Professional self-determination - is a form of personal choice, reflecting the process of searching, as well as the acquisition of a profession. Self-determination is realized in the process of analyzing personal capabilities, abilities in relation to professional requirements. At present, the understanding of professional self-determination takes into account the problems of interconnection with the life self-determination of an individual, and also includes the influence of the impact on the individual of the social environment and its active position. In a market economy there is an acute problem of the freedom to choose a profession and ensuring the competitiveness of an employee.
Self-determination of students is the process of the formation by an individual of a personal attitude towards professional activity and the method of its realization through the coordination of social, professional and personal needs.
The professional self-determination of students is a part of the life self-determination, since it is included in the social group of the choice of profession and lifestyle.
In professional self-determination, there are various approaches: sociological — when society sets tasks for an individual, socio-psychological — step-by-step decision making by an individual, as well as matching the needs of society and personal preferences, differential psychological, the formation of an individual structure of life.
It is symbolic to identify the interrelated stages of professional self-determination of students:
- the preschool stage, which includes the formation of the initial labor skills;
- Primary school, including an awareness of the role of labor in the life of an individual through participation in various activities: training, games, labor.
Awareness of their abilities and interests associated with professional choice occurs in the 5-7th grades, and the formation of professional self-awareness falls on the 8-9th grades.
In the professional self-determination of students, a significant role is assigned to the family and the state-public structure (professional and general educational institutions; institutions of additional education, employment services).
Psychological and pedagogical support for self-determination of students is aimed at the realization of a conscious choice of profession.
Pupils are determined with a choice of profession in the process of teaching the basic sciences, as well as during vocational training.
Thus, the professional self-determination of students includes the process of the formation of an individual's personal attitude to the labor sphere, as well as the method of self-realization through the coordination of professional and intrapersonal needs.
Professional self-determination of high school students
The identification of high school students with a future profession is one of the forms of personal self-determination and is characterized by the process of acquiring, as well as the search for a profession, the analysis of personal capabilities, abilities in comparison with the requirements of the profession.
At the age of fifteen, it is very difficult for a high school student to choose a profession. Often, professional intentions are vague and diffuse, and professionally oriented dreams, as well as romantic aspirations in implementation, are impossible.
The dissatisfied coming future stimulates the development of reflection - the awareness of the personal “I”. The senior pupil “is determined”: who he is, what his abilities are, what kind of life ideal is, what he wants to become. Self-analysis is a deferred psychological basis for professional self-determination for the majority of vocational school students.
Those high school students who receive a complete secondary general education feel more comfortable. At the time of graduation, high school students from the fantastic, imaginary professions choose the most appropriate and realistic options. Children understand that success and well-being in life, above all, depends on the correct choice of profession.
Assessing their capabilities and abilities, the prestige of the profession, the socio-economic situation, senior pupils are self-determined in obtaining vocational education.
Thus, for high school students, educational and professional self-determination acts as a conscious choice of ways of vocational education and vocational training.