Psychology and Psychiatry

Professional self-determination

Professional self-determination - is a form of personal choice, reflecting the process of searching, as well as the acquisition of a profession. Self-determination is realized in the process of analyzing personal capabilities, abilities in relation to professional requirements. At present, the understanding of professional self-determination takes into account the problems of interconnection with the life self-determination of an individual, and also includes the influence of the impact on the individual of the social environment and its active position. In a market economy there is an acute problem of the freedom to choose a profession and ensuring the competitiveness of an employee.

Professional self-determination of students

Self-determination of students is the process of the formation by an individual of a personal attitude towards professional activity and the method of its realization through the coordination of social, professional and personal needs.

The professional self-determination of students is a part of the life self-determination, since it is included in the social group of the choice of profession and lifestyle.

In professional self-determination, there are various approaches: sociological — when society sets tasks for an individual, socio-psychological — step-by-step decision making by an individual, as well as matching the needs of society and personal preferences, differential psychological, the formation of an individual structure of life.

It is symbolic to identify the interrelated stages of professional self-determination of students:

- the preschool stage, which includes the formation of the initial labor skills;

- Primary school, including an awareness of the role of labor in the life of an individual through participation in various activities: training, games, labor.

Awareness of their abilities and interests associated with professional choice occurs in the 5-7th grades, and the formation of professional self-awareness falls on the 8-9th grades.

In the professional self-determination of students, a significant role is assigned to the family and the state-public structure (professional and general educational institutions; institutions of additional education, employment services).

Psychological and pedagogical support for self-determination of students is aimed at the realization of a conscious choice of profession.

Pupils are determined with a choice of profession in the process of teaching the basic sciences, as well as during vocational training.

Thus, the professional self-determination of students includes the process of the formation of an individual's personal attitude to the labor sphere, as well as the method of self-realization through the coordination of professional and intrapersonal needs.

Professional self-determination of high school students

The identification of high school students with a future profession is one of the forms of personal self-determination and is characterized by the process of acquiring, as well as the search for a profession, the analysis of personal capabilities, abilities in comparison with the requirements of the profession.

At the age of fifteen, it is very difficult for a high school student to choose a profession. Often, professional intentions are vague and diffuse, and professionally oriented dreams, as well as romantic aspirations in implementation, are impossible.

The dissatisfied coming future stimulates the development of reflection - the awareness of the personal “I”. The senior pupil “is determined”: who he is, what his abilities are, what kind of life ideal is, what he wants to become. Self-analysis is a deferred psychological basis for professional self-determination for the majority of vocational school students.

Those high school students who receive a complete secondary general education feel more comfortable. At the time of graduation, high school students from the fantastic, imaginary professions choose the most appropriate and realistic options. Children understand that success and well-being in life, above all, depends on the correct choice of profession.

Assessing their capabilities and abilities, the prestige of the profession, the socio-economic situation, senior pupils are self-determined in obtaining vocational education.

Thus, for high school students, educational and professional self-determination acts as a conscious choice of ways of vocational education and vocational training.

Professional self-identity

Psychologists refer to the process of forming a person’s personal attitude to the professional labor sphere, as well as self-realization through the coordination of social professional and intrapersonal needs.

Consider professional self-determination, including the different stages of the formation of the individual.

In preschool childhood, children in play activities imitate adults and reproduce their actions. Widespread in preschool age acquire plot-role-playing games, some of which are professionally oriented. Kids playing, assign themselves the role of sellers, doctors, builders, educators, cooks, drivers of vehicles.

Of great importance in professional self-determination are the initial labor activities - the implementation of simple actions for the care of plants, clothing, and cleaning of premises. These actions contribute to the development of kids interest in the work of adults. Professional-role-playing games, the performance of elementary types of work, observation of the work of adults contribute to the self-determination of preschoolers. At the early school age, kids willingly imitate the actions of adults and, on this basis, they are targeting the professions of relatives, parents, teachers, and close friends. An important feature of schoolchildren is the motivation of achievements in learning activities. The child’s awareness of his capabilities as well as his abilities on the basis of his experience in gaming, training, and labor activity forms an idea of ​​his future profession.

