Psychology and Psychiatry

Rules of communication

Rules of communication - these are the norms adopted in a particular linguocultural community, canons of behavior that regulate the communicative relationships of people. They are subdivided into norms of verbal exposure and regulatory. The rules of verbal communication solve the problem of how to effectively conduct a conversation, and the normative ones answer the question “how to”. The rules of communicative interaction reflect the ideas formed in society about the correctness of the conversation in each communicative situation. They help to make the conversation more productive.

The rules of communication were developed by society in the process of the evolutionary progress of people and are supported by the sociocultural customs of this society. The rules of communicative relationships are mastered by individuals through observation and imitation of the environment, as well as the result of targeted training. There are rules that are well understood by the subjects, so they are implemented in communications almost automatically, i.e. without conscious control. Having mastered the basic rules of communication, you can use them consciously to achieve an established goal in communications, which will give a significant advantage in the conversation to an individual who knows these rules.

Rules of communication with people

The rules and rules of communication are conventionally divided into stereotypical and creative, and they appeared as a result of the humanization of communication. In the process of development, the rules of communication interaction are constantly changing, and a person has to submit to changed conditions in order for communication to be effective, and not useless.

! An individual who owns the art of communicative interaction always favorably emphasizes the attention of others. The effectiveness of the conversation, first of all, is influenced by the speaker's speech, which must be distinguished by clarity and expressiveness in order not to get into an awkward situation. Speech, individual cues should be at an average pace and volume of voice. Too quiet speech will cause boredom, and too loud - will lead to a feeling of discomfort among the interlocutors. Therefore, speech should have a measured, medium volume and softness.

Below are the basic rules of communication with people who will help to be known as an interesting and pleasant conversationalist and a person who can support any conversation.

In any communicative interaction with the individual, attention should be focused directly on the speaker and his message. To maintain the conversation and demonstrate its interest, it is necessary to periodically clarify about the correctness of understanding the content of the conversation and its nuances. It is necessary to inform the speaker in a rephrased form the meaning of the information received.

The rules of communication with people include the following: it is not recommended to interrupt the interlocutor, give him advice, criticize him, summarize his speech, be distracted by the preparation of a response replica. This is best done after receiving the message and clarifying it. Follow the sequence of submission of information. It is not recommended to switch to new information without making sure that the partner has correctly perceived the previous statement. During the conversation, the atmosphere should be trustful and respectful. To the interlocutor need to show empathy.

The rules of communication except for the use of verbal means of communication in a conversation include non-verbal tools. The conversation will be more effective in the case when with a partner in communication will be established frequent eye contact. During the conversation, you need to slightly shake your head in time with the speech. The intonation at the end of the sentence is better to lower, and before giving an answer to the replica of the interlocutor, you should take a short pause. You can also use other tools that will help position the other person. People with whom the conversation is being built should be treated in such a way that they feel that they are intelligent, pleasant, and interesting conversationalists. A sincere smile always disposes people to their own person. Therefore, in the process of communication, you should always smile, and in order for a smile to be natural and not seem forced, you need to remember some pleasant or cheerful occasion. A person loves the sound of his name, so you need to remember the name of the interlocutor and during a conversation from time to time you should contact him by name or patronymic name (depending on the situation and the proximity of relations between partners in conversation).

The sound of the subject's name has a huge impact on him. It was noticed that in the event of conflict situations, the situation can be smoothed out by more often mentioning the name of the conversation. Often the name can be the drop that will outweigh the decision in the right direction. The name of the person is the most important for her sound in any language. However, before contacting a person by name, it should be clarified whether to call him by his full name, or it can be abbreviated. This will increase the level of attractiveness of the speaker, as an interlocutor. For unfamiliar or unfamiliar people, older people or occupying a higher level in the professional hierarchy, it is better to contact by name and patronymic.

Every person wants to feel like a significant person, wants at least something to depend on him. The need to feel as a significant subject is one of the most genuine and inherent human weaknesses that are common to all people in varying degrees of severity. Often enough is enough to give the individual an opportunity to realize his personal significance in order for him to agree with great pleasure to do what he was asked to do.

