perform various functions. Among such functions, emit synthesizing and imperatively-formative. The first function is the synthesis of moral experience in the field of communications, the second one - argues the choice of humanistic moral values ​​and justifies the need to follow them.

Ethics of communication teaches how to properly interact in the field of communicative relationships, and how not to communicate. The goal of ethics is not knowledge in a general sense, but actions and behavior. And man should study ethics in order to become virtuous.

The concept of communication and communication from the point of view of ethics is the inculcation of an individual's culture of speech and moral norms of behavior, virtues and value orientations, which are accepted in a particular society or are determined by nationality or place of residence. The concept of speech communication in ethics is reduced to the process of establishing and further following culturally focused, direct or indirect contact between individuals using language systems.

The concept and functions of communication

The concept of speech communication today is considered as a certain aspect of life. Communication plays the role of one of the core conditions under which the manifestation and disclosure of the best personality traits, the formation and development of its consciousness, the formation of self-consciousness takes place. Reflecting, giving analysis to the attitude of the surrounding society to its own person, communicating with others, the individual identifies the need for self-improvement, which is carried out in the course of self-education.

The core functions of communications are distinguished: emotive, understanding, coordinating, motivating, establishing relationships and influencing.

The emotive function is traced in the excitement in the interlocutor of the necessary emotional moods, as well as the transformation of one's own experiences with it.

Informational - covers the exchange of data, worldviews, positions, plans, decisions, etc.

Contact - manifested in the formation of contacts as a mutual readiness to acquire and transmit information, maintaining interaction in the form of sustainable mutual orientation.

The understanding function covers adequate perception, awareness of the essence of the message and mutual understanding of the plans, goals, intentions, experiences, attitudes.

The coordination function is demonstrated in the mutually directed orientation, coordination and harmony of actions and actions in the process of joint interaction.

Motivation - expressed in the stimulation of the interlocutor's activity in order to give him the direction to perform certain actions.

The function of establishing relationships is expressed in the comprehension and fixation of one's own personal position in the systems of role-playing, business, status and other interrelations of social groups in which the subject interacts.

The function of influence is manifested in the transformation of mood, behavior, states, personal and semantic formations of the interlocutor.

Communication culture - concept

In order to understand what the term “culture of communication” implies, the basic concepts of “communication” and “culture” should be considered separately.

The communicative process that unites people among themselves is called communication. Culture in the general sense of the term means education, the formation of personality. This is human interaction in the most diverse of its manifestations, which encompasses personal self-expression and self-knowledge, the accumulation of man separately and society as a whole experience.

Culture of communication is called a kind of set of rules and norms that every self-respecting person should follow. An indicator of the level of education and culture is precisely the observance of these rules and norms of behavior. Indeed, without culture, it is impossible to fully interact with society in a developed and civilized state, it is impossible to conduct a successful business and successfully establish business contacts.

With the development of speech, the possibility of diversity of the essence of the message being broadcast and received during communications appeared. There is also an opportunity to enrich the means and instrumental aspects of communications.

The subsequent development of communicative interaction can be represented as a gradual accumulation of a culture of communication by a person. Such accumulation occurs, first of all, on the basis of reflection, self-regulation and feedback.

From the standpoint of psychology, a highly developed personality differs from a less developed personality not only by its manifested need for communication with different people, but also by rich content, multiple goals, and a greater choice of communication tools. There is also an undoubted connection between the culture of communication and activity, since communication interaction and activity form an integral whole. After all, one is impossible without the other.

The concept and structure of communication

Mankind is simply not able to carry out full and effective mutual activities without establishing contact between the individuals included in it and society as a whole. Also, activity is impossible without the establishment of a proper level of mutual understanding between the subjects.

The concept of communication and communication today is a rather complex and multifaceted process of forming and developing mutual contacts between individuals, which occurs as a result of the “birth” of the needs of joint activities and includes the exchange of data, the development of a holistic activity strategy, the reception and comprehension of another person.

Communicative interaction is verbal, i.e. verbal and wordless, i.e. non-verbal Verbal is represented by language systems, and non-verbal is represented by facial expressions, various gestures, pantomime, body position during interaction, etc.

Communications contain three levels: intra-and interpersonal, public. Intra-personal communications are expressed in the mental communication of the individual with his own "I". This level occurs when the subject makes plans, outlines tasks and goals, develops strategies, prepares to interact with society. Interpersonal communication, respectively, means communication at least between two persons. Public - means the communication of the subject with a large social group.

There are three major aspects of communication between the subjects - it is respectively communicative, interactive and perceptual.

The communicative aspect is manifested in identifying the specificity of the process of exchanging messages between individuals.

Interactive is demonstrated in the interaction of partners in the creation and implementation of mutually directed activities.

Perceptual consists in the formation of the image of another subject, due to the correlation of physical features with psychological characteristics of behavior.