The end of primary school age is marked by a significant increase in individual differences in the development of abilities between children, and this in turn affects a significant expansion of the range of professional preferences. Labor and educational activities affect the development of children's imagination, both creative and recreating. Thanks to this ability, an enrichment of ideas about different types of work is carried out, the ability to see oneself in a particular profession is developed. Often, a child has professionally colored fantasies that in the future have a huge impact on professional self-determination.

Adolescence is marked by laying the foundations of the moral attitude to various types of work, the adolescent is formed by a system of personal values ​​that determine the selectivity for professions. Psychologists refer to this period as being responsible for the formation of the personality.

Teenage boys, imitating the external forms of adult behavior, are guided by romantic professions that possess endurance, strong will, courage, and courage, for example, an astronaut, a test pilot, a race car driver. Girls prefer the professions of "real women" - they are charming, popular, attractive top models, pop singers, TV presenters.

Orientation to romantic occupations is directed under the influence of the media, which replicate samples of "real adults." Such a professional romantic orientation contributes to the desire of adolescents to assert themselves and self-expression. Differential attitudes towards various activities in circles and school subjects form children's intentions and dreams. Dreams, patterns of the desired future are the strokes of self-determination.

Professional self-identity in early adolescence is the most important task. Often the plans of a teenager are very amorphous, vague, represent the nature of the dream.

The teenager most often represents himself in various emotionally attractive roles and cannot independently make a psychological informed choice of the profession. And at the beginning of adolescence, this problem arises for young men and women who leave the main secondary school. They constitute one third of older adolescents who enter secondary and elementary vocational education institutions, while others are forced to embark on self-employment activities.

Psychologists have found that often students who are educated in vocational schools, vocational schools, colleges and technical schools are not completely determined, and their choice of educational institution was not psychologically justified.

The overwhelming majority of young people aged 16–23 in schools receive education or undergo vocational training in institutions or enterprises. Often, romantic aspirations, dreams are a thing of the past, and the desired future has already become present, and many are experiencing frustration and dissatisfaction with their choices. Some are trying to make adjustments to the professional start, and most boys and girls during training strengthen confidence in the correctness of their choice.

At the age of 27, socio-professional activity is noted. Already have a place of work and some experience. Relevance gains professional growth and achievement. However, the overwhelming majority are beginning to experience psychological discomfort, which is caused by sublime, unrealized plans, as well as labor saturation.

Uncertainty of career prospects, lack of achievements actualize the reflection of personal being, generating self-concept of “I-concept” and self-analysis. For this period is characterized by emotional turmoil. The audit of professional life pushes for the definition of new significant goals. Some of them include professional development and improvement; changing jobs and initiating promotions; choice of new profession or related specialty.

For many people, by the age of 30, the problem of professional self-determination becomes urgent again. Here two ways are possible: either to assert yourself further in the chosen profession and become a professional, or to change jobs, as well as a profession.

The age period up to 60 years is considered the most productive. This period is marked by the realization of oneself as an individual, and is also characterized by the use of professional psychological potential. It is during this period that life plans are realized, the semantic existence of a person is justified. The profession provides a unique opportunity, using your abilities in a post, to realize the need to be a person, as well as to develop an individual style of activity.

After reaching retirement age, people leave the profession, but by the age of 60 a person does not fully have time to exhaust his potential. This period is marked by an alarming state, as stereotypes that have been forming for decades and lifestyle also collapse overnight. Skills, knowledge, important qualities - everything becomes unclaimed. Such negative moments accelerate social aging. Most pensioners experience psychological confusion, experiencing their uselessness and uselessness. The problem of self-determination arises again, however, in socially useful, social life.

Psychology of professional self-determination

The domestic psychology of professional self-determination processes is connected with personal self-determination and lifestyle choices. Choosing this or that profession, a person plans his own way of existence, at the same time correlating future professional personal status with life values.

The following researchers worked on this problem: Ginzburg, K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, N.S. Pryazhnikov, E.I. Heads, EF Zeer, E.A. Klimov.

The issues of professional self-determination of a subject were studied most comprehensively and consistently in the works of N.S. Pryazhnikova, E.A. Klimova, E.F. Zeer.