There are many mechanisms for raising the importance of a communication partner; each individual chooses for himself the most suitable one in a particular situation. Numerous studies show that the most pleasant interlocutor is not the one who perfectly masters the art of rhetoric, but the one who attentively listens to the communication partner. Do not forget that individuals are willing to listen to the interlocutor only after they have been heard out. Therefore, sometimes everything that is necessary for you to be heard and done as you need, just give the opportunity to speak out to the interlocutor, while showing maximum attention and interest in the speech of the interlocutor.

Speech communication rules

The main mechanism of communication interaction is speech. It reflects the whole worldview of the individual, her interests, area of ​​activity, hobbies, cultural level. Almost all communication is carried out by means of speech. Speech can be called a language system in "action". That is, it is the use of the language system for the purposes of speaking, transmitting thoughts and directly communicating. Speech differs from language systems in that its nature is psychophysical. This means that the speech apparatus takes part in its production, and its work is regulated by the central nervous system.

Speech is divided into oral and written, dialogical and monologue.

The norms and rules of communication using speech tools are the knowledge and skills to correctly apply the norms of language speech in various conditions, for example, at meetings, meetings, negotiations, in person conversations, etc.

The culture and performance of verbal communication should be assessed by several indicators, such as speech accuracy and its relevance, accessibility, appropriateness, correctness and purity of speech, expressiveness, literacy, diversity, ethical behavior. The correctness of speech is in accordance with the verbal means of the canons of literary language. Speech accuracy means, above all, the correct and appropriate use of terminology. The relevance of speech lies in the precise choice of tone and style of communication. Communicative expediency of speech does not allow for rudeness, tactlessness. Speech ethical is the use of polite steady expressions, addresses, phrases of greeting, farewell, apology, gratitude, consent, praise.

Literacy is considered to be a pivotal indicator of the culture of speech communications, since an illiterate person is not able to clearly convey the essence of the message. Illiteracy is expressed in the inability to formulate one's own thoughts, in the inability to correctly choose, use the right words, phrases, phrases and give them the correct grammatical form. Literacy should not be neglected, even in conversations with close friends or relatives.

You can highlight the typical mistakes that individuals tend to abuse in communication interaction. Quite often, conversations use slang speech, parasitic words, abbreviated words, put the wrong stress in words, or inappropriate use inserts from foreign expressions, use dialect. This style of communication will cause only bewilderment and misunderstanding.

Literacy is especially important in business relations, in employment, in telephone conversations, in writing, etc. To improve literacy, you need to read more highly literary. Reading books contributes not only to broadening horizons, but also allows you to learn how to correctly build a speech, trains your visual memory, helps improve spelling, allows you to enrich your vocabulary, etc.

During a conversation, it is not recommended to contact your communication partner by last name, even if he is down the service hierarchy.

During the conversation, you should avoid evaluative statements, except those that are intended to encourage. Negative assessments during a conversation will in response cause aggression in your address, rejection, which will lead to conflict situations, as a result of which the conversation will become ineffective.

Rules for effective communication

Communication is an integral part of human life. People interact constantly, even with visible silence, they still continue to communicate with the help of gestures, various movements, facial expressions, etc. Effective communicative interaction is considered such communication, in which people seek to understand the thoughts and comprehend the feelings of the interlocutors, while not appreciating them. That is, effective communication consists not just in transmitting information, but in the ability to listen and understand the interlocutor, to skillfully and competently speak, to use the tools of non-verbal influence. Such abilities of effective communicative interaction each develops in themselves individually, taking an example from surrounding people, mainly parents and teachers. Often, the model of communicative interaction adopted from parents or other significant adults in childhood can be ineffective.

It is possible to distinguish the basic rules of etiquette in communication, which will give the effectiveness of communication interaction with different individuals and in different life situations. Rule one implies the fact that any communication begins with the establishment of contact with the interlocutor, so you should not neglect them. Without contact with a communication partner, communication will be impossible or will not carry a semantic load. For effective communication interaction, you should speak at the same pace and volume with the interlocutor, you should also use the same body position in space, for example, if the interlocutor is standing, then you need to talk with him while standing. This is the second rule of communication etiquette. It is not recommended to use in speech long for understanding and flowery phrases, using only common words and statements. One should strive to ensure that speech has specificity and materiality, so that the communication partner can easily understand the meaning of information exactly as it was intended. The following rule is the mandatory use of non-verbal communication when speaking, since they are the most important components of effective communication.

Scientists say that only up to 10% in communication are words, and more than 90% in communication is given to non-verbal tools, such as body position, glance, gestures and facial expressions, etc. After the end of a conversation, you should make sure that the interlocutors understand correctly presented information. Another rule is to ban passive information perception of communication partners. During the conversation, it is necessary with the help of non-verbal interaction tools and with words to make the interlocutors understand that they are being listened to and heard.

Today, the modern world is so constituted that without effective communicative interaction with the surrounding society, it is rather difficult to achieve success in work and life.

The rules of etiquette in communication should be known to every self-respecting individual who strives for success in life and self-realization, regardless of his age, status, gender or nationality, or field of activity.

Rules of communication by phone

Telephone communications, as well as other types of communicative interaction, have their own rules and norms for conducting a telephone conversation. The knowledge of such norms will allow conducting the conversation competently and effectively and achieve the set result. If you can’t do without communications by phone, you should study the rules of communication with customers in order to transform the phone from a kind of obstacle into its ally. It is necessary to study the rules of telephone communication to such an extent that they become a natural model of conducting a conversation.

The following are simple rules for communicating with customers via telephone.

Rule one implies the reasonableness of a telephone conversation. That is, before you make a phone call, you should carefully consider the construction of the conversation, possible objections and ways of working with them, questions and the desired result. Even experienced switches, in which all the main activities are connected with telephone conversations, always keep in front of them a general plan of conversation, speech modules, well-chosen phrases.

If a telephone conversation implies familiarization with the services of the enterprise and its offers, then the second rule follows, which implies the need to always keep at hand the price lists, presentation materials, etc.

The third rule is to summarize the dialogue. You should always sum up the conversation. For example, if a conversation covers the delivery of a product, then the delivery place, date and time, etc. should be clearly and slowly repeated.

The best in a telephone conversation is considered a friendly and gentle beginning of the conversation, and then you should move to a more energetic speech. You need to finish communicating in a positive way. There is a so-called "edge" rule, which means that the integrity of an impression causes the first and last signals.

In any telephone communication, one should consciously and purposefully work on such sensations that arouse desire in the interlocutor. It is necessary to end the conversation warmly and gently in cases where the speaker invites the customer to visit their store, office, company, etc. Accurately and efficiently, while giving a sense of stability and security - if we are talking about different supplies. After all, the speaker should give the client confidence in the reliability of the company as a possible partner.

The rate of speech should depend on the interlocutor. If the partner in telephone communication speaks quickly, then you should slightly accelerate your pace of speech. In the case when the interlocutor speaks slowly, words should be smoothly and slightly cumbersome. Adjustment to a partner will create a more comfortable and favorable conditions for the conversation for the client, which will certainly place him in the direction of the speaker. And this means that he will meet. However, you should be afraid that your partner may perceive your communicative tricks as a mockery of himself. Therefore, you should copy the interviewee very carefully and not too clearly.

It should not be in the process of a telephone conversation overload partner information. After all, it has long been established that the volume of the operating memory of a subject is up to 9 units. This means that it is impossible to remember simultaneously 9 words that are not connected in a logical chain. Therefore, you should not spread to the client absolutely all the information you know. This will only confuse and frighten him, instead of generating interest.

When communicating by phone, it is necessary to maintain feedback with the client in order to partially compensate for the lack of eye contact. This rule involves responding to all the replicas of the interlocutor, but without excessive fanaticism. You can react with such phrases: "I understand you," "this is wonderful," etc. Such statements will allow the person to relax and feel more comfortable.

В общении по телефону так же, как и при других видах коммуникативного взаимодействия, эффективным считается упоминание имени собеседника. Причем в телефонном разговоре обращаться к человеку по имени следует как можно чаще, что недопустимо в коммуникативном взаимодействии "глаза в глаза".

Another important rule for the effectiveness of a telephone conversation is the obligatory asking the partner whether it is convenient for him to speak at the particular moment whether he has free time for conversation. This is important for the interlocutor to correctly perceive all the information that they want to convey to him by phone.

Phone today is almost indispensable attribute of communication. However, originally created for the union of subjects, it now introduces many difficulties in communication. Indeed, in conditions where two interlocutors cannot see each other, it is extremely difficult to show empathy and empathize with the partner’s feelings, which reduces the effectiveness of the conversation. Therefore, it was to compensate for the shortcomings of telephone communication the above-mentioned rules of interaction were developed.