E.A. Klimov attributed professional self-determination to the quality of the mental manifestation of human development. In the course of a person's life, a certain attitude is formed towards different areas of labor, an idea of ​​their capabilities, professions is formed, and preferences are highlighted.

According to E.A. Klimov, the most important component in self-determination is the formation of self-consciousness.

The structure of professional identity includes:

- awareness of personal belonging to a particular professional community ("we are builders");

- evaluation of their place and personal compliance with the standards in the profession (one of the best specialists, a novice);

- knowledge of the individual about his recognition in a social group ("I am referred to as good specialists");

- knowledge of strengths and weaknesses, individual and successful methods of action and ways of self-improvement;

- a personal view of yourself, as well as work in the future.

E.A. Klimov notes two levels in professional self-determination:

- Gnostic (restructuring of self-consciousness and consciousness);

- practical (changes in the social status of a person).

E.F. Zeer highlights the problem of self-determination of the individual in the context of applied psychology, where professional self-determination is noted:

- selectivity in the attitude of the individual to the world of professions;

- a choice taking into account individual qualities and features of a person, as well as socio-economic conditions and requirements in the profession;

- permanent self-determination of the subject throughout life;

- the definition of external events (change of residence, graduation);

- manifestation of the social maturity of the individual with the close connection of self-realization.

The tasks in self-determination are solved all differently at each of the stages of professional development. They are determined by interpersonal relations in the team, socio-economic conditions, professional and age-related crises, but the leading role remains with the activity of the individual and his responsibility for personal development.

E.F. Zeer believes that self-determination is an important factor in the self-realization of an individual in a particular profession.

H. S. Pryazhnikov proposed his own model of self-determination, which includes such components:

- the awareness of the individual values ​​of socially useful labor, as well as the need for professional training;

- orientation in the socio-economic situation, as well as forecasting the prestige of the chosen labor;

- definition of a professional goal-dream;

- the selection of professional immediate goals, as stages for the achievement of further goals;

- search for information on specialties and professions corresponding to educational institutions and places of employment;

- an idea of ​​personal qualities necessary for the implementation of the plans, as well as possible difficulties in achieving the goals;

- availability of backup options in the choice of profession in case of failure in the basic version of self-determination;

- The practical implementation of personal perspectives, the adjustment plans.

Professional self-determination by N.S. Pryazhnikovu occurs at the following levels:

- self-determination in the labor, specific function (the employee sees the meaning of activity in the qualitative performance of operations or individual labor functions, while the freedom of choice of actions by the individual is limited);

- self-determination at a particular job post (a job post is marked by a limited production environment that includes certain rights, means of labor, duties), while performing diverse functions enables self-realization of the activity being performed, and changing the job post negatively affects the quality of work, causing employee dissatisfaction;

- self-determination at the level of a certain specialty provides for the change of employment positions, which allows to expand the possibilities of self-realization of the individual;

- self-determination of a specific profession;

- life self-determination is associated with lifestyle choices, which include leisure and self-education;

- personal self-determination is determined by finding the image of the Self and its statement among surrounding individuals (an individual rises above social roles, a profession, becomes the master of his personal life and people around him rank him as a good specialist and a respected, unique personality);

- self-determination of the individual in culture is marked by the orientation of the individual on the “continuation” of himself in other people and is characterized by a significant contribution to the development of culture, which makes it possible to talk about the social immortality of the individual.

The problem of professional self-determination

The experience of vocational counseling shows that students who have not chosen a profession often seek the help of a psychologist to determine the type of activity where they will be most capable. Behind this lies an unconscious desire to shift the solution of the life problem to another individual.Difficulties of such a plan often arise due to the lack of adequate perceptions of professional suitability among students, their inability to assess their abilities and capabilities, and also to relate them to the world of professions.

Many students cannot answer: “What activities would you like to do?", "What abilities do they see in themselves?"; “What qualities are important for success in mastering a future profession?”

Low culture of knowledge, as well as ignorance of modern professions complicates the choice of high school students of life.

Vocational guidance work of a psychologist should be transformed from a diagnostic one into a formative, developing, diagnostic and correctional one. The stages of consulting work should be aimed at activating students to form a desire for a conscious, independent choice of profession, taking into account the knowledge they have about themselves.